AJAL ACS Chap2 rev


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AJAL ACS Chap2 rev

  1. 1. MODULE 2 Satellite Access Methods AJAL.A.J Assistant Professor –Dept of ECE,Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT) TM   MAIL: ec2reach@gmail.com
  2. 2. Audio Spectrum Peak power Noise floor
  3. 3. Analog Signaling
  4. 4. Digital Signaling Example - PCM (Coder-Decoder)
  5. 5. Reasons for Choosing Data and Signal Combinations • Digital data, digital signal – Equipment for encoding is less expensive than digital- to-analog equipment • Analog data, digital signal – Conversion permits use of modern digital transmission, computational resources and switching equipment • Digital data, analog signal – Transmission media will only propagate analog signals – Examples include optical fiber and POTS (3 kHz bandwidth limited) • Analog data, analog signal – Analog data easily converted to an analog signal via some form of modulation (AM, FM, etc.)
  6. 6. Unguided Media• Transmission and reception are achieved by means of an antenna (rcvr + xmtr)• Configurations for wireless transmission – Directional (infers gain) – Omnidirectional – Polarization (vertical, horizontal, circular)
  7. 7. A Simplified Wireless Communications System – Unguided Media Antenna Information to be Coding Modulator Transmitter transmitted(Voice/Data) Carrier Antenna Information received Decoding Demodulator Receiver(Voice/Data) Carrier
  8. 8.  Modulation Terms   adding data to a radio frequency signalBaseband – modulation techniques that do not use asinusoidal carrier but encodes information directly as theamplitude, width of position of a pulse. PAM – pulseamplitude modulation PWM – pulse width modulationBandpass – modulation techniques that encodeinformation as the amplitude, frequency or phase of asinusoidal carrier. FSK – frequency shift keying, PSK –phase shift keying, AM, FM
  9. 9.  Electromagnetic Spectrum
  10. 10. Characteristics of some Frequencies• Microwave frequency range – 1 GHz to 40 GHz – Directional beams possible (small) – Suitable for point-to-point transmission – Used for satellite communications• VHF/UHF Radio frequency range – 30 MHz to 1 GHz (no atmospheric propagation, LOS) – Suitable for omnidirectional applications• Infrared frequency range – Roughly 3x1011 to 2x1014 Hz – Useful in local point-to-point multipoint applications within confined areas
  11. 11. Terrestrial Microwave• Description of common microwave antenna – Parabolic "dish", 3 m in diameter – Fixed rigidly which focuses a narrow beam – Achieves a line-of-sight (LOS) transmission path to the receiving antenna – Located at substantial heights above ground level• Applications – Long haul telecommunications service (many repeaters) – Short point-to-point links between buildings
  12. 12. Satellite Microwave• Description of communication satellite – Microwave relay station – Used to link two or more ground-based microwave transmitter/receivers – Receives transmissions on one frequency band (uplink), amplifies or repeats the signal and transmits it on another frequency (downlink)• Applications – Television distribution (e.g., Direct TV) – Long-distance telephone transmission – Private business networks
  13. 13. Broadcast Radio• Description of broadcast radio antennas – Omnidirectional (HF-vertical polarization, VHF/UHF- horizontal polarization) – Antennas not required to be dish-shaped – Antennas need not be rigidly mounted to a precise alignment• Applications – Broadcast radio • VHF and part of the UHF band; 30 MHz to 1GHz • Covers FM radio and UHF and VHF television • Below 30 MHz transmission (AM radio) is subjected to propagation effects so not reliable for point-to-point communications (MUF or max usable freq)
  14. 14. Network Architectures and Protocols Systematic Signaling Steps for Information Exchange Open Systems Interconnections (OSI) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Internet Protocol (IP)  Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)  Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) – essentially larger MAC addressing space for the influx of IP based devices  Mobile IP
  15. 15. Ad Hoc Network (peer to peer)Versus an infrastructure network (centralized) with its AP(Access Points) which is your WiFi/Hotspot/typical wireless network normally used to access the Internet.
  16. 16. Multiplexing• Capacity of transmission medium usually exceeds capacity required for transmission of a single signal• Multiplexing - carrying multiple signals on a single medium – More efficient use of transmission medium
  17. 17. Multiplexing
  18. 18. Reasons for Widespread Use of Multiplexing• Cost per kbps of transmission facility declines with an increase in the data rate (economy of scale)• Effective cost of transmission and receiving equipment declines with increased data rate (cost per bit)• Most individual data communication devices with their associated applications require relatively modest data rate support
  19. 19. Multiplexing Techniques• Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) – Takes advantage of the fact that the useful bandwidth of the medium exceeds the required bandwidth of a given signal – Requires guard bands• Time-division multiplexing (TDM) – Takes advantage of the fact that the achievable bit rate of the medium exceeds the required data rate of a digital signal – Requires accurate clock• Code-division multiple access(CDMA) – Use of orthogonal codes to separate users who are all using the same band of frequencies
  20. 20. Frequency-division Multiplexing
  21. 21. FDMA Channel Allocation Frequency 1 User 1 Frequency 2 User 2 … … Frequency n User nMobile Stations Base Station
  22. 22. Time-division Multiplexing
  23. 23. TDMA Frame Illustration for Multiple Users User 1 Time 1 Time 2User 2 … … … Time nUser n Mobile Stations Base Station
  24. 24. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) Frequency User 1 User 2 . .. User n TimeCode
  25. 25. Transmitted and Received Signals in a CDMA System Information bits Code attransmitting endTransmitted signal Received signal Code at receiving end Decoded signal at the receiver 25
  26. 26. OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) Frequency Conventional multicarrier modulation used in FDMA FrequencyOrthogonal multicarrier modulation used in OFDM (normally a single user)
  27. 27. Satellite  Microwave Transmission• a microwave relay station in space• can relay signals over long distances• geostationary satellites  – remain above the equator at a height of  22,300 miles (geosynchronous orbit) – travel around the earth in exactly the time the  earth takes to rotate
  28. 28. Satellite Transmission Links• earth stations communicate by sending  signals to the satellite on an uplink• the satellite then repeats those signals on  a downlink• the broadcast nature of the downlink  makes it attractive for services such as the  distribution of television programming
  29. 29. Satellite Transmission Process satellite transponder dish dish 22,300 milesuplink station downlink station
  30. 30. Satellite Transmission  Applications• television distribution – a network provides programming from a  central location – direct broadcast satellite (DBS)• long-distance telephone transmission – high-usage international trunks• private business networks
  31. 31. Principal Satellite Transmission  Bands• C band: 4(downlink) - 6(uplink) GHz – the first to be designated • Ku band: 12(downlink) -14(uplink) GHz – rain interference is the major problem• Ka band: 19(downlink) - 29(uplink) GHz – equipment needed to use the band is still very  expensive
  32. 32. Fiber vs Satellite
  33. 33. Satellite-Related Terms• Earth Stations – antenna systems on or near earth• Uplink – transmission from an earth station to a satellite• Downlink – transmission from a satellite to an earth station• Transponder – electronics in the satellite that convert uplink signals to downlink signals
  34. 34. Ways to Categorize Communications Satellites• Coverage area – Global, regional, national• Service type – Fixed service satellite (FSS) – Broadcast service satellite (BSS) – Mobile service satellite (MSS)• General usage – Commercial, military, amateur, experimental
  35. 35. Classification of Satellite Orbits• Circular or elliptical orbit – Circular with center at earth’s center – Elliptical with one foci at earth’s center• Orbit around earth in different planes – Equatorial orbit above earth’s equator – Polar orbit passes over both poles – Other orbits referred to as inclined orbits• Altitude of satellites – Geostationary orbit (GEO) – Medium earth orbit (MEO) – Low earth orbit (LEO)
  36. 36. Geometry Terms• Elevation angle - the angle from the horizontal to the point on the center of the main beam of the antenna when the antenna is pointed directly at the satellite• Minimum elevation angle• Coverage angle - the measure of the portion of the earths surface visible to the satellite
  37. 37. Minimum Elevation Angle• Reasons affecting minimum elevation angle of earth station’s antenna (>0o) – Buildings, trees, and other terrestrial objects block the line of sight – Atmospheric attenuation is greater at low elevation angles – Electrical noise generated by the earths heat near its surface adversely affects reception
  38. 38. GEO Orbit• Advantages of the the GEO orbit – No problem with frequency changes – Tracking of the satellite is simplified – High coverage area• Disadvantages of the GEO orbit – Weak signal after traveling over 35,000 km – Polar regions are poorly served – Signal sending delay is substantialGEO : Geosynchronous equatorial orbit
  39. 39. LEO Satellite Characteristics• Circular/slightly elliptical orbit under 2000 km• Orbit period ranges from 1.5 to 2 hours• Diameter of coverage is about 8000 km• Round-trip signal propagation delay less than 20 ms• Maximum satellite visible time up to 20 min• System must cope with large Doppler shifts• Atmospheric drag results in orbital deteriorationLEO : Low earth orbit
  40. 40. LEO Categories• Little LEOs – Frequencies below 1 GHz – 5MHz of bandwidth – Data rates up to 10 kbps – Aimed at paging, tracking, and low-rate messaging• Big LEOs – Frequencies above 1 GHz – Support data rates up to a few megabits per sec – Offer same services as little LEOs in addition to voice and positioning services
  41. 41. MEO Satellite Characteristics• Circular orbit at an altitude in the range of 5000 to 12,000 km• Orbit period of 6 hours• Diameter of coverage is 10,000 to 15,000 km• Round trip signal propagation delay less than 50 ms• Maximum satellite visible time is a few hoursMEO : Medium Earth Orbit
  42. 42. Satellite Systems GEO GEO (22,300 mi., equatorial) high bandwidth, power, M EO latency MEO LEO high bandwidth, power, latency LEO (400 mi.) low power, latency more satellites small footprint V-SAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) private WAN   
  43. 43. Geostationary Orbit
  44. 44. GPS Satellite Constellation • Global Positioning   System • Operated by USAF • 28 satellites • 6 orbital planes at a   height of 20,200 km • Positioned so a   minimum of 5 satellites   are visible at all times • Receiver measures   distance to satellite    USAF - United States Air Force
  45. 45. Frequency Bands Available for Satellite Communications
  46. 46. Satellite Link Performance Factors• Distance between earth station antenna and satellite antenna• For downlink, terrestrial distance between earth station antenna and “aim point” of satellite – Displayed as a satellite footprint (Figure 9.6)• Atmospheric attenuation – Affected by oxygen, water, angle of elevation, and higher frequencies
  47. 47. Satellite Footprint
  48. 48. Satellite Network Configurations
  49. 49. Capacity Allocation Strategies• Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)• Time division multiple access (TDMA)• Code division multiple access (CDMA)
  50. 50. Frequency-Division Multiplexing• Alternative uses of channels in point-to-point configuration – 1200 voice-frequency (VF) voice channels – One 50-Mbps data stream – 16 channels of 1.544 Mbps each – 400 channels of 64 kbps each – 600 channels of 40 kbps each – One analog video signal – Six to nine digital video signals
  51. 51. Frequency-Division Multiple Access• Factors which limit the number of subchannels provided within a satellite channel via FDMA – Thermal noise – Intermodulation noise – Crosstalk
  52. 52. Forms of FDMA• Fixed-assignment multiple access (FAMA) – The assignment of capacity is distributed in a fixed manner among multiple stations – Demand may fluctuate – Results in the significant underuse of capacity• Demand-assignment multiple access (DAMA) – Capacity assignment is changed as needed to respond optimally to demand changes among the multiple stations
  53. 53. FAMA-FDMA• FAMA – logical links between stations are preassigned• FAMA – multiple stations access the satellite by using different frequency bands• Uses considerable bandwidth
  54. 54. DAMA-FDMA• Single channel per carrier (SCPC) – bandwidth divided into individual VF channels – Attractive for remote areas with few user stations near each site – Suffers from inefficiency of fixed assignment• DAMA – set of subchannels in a channel is treated as a pool of available links – For full-duplex between two earth stations, a pair of subchannels is dynamically assigned on demand – Demand assignment performed in a distributed fashion by earth station using CSC
  55. 55. Reasons for Increasing Use of TDM Techniques• Cost of digital components continues to drop• Advantages of digital components – Use of error correction• Increased efficiency of TDM – Lack of intermodulation noise
  56. 56. FAMA-TDMA Operation• Transmission in the form of repetitive sequence of frames – Each frame is divided into a number of time slots – Each slot is dedicated to a particular transmitter• Earth stations take turns using uplink channel – Sends data in assigned time slot• Satellite repeats incoming transmissions – Broadcast to all stations• Stations must know which slot to use for transmission and which to use for reception
  57. 57. FAMA-TDMA Uplink
  58. 58. FAMA-TDMA Downlink