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Group Q


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Chapter 43

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Group Q

  1. 1. Chapter 43: The World Wide Web Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin
  2. 2. Definitions <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An interconnected system of networks that connects computers around the world ( </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A system of extensively interlinked hypertext documents: a branch of the Internet ( </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Thesis <ul><li>The Internet and its further extensions remediate earlier media by enhancing the graphics, audio, visual and speed of access to information </li></ul><ul><li>This allows the breakdown of distance barriers to include a more wide-spread audience, access to a larger, more organized compilation of information and creates opportunities for creativity, self expression and expansion </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>The internet remediates the telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>1993 = the first graphic web browser </li></ul><ul><li>2 things came of this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>larger audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other media (i.e. magazines and newspapers online) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The World Wide Web then evolved to include moving images, animation, digital audio and visual, refashioning radio, film and television </li></ul>
  5. 5. Remediations on the Web <ul><li>Remediation: the correction of something bad or defective ( </li></ul><ul><li>Respectful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Project Gutenberg” - replication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ American Memory Project” - preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radical: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Encyclopaedias - improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Television - control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Phone Service - economic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More Examples: Spark Notes , Facebook, YouTube, E-mail </li></ul>
  6. 6. Web Cameras <ul><li>Like “television only better” (Crowley & Heyer 313) </li></ul><ul><li>Constant live video stream that is able to monitor events as they happen </li></ul><ul><li>Can be viewed almost instantaneously on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporated in many aspects of life (i.e. family life, work and play) </li></ul><ul><li>Webcams “make some part of the physical world transparent to the Internet” (Crowley & Heyer 314) </li></ul>
  7. 7. What are Webcams Used For?
  8. 8. Online Chat <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks down barriers of distance </li></ul><ul><li>Connects family and friends when they can’t see each other face-to-face </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences can be held over webcam making it more convenient and affordable </li></ul><ul><li>Close as you can get to reality on the Internet </li></ul>
  9. 9. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Do you think remediations of human interaction on the web will become more common/preferred than actual interactions? For example: MSN chatting, instead of face-to-face conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think the webcam replaces real face-to-face interaction or enhances them and why? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Telecom Nation “Introduction” Mussio, L.B.
  11. 11. Thesis <ul><li>The mass expansion of telecommunication systems in the twentieth century caused the Canadian government to intervene. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Telecommunications <ul><li>The telecommunications system in the 20 th century was too important to be left to the market alone, as the telephone carried massive social and political consequences for the country </li></ul><ul><li>Everything about these communication technologies had to do with the public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They depended on public law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used public property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided public services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And became public utilities </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Government Responses <ul><li>The rapid spread and adaptations of communications systems forced governments to respond </li></ul><ul><li>Each country’s government had their own way of asserting control and intervening </li></ul>
  14. 14. Telecommunications (2) <ul><li>First half of the 20 th century featured one major innovation: TELEPHONY </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between public power and communications became a vital one in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Before 1945 Government regulation confined itself to seeing that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecom monopolies made a reasonable profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers had reliable service at a reasonable cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensured system development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made sure that economic objectives were possible </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Telecommunications (3) <ul><li>End of WWII= explosion in communications that offset the balance between public power and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications technology was becoming universal, accessible, and indispensible </li></ul><ul><li>Major Institutional Players: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bell Telephone Company of Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM, the International Business Machine of America </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Arrival of the Computer <ul><li>1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Regulators had to balance the importance of it’s development, with pressure over rates and services </li></ul><ul><li>Governments never really responded to these technological changes in consistent ways </li></ul>
  17. 17. Telecom Nation <ul><li>Canada’s encounter with the post-war transformation in communications </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences of the interaction between public power and technological change </li></ul><ul><li>Computer + Telecommunications= Information Highway </li></ul><ul><li>Policy makers were trying to take control over and develop a technological change and information highway before it even existed </li></ul>
  18. 18. Telecommunications (4) <ul><li>The history of Canadian Broadcasting surfaced the attempts of the state to defend its communication interests, while mediating between the competing attempts of other actors </li></ul><ul><li>The success of Canadian telecommunications is the result of both government and non government regulation </li></ul><ul><li>A majority of telecommunications is operated at a national level </li></ul>
  19. 19. Telecommunication Utilities <ul><li>Three principle telecommunication utilities which are operated at the federal level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bell Telephone Company of Canada, operated in Ontario, Quebec, and North West Territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Columbia Telephones, operated in British Columbia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CN/CP Telegraphs (later Telecommunications), operated nationally </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Telecommunications (5) <ul><li>Overseas telecommunication operated by The Canadian Overseas Telecommunications Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications did influence Canadian Economics; however, Canadian Political arrangements shaped how this technology would be dealt with </li></ul><ul><li>Historical patterns as well as government attitudes shaped how new communication technologies were perceived </li></ul>
  21. 21. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Do you think within our modern day telecommunication system the government is still regulated to a certain degree? Or is the public the primary influencing factor? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think monopolies of a few telecommunication industries would be beneficial or harmful to the general population? Would they provide stronger/weaker services in terms of price and quality? </li></ul>