GROUP AND ORGANIZATION COMMUNICATION GRIFFIN : DIVISION THREE
THREE SUB-DIVISIONS OF GRIFFIN DIVISION THREE <ul><li>GROUP DECISION MAKING </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION...
GROUP DECISION MAKING
BALES’ INTERACTION PROCESS  <ul><li>How do groups work effectively?  Each group member enhances or detracts from group syn...
Phase Models <ul><ul><li>These attempt to identify universal patterns of communication for group decision-making e.g. </li...
Effective Decision Making Involves:  (Hirokawa and Gouran) 1.  <ul><li>1 : Analysis of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>- rea...
Hirokawa and Gouran (ctd) <ul><li>3 : Identification of alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>- as many as possible, to increase ...
ADAPTIVE STRUCTURATION THEORY (Poole) <ul><li>Rejects a single sequence of group effectiveness in decision-making.  Identi...
ADAPTIVE STRUCTURATION (2) <ul><li>People consciously adapt rules and resources to accomplish goals THROUGH COMMUNICATION ...
ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY
MECHANISTIC WAY OF THINKING ABOUT ORGANIZATIONS <ul><li>Scalar chain </li></ul><ul><li>Division of work </li></ul><ul><li>...
Mechanistic Approach  (2) <ul><li>Emphasizes productivity, precision, and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Workers as cogs </l...
Living Systems Approaches <ul><li>Emphasize: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li><...
INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPROACH (Weick) <ul><li>Requisite variety : the degree of complexity and diversity within the organiz...
CULTURAL APPROACH <ul><li>Emphasizes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretations of ...
CRITICAL APPROACH <ul><li>Begins with a critique of corporate colonization of social and personal space: </li></ul><ul><li...
CRITICAL APPROACH (2) <ul><li>Explores ways to ensure financial health of institutions while also increasing the represent...
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Division Three Summary - Group and Public Communication

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Group and Public Communication

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Division Three Summary - Group and Public Communication

  1. 1. GROUP AND ORGANIZATION COMMUNICATION GRIFFIN : DIVISION THREE
  2. 2. THREE SUB-DIVISIONS OF GRIFFIN DIVISION THREE <ul><li>GROUP DECISION MAKING </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>PUBLIC RHETORIC (not included in this summary) is connected to </li></ul><ul><li>(1) interpersonal persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>(2) mass media </li></ul>
  3. 3. GROUP DECISION MAKING
  4. 4. BALES’ INTERACTION PROCESS <ul><li>How do groups work effectively? Each group member enhances or detracts from group synergy through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) comments that reflect group task (TASK-ORIENTED ; PISTON) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gives: (1) suggestion, (2) opinion, (3) information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asks for: (1) suggestion, (2) opinion, (3) information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) comments that reflect relationships (+/-) ( SOCIAL- EMOTIONAL; LUBRICANT ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is: (4) friendly, (5) reduces tension, (6) agrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is: (4) unfriendly, (5) creates tension, (6) disagrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good groups maintain balance between the six pairs. 2:1 ratio of positive to negative is optimal: i.e. an element of conflict is healthy, even necessary </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Phase Models <ul><ul><li>These attempt to identify universal patterns of communication for group decision-making e.g. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation : addresses need for info, focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict : disagreements about right approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalescence : negotiation and saving face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development : concentration, focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration : tension-free solidarity, cohesion </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Effective Decision Making Involves: (Hirokawa and Gouran) 1. <ul><li>1 : Analysis of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>- realistic analysis of current situation, including assessment of current threats and of the nature, extent and probable cause of problems </li></ul><ul><li>2 : Goal setting - the group needs: </li></ul><ul><li>clarity as to purpose </li></ul><ul><li>criteria for judging proposed solutions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hirokawa and Gouran (ctd) <ul><li>3 : Identification of alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>- as many as possible, to increase </li></ul><ul><li>chance identifying acceptable solutions </li></ul><ul><li>4 : Evaluation of positive and negative features of each alternative </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some group tasks have a positive bias – positive attributes emphasized; others have a negative bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication can be promotive, disruptive or counteractive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. ADAPTIVE STRUCTURATION THEORY (Poole) <ul><li>Rejects a single sequence of group effectiveness in decision-making. Identifies 5 principles or components at work: </li></ul><ul><li>Structuration : people enter into situations not of their own making, yet can transform it </li></ul><ul><li>Rules : ideas people have about how something should be done </li></ul><ul><li>Resources : materials, possessions, attributes (incl. expertise, relationships) people bring; in short-supply, unequally distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Production : people ADAPT rules and resources in interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction : action reinforces existing system. </li></ul>
  9. 9. ADAPTIVE STRUCTURATION (2) <ul><li>People consciously adapt rules and resources to accomplish goals THROUGH COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction raises concerns of morality, communication and power </li></ul><ul><li>Rules and resources restrain/empower </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriation: rules/resources borrowed from parent culture (e.g. one person, one vote; balloting; anonymous idea generation) </li></ul>
  10. 10. ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY
  11. 11. MECHANISTIC WAY OF THINKING ABOUT ORGANIZATIONS <ul><li>Scalar chain </li></ul><ul><li>Division of work </li></ul><ul><li>Authority and responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Subordination of individual interest to general interest </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mechanistic Approach (2) <ul><li>Emphasizes productivity, precision, and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Workers as cogs </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks are repetitive </li></ul><ul><li>Parts are interchangeable </li></ul>
  13. 13. Living Systems Approaches <ul><li>Emphasize: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-flowing communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPROACH (Weick) <ul><li>Requisite variety : the degree of complexity and diversity within the organization needs to match the level of ambiguity of the data it processes </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnectedness, as measured by “ double interact ” loops. </li></ul><ul><li>Double interact is basic unit of inter-connectedness, a communication cycle of act-response-adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>“ Loose coupling ” of interacts within an organization enhances flexibility, adaptability </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations open to environment adapt more effectively: they continually “re-chart the organizational chart” in response to external developments. </li></ul>
  15. 15. CULTURAL APPROACH <ul><li>Emphasizes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretations of reality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture as system of shared meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reject notions of high culture and low culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultures have subcultures and counter-cultures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture made manifest through performance – the actions which constitute and reveal people’s culture ( symbolic expression) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture includes task and non task-related performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performances seen as texts, available to be read </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading performances requires seeing an organization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. CRITICAL APPROACH <ul><li>Begins with a critique of corporate colonization of social and personal space: </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusive presence of big corporations </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of power in few corporate hands </li></ul><ul><li>Media preoccupation with corporate health as against other indices of social health </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in quality of life </li></ul>
  17. 17. CRITICAL APPROACH (2) <ul><li>Explores ways to ensure financial health of institutions while also increasing the representation of diverse human interests </li></ul><ul><li>Regards institutions as political as well as financial institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Shows how communication practices often distort decision-making within institutions </li></ul>

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