Solar impulse hb sia


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Solar impulse hb sia

  1. 1. Presented By:DY COMDT AS TANWAR
  3. 3. CONTENTSIntroduction to Renewable Energy Types of Renewable EnergySolar Energy Its applications and limitationsSolar Panel Construction and working principleSolar Impulse HB-SIA History of solar planes Solar Impulse HB SIA Technical specification Solar Impulse designReferences 3 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  4. 4. NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCESA nonrenewable resource is a natural resourcethat cannot be re-made or re-grown at a scale comparable to its consumption. SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA 4
  5. 5. RENEWABLE RESOURCESRenewable resources are natural resources that can be replenished in a short period of time. SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA 5
  6. 6. SOLAR Energy from the sun.SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA 6
  7. 7. GEOTHERMALEnergy fromEarth’s heat. SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA 7
  8. 8. WINDEnergy from the wind. SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA 8
  9. 9. BIOMASSEnergy fromburningorganic orliving matter. SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA 9
  10. 10. WATER or HYDROELECTRIC Energy from the flow of water. SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA 10
  11. 11. WAVE ENERGY Energy from the flow of wave. SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA 11
  12. 12. TIDE POWEREnergyfrom theflow oftide. SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA 12
  13. 13. SOLAR ENERGY•Earth receives approx 174 petawatts ofenergy from sun•50% of which is absorb by earth•The total solar energy absorbed by Earthsatmosphere, oceans and land masses isapproximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) peryear 13 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  14. 14. CONTD…On sunny day, the suns rays give off approximately 1,000watts of energy per square metre of the earth’s surface. 14 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  15. 15. CONTD…Solar technologies are broadly characterizeddepending on the way they capture, convert, anddistribute sunlight. a. Active solar techniques b. Passive solar techniques 15 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  17. 17. CONTD…Solar Power 17 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  18. 18. LIMITATION OF SOLAR ENERGY• The initial cost is high• Solar panels require quite a large area for installation to achieve a good level of efficiency• The efficiency of the system also relies on the location of the sun• The production of solar energy is influenced by the presence of clouds or pollution in the air• No solar energy will be produced during nighttime• As far as solar powered vehicles go - their slower speed 18 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  19. 19. SOLAR CELL• A Solar cell, or photovoltaic cell (PV), is a device that converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect.• The photoelectric effect: emission, or ejection, of electrons from the surface of a metal or non metal in response to incident electromagnetic radiation. 19 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  20. 20. CONSTRUCTION OF PV CELLPhotovoltaic cells are made of special materialscalled semiconductors such as silicon 20 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  22. 22. LOSSES IN PV CELL• Electromagnetic radiation is not monochromatic• band gap energy of a material• power is voltage times current (P = V x I).• The optimal band gap, balancing these two effects, is around 1.4 eV for a cell made from a single material.• opaque contacts on upper surface. 22 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SI
  23. 23. HOW TO STORE EXCESS POWER?Water Electrolyzer Pumped-storage hydroelectricity 23 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  24. 24. CONTD…Secondary cell 24 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  25. 25. SOLAR PLANESA solar plane is an aircraft that runs onelectric motors rather than internalcombustion engines, with electricitycoming from solar cells or batteries inabsence of sun light 25 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  26. 26. HISTORYSunrise I – launched on November 4, 1974 – Wingspan - 9.76 m – Weight - 12.25 Kg – Power out- 450 W – No of Solar cells- 4096 – Unmanned flight – Developed by R.J. Boucher from Astro Flight Inc.Gossamer Penguin – Launched on August 7,1980 – Developed at a NASA research centre – Solar and man powered flight – Manned flight 26 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  27. 27. CONTD…Solar Challenger – Launched on July 7, 1981 – Wingspan – 14.2 m – No. of solar cell- 16128 – Power out- 2500 W – Developed by MacCreadys DuPont – crossed the English Channel in 5 hours and 23 minutes. – No energy storage system onboardPathfinder – Launched on September 11, 1995 – Wingspan – 30 m – Altitude – 21,802 m – Unmanned flight 27 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  28. 28. CONTD…Helios – Launched July 26,2003 NASAs hydrogen-air fuel cell "eternal" flyer, – an altitude record of 96,863 ft. for non-rocket powered aircraft, – crashes into the Pacific 30 minutes into a flight due to structure failuresGlobal Observer – Launched on May 27, 2005 – Wingspan -50 feets – flies on liquid hydrogen; – Aim to cruise the globe using solar power. 28 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  29. 29. CONTD…SoLong – Launched on June 3, 2005 – 15.6-ft. radio-controlled plane – developed by AC Propulsion – Wingspan- 4.75 m – Weight- 11.5 KgSolar Impulse – launched on 26 June 2009 – wingspan - 63.4 m – Loaded weight: 1600 kg – Endurance: 36 hours – Solar cells: 11,628 monocrystaline silicon – Manned flight 29 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  30. 30. SOLAR IMPULSE• Solar Impulse is a solar plane intended to run solely on solar energy.• The €70m project is being promoted by Swiss balloonist Bertrand Piccard.• A project feasibility study was carried out by the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland in 2003• The four main partners are Deutsche Bank, Omega SA, Solvay, and Schindler. Other partners include Bayer Material Science, Altran and Swisscom.• The EPFL, the European Space Agency (ESA) and Dassault provide additional technical expertise 30 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  31. 31. CONTD…• The first prototype of the aircraft, HB-SIA, was unveiled on 26 June 2009.• The aircraft, bearing the Swiss aircraft registration code of HB-SIA,• It is a single-seater, capable of taking off under its own power, and intended to remain airborne up to 36 hours. 31 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  32. 32. SOLAR IMPULSE TIMELINE• Achieved timeline (i) 2003: Feasibility study at EPFL (ii) 2004–2005: Development of the concept (iii) 2006: Simulation of long-haul flights (iv) 2006–09: First prototype (HB-SIA) (v) 2009: First flight of prototype (vi) 2009–11: Manned test flights with prototype (vii) 2011: Build of second prototype (HB-SIB)• Planned timeline (i) 2011–12: Test flights for (HB-SIB) (ii) 2012: Lasting days missions and crossing of the Atlantic Ocean (iii) 2013: Attempt of world tour in several stages, essentially in the north hemisphere 32 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  34. 34. CONTD…Crew :1Length : 21.85 mWingspan : 63.4 mHeight : 6.40 mWing area : 11,628 photovoltaic cells: 200 m2Loaded weight : 1600 kgMax. takeoff weight : 2000 kgPower plant : 4 electric motors, 7.5 kW (10 HP) eachTake-off speed : 35 kilometres per hour 34 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  35. 35. CONTD…Cruise speed : 70 kilometres per hourEndurance : 36 hours (projected)Service ceiling : 8,500 m (27,900 ft) with a maximum altitude of 12,000 mOutsidetemperatures : + 80 C to -60 CSolar cells : 11,628 monocrystaline siliconBatteries : Lithium, weight of 450 kg, battery capacities: 200 Wh/kg 35 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  36. 36. AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS• Airframe• Controls• Electronics Onboard• Power generation and storage• Power plant 36 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  37. 37. AIRFRAME• The wing and stabilizers spars are made of a sandwich structure• The honeycomb structure is a paper structure impregnated with a Torlon®AI10 polymer by a dipping process• This complex composite structure combines excellent mechanical properties (strength, torsion, flexion, vibration) with an incredibly light weight 37 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  38. 38. CONTD… • Composite carbon-fibre materials used to make the aircraft light • The upper surface of the wings is layered with encapsulated solar cells • There are 120 carbon-fibre ribs placed at 50cm intervals throughout the frame. which provide the aircraft with an aerodynamic shape • The cockpit of the Solar Impulse airplane is lightweight, stable and providing optimal insulating values against the freezing outside temperatures high up in the air 38 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  39. 39. CONTROLS• Ailerons and rudder controls are made with manual control mechanism to reduces overall weight and power consumption• Aircraft controls consist of joystick, which operates the elevator and ailerons, the rudder bar(pedals) which controls the rudder and four engine power control levers 39 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  40. 40. ELECTRONICS ONBOARD• The HB-SIA carries electronics flight information system(EFIS) to fly for long periods• Three main functions are – to convey the power supplied by the solar generator to the engines and the batteries – to communicate the necessary information to the pilot for controlling the airplane – to provide real-time information to the Mission team which is following the aircraft’s flight path and behaviour from the ground 40 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  41. 41. CONTD…• Power management computer controls entire solar cells, batteries, engine chain, speedometer, compass• Omega Instrument, its primary function is to inform the pilot to within an accuracy of one degree of the bank angle of the aircraft, which must be kept below 5 for reasons of controllability• Ultralight (max. 5 kilograms) and use very little electricity (max. 50 watts)• The external cameras and transmitters withstand extreme fluctuations in temperature: between +80 C and -40 C 41 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  43. 43. POWER GENERATION AND STORAGE• The aircraft receives 1,000W/m2• Over the day it averages at 250W• Total 200m² of photovoltaic cells• 12% total efficiency of the propulsion chain• 11,628 ultra-thin monocrystalline silicon cells150 micron thickness and layered on the upper surfaces of the wings and horizontal stabiliser• MPPTs optimises power production and regulates battery charging 43 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  44. 44. POWER PLANT• HB-SIA has four propeller engines• Powered by 100kg lithium batteries• The twin-blade propellers have a 3.5m diameter.• Maximum power of 10hp• The rotation speed of propeller - 200rpm and 4,000rpm 44 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  46. 46. SIMILAR WORK : SolarEagle• SolarEagle is a solar/electric-powered high altitude long endurance unmanned aerial vehicle system that can provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR) and communications• Designed with highly efficient electrical motors and propellers• High-aspect-ratio wing spanning more than 400 feet• To stay aloft for up to five years at altitudes above 60,000 feet 46 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  47. 47. CONCLUSION• HB-SIA became the first solar-powered airplane in history capable of flying through a complete daylight cycle• Solar airplanes are unlikely ever to carry 300 passengers, but it is a symbol that affects all of us 47 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  48. 48. REFERENCES1. deutsche_bank_and_solar_impulse_3662.html13. HP Garg and J Prakash, Solar Energy Fundamentals and Applications, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1997 48 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA
  49. 49. All that is impossible remains to be achieved 49 SOLAR IMPULSE HB SIA