BUILDING THE
FOUNDATION
BUILDING THE FOUNDATION (SKINNER, GLASSER AND GORDON)
BY
AIZAD & AZROY
The Skinner’s Model of Shaping
Desired Behaviour
 Definition: The

practice of providing consequences
for both positive a...
Skinner’s ideas
•

Systematic use of reinforcement (rewards) can shape
pupils' behaviour in desired directions.

•

Behavi...
Behaviour modification
pupil perform
an desired
act

teacher
gives reward

pupil tends
to repeat the
act.
Types of reinforcers uses in behavior
modification
•

Social - verbal comments, gestures, and facial expressions.

•

Grap...
STRENGTHS
It is simple to use.
Results are immediate.

WEAKNESSES
The results might not last long
Students may not perform...
application
Classroom scenario
Pupils in the calss rarely use English in ESL class. How would
Skinner’s model dealt with t...
Catch pupil that speak English even a little. Reward the pupil for speaking
in English.
Set up contract with the class. Id...
The Glasser’s Model of Choice
Theory


Choice theory states that:


•

all we do is behave,

•

that almost all behavior...
concept
•

Pupils can choose to act the way they want to

•

Good choices produce good behaviour. Bad choices produce bad
...
Teachers’ duty

Emphasise pupil responsibility
•
Establish rules that lead to success
• Accept no excuses
•
Call for value...
Strenght and weaknesses


Strengths

•

promote a high degree of autonomy and responsibility for students.

•

They help ...


Weaknesses



—
I
it is difficult for teachers to help students satisfy their need for
control without feeling threate...
application
Classroom scenario
Pupils in the class rarely use English in ESL class. How would
Glasser’s model dealt with t...
•

Make sure pupils understand their work responsibilities as a pupil in the
class


Make sure pupils understand that the...
Gordon’s Model
•

teachers can plot pupil’s behaviour into a diagram called “Behaviour
Window”
Behaviour Window

Communica...
“WHO OWN THE PROBLEM?”


Gordon reminds teachers to ask themselves, "Who owns the
problem?".



Although the teacher ult...
Key ideas
•

"I" messages - messages that tell another person how you feel about
their behaviour.

•

"You" messages - bla...
•

No-Lose conflict resolution - everyone wins

•

Door openers - words or actions that invites folks to talk about what
i...
SIX STEPS PROBLEM SOLVING
PROCESS


Step 1: Identify and define the problem or situation. Good solutions
depend on accura...


Step 3: Evaluate the alternative suggestions. When alternatives have
been specified, participants are asked to comment ...


Step 5: Implement the solution or decision. The trial solution is put into
place with the understanding that it may or ...
Strength and weaknesses
Strengths


It promotes autonomy and self-regulation for students.



It promotes good student-t...
Weaknesses


Teachers may find some difficulty changing their role from directing
and controlling students to actively li...
application
Classroom scenario
Pupils in the class rarely use English in ESL class. How would
Glasser’s model dealt with t...
Applying the six steps approach the following are the possible ways to
deal with the the above situation:


Approach the ...


Ask them the best way to do it



Work on details on how the chosen way could be implemented



After implementing th...
Building the foundation (skinner, glasser & gordon)
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Building the foundation (skinner, glasser & gordon)

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Building the foundation (skinner, glasser & gordon)

  1. 1. BUILDING THE FOUNDATION BUILDING THE FOUNDATION (SKINNER, GLASSER AND GORDON) BY AIZAD & AZROY
  2. 2. The Skinner’s Model of Shaping Desired Behaviour  Definition: The practice of providing consequences for both positive and negative behaviour.
  3. 3. Skinner’s ideas • Systematic use of reinforcement (rewards) can shape pupils' behaviour in desired directions. • Behaviour becomes weaker if not followed by reinforcement. • Behaviour is also weakened by punishment. 
  4. 4. Behaviour modification pupil perform an desired act teacher gives reward pupil tends to repeat the act.
  5. 5. Types of reinforcers uses in behavior modification • Social - verbal comments, gestures, and facial expressions. • Graphic - marks of various kinds such as numerals, checks, happy faces, and special symbols. • •  Activity - activities that pupils prefer to do in school Tangible - real objects that pupils can earn as rewards
  6. 6. STRENGTHS It is simple to use. Results are immediate. WEAKNESSES The results might not last long Students may not perform as desired when rewards are terminated It acc ommodates most teachers' desire to maintain control. Students may not learn how to govern their own behavior. Students can feel successful when they obtain rewards. The approach may seem too much like bribery to some teachers Standards of behavior are uniform, It ignores any underlying problems consistent, and clear to all students. caused by influences at home, in society, or at school Time does not have to be spent in To use so much control in a democratic class discussing rules and students' society may be unethical conduct. It can be readily employed with all students regardless of age. Students do not get an opportunity to clarify emotions, weigh alternatives, decide on solutions, or develop their intellect
  7. 7. application Classroom scenario Pupils in the calss rarely use English in ESL class. How would Skinner’s model dealt with this situation?
  8. 8. Catch pupil that speak English even a little. Reward the pupil for speaking in English. Set up contract with the class. Identify a reward that is exceptionally attractive to them.
  9. 9. The Glasser’s Model of Choice Theory  Choice theory states that:  • all we do is behave, • that almost all behavior is chosen, and • that we are driven by our genes to satisfy five basic needs: survival, love and belonging, power, freedom and fun.
  10. 10. concept • Pupils can choose to act the way they want to • Good choices produce good behaviour. Bad choices produce bad behaviour • Teachers must always try to help pupils make good choices • No excuses for bad behavior • There is always consequences follow the behavior • Class rules are essential and they must be enforced. • Classroom meeting
  11. 11. Teachers’ duty Emphasise pupil responsibility • Establish rules that lead to success • Accept no excuses • Call for value judgment • Invoke reasonable consequences • Be persistent •
  12. 12. Strenght and weaknesses  Strengths • promote a high degree of autonomy and responsibility for students. • They help students see a wide range of possible consequences for their behaviour. • They allow students to determine solutions to their own discipline problems. • They help students understand their needs and how to satisfy these need legitimately. • They delineate clearly what a teacher needs to do for every misbehaving student.
  13. 13.  Weaknesses  — I it is difficult for teachers to help students satisfy their need for control without feeling threatened themselves.  — I it is difficult to react properly when communicating with students about their inappropriate behaviours.  — Classroom meetings may consume more time than is desirable.  — It may be difficult to help students who do not want to be in school to make plans to improve their behaviour.  — Students may not have the necessary skills to make plans that will help improve their behaviour.
  14. 14. application Classroom scenario Pupils in the class rarely use English in ESL class. How would Glasser’s model dealt with this situation?
  15. 15. • Make sure pupils understand their work responsibilities as a pupil in the class  Make sure pupils understand that they can choose their behavior, to use English or not, and that his choice brings with it either desirable or undesirable consequences.  Make sure that when pupils show improvement, they receive consequences that are very attractive to them  Never give up on them.
  16. 16. Gordon’s Model • teachers can plot pupil’s behaviour into a diagram called “Behaviour Window” Behaviour Window Communication skills active listening confrontative Imessages shifting gears no-lose conflict resolution values collisions
  17. 17. “WHO OWN THE PROBLEM?”  Gordon reminds teachers to ask themselves, "Who owns the problem?".  Although the teacher ultimately assumes responsibility for the classroom, the student actually "owns" many of the problems.  For example, one daydreaming student does not interfere with the progress of an entire class. Although the teacher should send the message that daydreaming is unacceptable, the problem is the student's and, ultimately, he or she will have to accept responsibility for changing the behaviour.
  18. 18. Key ideas • "I" messages - messages that tell another person how you feel about their behaviour. • "You" messages - blaming statements • Confrontative "I" Messages - messages that attempt to influence another to stop the unacceptable behaviour. • Shifting Gears - changing from Confrontative to a listening posture • Win-Lose conflict resolution - ends the dispute temporarily with a winner and a loser.
  19. 19. • No-Lose conflict resolution - everyone wins • Door openers - words or actions that invites folks to talk about what is on their minds • Active Listening -carefully listening and demonstrating understanding of what another person is saying • Values Collisions- is anything a person believes will make the quality of life better or very concrete like food or money
  20. 20. SIX STEPS PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS  Step 1: Identify and define the problem or situation. Good solutions depend on accurate identification of the problem at hand.  Step 2: Generate alternatives. Once the problem is clarified a number of possible solutions should be generated
  21. 21.  Step 3: Evaluate the alternative suggestions. When alternatives have been specified, participants are asked to comment on them. The goal is to choose a solution that is agreeable to all  Step 4: Make the decision. After examining the alternatives, the one that seems to suit most people best is selected for trial.
  22. 22.  Step 5: Implement the solution or decision. The trial solution is put into place with the understanding that it may or may not work as anticipated and that it can be changed if necessary.  Step 6: Conduct a follow-up evaluation. The results of the trial solution or decision are analysed and evaluated.
  23. 23. Strength and weaknesses Strengths  It promotes autonomy and self-regulation for students.  It promotes good student-teacher relationships.  It allows students to deal with personal problems and feelings.  It helps teachers communicate their needs to students so that students can appreciate how their behaviour affects others.  It helps students understand that teachers have needs and feelings just like they do.
  24. 24. Weaknesses  Teachers may find some difficulty changing their role from directing and controlling students to actively listening.  Teachers may have difficulty accepting value differences between themselves and their students.  Transmitting I-messages instead of you-messages will be understandably difficult for teachers to master.  A more comprehensive approach may be needed to help teachers avoid having to deal with the number of possible problems likely to surface.
  25. 25. application Classroom scenario Pupils in the class rarely use English in ESL class. How would Glasser’s model dealt with this situation?
  26. 26. Applying the six steps approach the following are the possible ways to deal with the the above situation:  Approach the problem by asking the pupils neutral open questions to gain information about why the pupils do not use English in the class. Listen attentively to the response to build trust and communication.  Ask the pupils for suggestions on ways to help them to speak in English  From the different ways that they had suggested ask them list down the strengths and weaknesses
  27. 27.  Ask them the best way to do it  Work on details on how the chosen way could be implemented  After implementing the way that they had decided on, assess whether it works for them or not.

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