Endocrin eng

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Endocrin eng

  1. 1. Endocrine system Central regulatory formations Hypothalamus Hypophysis Solitary endocrine cells Peripheral endocrine glands Dependent of adenohypophysi s Thyroid gland Neural origin Independent of adenohypophysis (System APUD) Parathyroid glands Other origin Epiphysis Gonads Cortex of adrenal gland (zona fasciculata, reticularis) Organs that have mixed function Dependent of adenohypophysis Gonads Placenta Indepondent of adenohypophysis Islets of Langerhans Myocardium Merkel’s corpuscules Kidney Thymus
  2. 2. Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) • acts on the tubules of nephron in the kidney and provides the reabsorption of the 99% of water from the primary urine; • increases blood pressure by promoting the contraction of smooth muscles in small arteries and arterioles Oxytocin • causes the contraction of uterine smooth muscle during copulation and delivery; • causes the contraction of the myoepithelial cells of the secretory alveoli and alveolar ducts of the breast at time of the breast-feeding; • causes the contraction of the myoepithelial cells of the seminiferous tubules of testis at time of orgasm and ejaculation.
  3. 3. Chromophils А. Acidophils • somatotrophs – somatotropin (growth hormone, GH) • lactotrophs - prolactin (mammotropin) B. Basophils • thyrotrophs - thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) • gonadotrophs - follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - luteinizing hormone (LH) • adrenocorticotrophs – adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  4. 4. Chromophobes • cambial reserve • chromophils at rest • old cells • supporting cells
  5. 5. Name of the hormone Action in the human body Somatotropin (growth hormone, GH) Provides the growth of all tissues practically Prolactin (mammotropin) Stimulates the growth of the mammary glands and secretion of the milk Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine (tetraiodthyronine, T4) and triiodthyronine (T3) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland to produce glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids • provides the ovulation • provides the secretion of the female sex hormones in ovaries and testosterone in testis Follicle-stimulating hormone • stimulates the growth of the follicles in ovaries • stimulates the spermatogenesis (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH)

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