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Thoracic aorta


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a class presentation for m phil anatomy students

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Thoracic aorta

  1. 1. Thoracic aorta By dr.aisha sadaf Student m.phil anatomy
  2. 2. Aorta  The aorta is the main arterial trunk that delivers oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the tissues of the body. It is divided for purposes of description into the following parts: ascending aorta, arch of the aorta, descending thoracic aorta, and abdominal aorta
  3. 3. Ascending Aorta  The ascending aorta begins at the base of the left ventricle  runs upward and forward at the level of the sternal angle, where it becomes continuous with the arch of the aorta  it possesses three bulges, the sinuses of the aorta  Branches  The right coronary artery arises from the anterior aortic sinus, and the left coronary artery arises from the left posterior aortic sinus
  4. 4. Branches of arch of aorta 1. brachiocephalic artery, it divides into the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries behind the right sternoclavicular joint. 2. left common carotid artery 3. left subclavian artery
  5. 5. Thoracic aorta  The thoracic aorta is contained in the posterior mediastinal cavity.  It begins at the lower border of the fourth thoracic vertebra where it is continuous with the aortic arch, and ends in front of the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, at the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm where it becomes the abdominal aorta.
  6. 6. Continu….  At its commencement, it is situated on the left of the vertebral column; it approaches the median line as it descends; and, at its termination, lies directly in front of the column.
  7. 7. Relations  It is in relation, anteriorly, from above downward, with the root of the left lung, the pericardium, the esophagus, and the diaphragm; posteriorly, with the vertebral column and the azygos vein; on the right side, with the hemiazygos veins and thoracic duct; on the left side, with the left pleura and lung.  Thoracic aorta
  8. 8.  The aorta then arches back over the right pulmonary artery. Three vessels come out of the aortic arch: the brachiocephalic artery, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. These vessels supply blood to the head, neck, thorax and upper limbs
  9. 9. Branches of thoracic aorta
  10. 10. (1) VISCERAL BRANCHES  Bronchial-oesophageal artery:  Origin:  arises at the sixth thoracic vertebra from aorta-it descends over the right face of the aorta towards bifurcation of trachea and divided into bronchial anaoesophagial branches.  Bronchial Artery:  It crosses the left face of oesophagous to the bifurcation of trachea where it divides into right and left branches.Each enter into hilus of corresponding lung.
  11. 11.  Oesophageal Artery:  The esophageal arteries four or five in number, arise from the front of the aorta, and pass obliquely downward to the esophagus, forming a chain of anastomoses along that tube, anastomosing with the esophageal branches of the inferior thyroid arteries above, and with ascending branches from the left inferior phrenic and left gastric arteries below. These arteries supply the middle third of the esophagus.
  12. 12. Pericardial branches  small branches of thoracic aorta distributed to the pericardium, in the region of the oblique pericardial sinus, and to posterior mediastinal lymph nodes.
  13. 13. Mediastinal branches  The mediastinal branches are numerous small vessels which supply the lymph glands and loose areolar tissue in the posterior mediastinum.
  14. 14. Branches of thoracic aorta
  15. 15. PARIETAL BRANCHES  Superior phrenic artries:  The superior phrenic arteries are small and arise from the lower part of the thoracic aorta; they are distributed to the posterior part of the upper surface of the diaphragm, and anastomose with the musculophrenic and pericardiacophrenic
  16. 16. Posterior intercostal arteries  The posterior intercostal arteries are arteries that supply blood to the intercostal spaces.  There are eleven posterior intercostal arteries on each side.  The 1st and 2nd posterior intercostal arteries arise from the supreme intercostal artery, a branch of the costocervical trunk of the subclavian artery.  The lower nine arteries are the aortic intercostals, so called because they arise from the back of the thoracic aorta.
  17. 17. Subcostal branches  The subcostal arteries, so named because they lie below the last ribs, constitute the lowest pair of branches derived from the thoracic aorta, and are in series with the intercostal arteries.  Each passes along the lower border of the twelfth rib behind the kidney and in front of the Quadratus lumborum muscle, and is accompanied by the twelfth thoracic nerve.
  18. 18. The end