Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Radiation Hazards and
its protection

Dr.Rabia Shah
Sources of Radiation
Elements such as thorium, uranium, radium, RN-222,
and K-40 are naturally occurring radioactive eleme...
Cosmic and Atmospheric
Radiation
Cosmic and atmospheric radiation originates from
the sun and stars.
Earth’s atmosphere is...
Additional Sources of Radiation
Our bodies contain naturally occurring radioactive
elements, such as potassium.
Some consu...
Cosmic radiation can be accumulated through
one cross-country airplane trip.
Tobacco leaves absorb naturally occurring
rad...
Annual Dose from
Background Radiation
Total exposure

Man-made sources
Medical X-Rays
11%

Radon 55.0%

Other 1%
Internal ...
Ionizing Radiation
Ionizing radiation is produced by the natural decay of
radioactive material.
Beta, gamma, and x-rays ar...
X-Rays & Gamma Rays
X-rays and gamma rays make up part of the
electromagnetic spectrum.
They can travel forever until they...
Penetrating Radiation
-X-Rays & Gamma RaysX-rays and gamma rays can penetrate the body and
irradiate internal organs.
Expo...
Beta Particles
Beta particles are excess electrons.
Particles can be low or high energy emitters.
Low energy emitters can ...
Non-Penetrating Radiation
-Beta ParticlesCan not penetrate the body to irradiate internal
organs.
Can penetrate dead outer...
Radiation Absorbed Dose
-RADRAD is a unit of measurement used to describe the
amount of energy transferred from a source o...
Radiation Equivalent Man
-REMDifferent types of ionizing radiation cause differing
degrees of biological effects even when...
Biological Effects of radiation
Exposure above permissible levels may result in:
Somatic Effects
Physical effects
May be i...
Biological Effects
-ThresholdThreshold effects might occur if an individual receives
a dose above the threshold level.
Acu...
Biological Effects
-Non-thresholdNon-threshold effects might occur from any amount
of exposure to radiation.
Chance of eff...
Summary of Biological
Effects of Radiation
Radiation may…
• Deposit Energy in Body
• Cause DNA Damage
• Create Ionizations...
Radiation Effects on Cells
Radiosensitivity Theory of Bergonie &
Tribondeau (1906).
Stem cells are radiosensitive, mature ...
Response to radiation depends
on:
Total dose
Dose rate
Radiation quality
Stage of development at the time of
exposure
Whole Body Effects
Acute or Nonstochastic
• Occur when the radiation dose is large enough to
cause extensive biological da...
Late or Stochastic (Delayed)
• Exhibit themselves over years after acute exposure.
• Radiation induced cancers
• Leukemia
...
Radiosensitivity of cells
Low Sensitivity

Mature red blood cells
Muscle cells
Ganglion cells
Mature connective tissues

I...
Radiation Protection
Minimize Exposure

When working with radioactive
material, remember to minimize your
exposure at all possible times.

2013...
Measure Your Radiation Dose
-DosimetersUse to measure the occupational dose equivalent from x-ray,
gamma, and high energy ...
Maximum Permissible
Dose Limits (MPD)
State and Federal regulations set maximum
permissible yearly radiation dose (MPD) li...
As Low As Reasonably
Achievable (ALARA)
Always practice ALARA
AS LOW AS REASONABLY ACHIEVABLE

2013

27
Why Practice ALARA?
Any type of ionizing radiation poses some risk. As
exposure increases, so does risk.
Research shows th...
Three Effective Strategies
-TimeMinimize the time and you will minimize the dose.
Pre-plan the experiment/procedure to min...
Three Effective Strategies
-DistanceDoubling the distance from the source can reduce
your exposure intensity by 25%.
Use f...
Three Effective Strategies
-ShieldingPosition shielding between yourself and the source of
radiation at all permissible ti...
Shielding X-Rays & Gamma Rays
Lead shielding will reduce the intensity of x-rays
and gamma rays being emitted from a sourc...
Room shielding

Lead lined plaster board

Lead glass viewing window
Personal Protective Equipment

Fig 3. Overshoes
Often worn routinely in the
Radiopharmacy for sterility reasons.
Not alway...
Radiation protection in X-ray
Radiation Safety
-Laboratory Rules1. Smoking, eating, and drinking are not permitted in
radionuclide laboratories.
2. Food...
Radiation Safety
-Laboratory Rules5. Protective clothing shall be worn when working with
radioactive materials. This inclu...
Radiation Safety
-Laboratory Rules7. All containers of radioactive materials and items
suspected or known to be contaminat...
Warning Labels
Mark all items used to manipulate or store
radioactive material.
Label all contaminated items.
Remove all r...
Warning Label Requirements
MUST be clearly visible, durable, and MUST state:
“CAUTION: RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL”
Labels must p...
Radioactive Waste Disposal
Radioactive waste includes anything that contains or
is contaminated with radioactive material....
THANKS
2013

43
Radiation safety
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Radiation safety

23,020 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • The final result was amazing, and I highly recommend ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐ to anyone in the same mindset as me.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Pull Him Back ✤✤✤ https://t.cn/A6yxiW77
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Hi there! I just wanted to share a list of sites that helped me a lot during my studies: .................................................................................................................................... www.EssayWrite.best - Write an essay .................................................................................................................................... www.LitReview.xyz - Summary of books .................................................................................................................................... www.Coursework.best - Online coursework .................................................................................................................................... www.Dissertations.me - proquest dissertations .................................................................................................................................... www.ReMovie.club - Movies reviews .................................................................................................................................... www.WebSlides.vip - Best powerpoint presentations .................................................................................................................................... www.WritePaper.info - Write a research paper .................................................................................................................................... www.EddyHelp.com - Homework help online .................................................................................................................................... www.MyResumeHelp.net - Professional resume writing service .................................................................................................................................. www.HelpWriting.net - Help with writing any papers ......................................................................................................................................... Save so as not to lose
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I thought I was good at writing essays all through freshman and sophomore year of high school but then in my junior year I got this awful teacher (I doubt you’re reading this, but screw you Mr. Murphy) He made us write research papers or literature analysis essays that were like 15 pages long. It was ridiculous. Anyway, I found HelpWriting.net and since then I’ve been ordering term papers from this one writer. His stuff is amazing and he always finishes it super quickly. Good luck with your order!
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I'm So Sorry They Lied To You� ●●● https://bit.ly/2WL1mUf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Radiation safety

  1. 1. Radiation Hazards and its protection Dr.Rabia Shah
  2. 2. Sources of Radiation Elements such as thorium, uranium, radium, RN-222, and K-40 are naturally occurring radioactive elements that can be found in our everyday lives. These elements can be found in: – rocks, soil and building materials – food and water Some sources are a result of ground nuclear testing, which is not naturally occurring. 2013
  3. 3. Cosmic and Atmospheric Radiation Cosmic and atmospheric radiation originates from the sun and stars. Earth’s atmosphere is very effective in shielding cosmic radiation, but variations in the density of the atmosphere can result in uneven distribution of protection. 2013
  4. 4. Additional Sources of Radiation Our bodies contain naturally occurring radioactive elements, such as potassium. Some consumer products, such as luminous dial watches and smoke detectors, contain small amounts of radioactive material. 2013
  5. 5. Cosmic radiation can be accumulated through one cross-country airplane trip. Tobacco leaves absorb naturally occurring radioactive materials from the soil and fertilizers used to grow them. Hospitalized individuals who undergo medical procedures are exposed to sources of ionizing radiation. 2013
  6. 6. Annual Dose from Background Radiation Total exposure Man-made sources Medical X-Rays 11% Radon 55.0% Other 1% Internal 11% Cosmic 8% Man-Made 18% Terrestrial 6% Nuclear Medicine 4% Consumer Products 3% Total US average dose equivalent = 360 mrem/year
  7. 7. Ionizing Radiation Ionizing radiation is produced by the natural decay of radioactive material. Beta, gamma, and x-rays are forms of ionizing radiation that are often used in research. Beta, gamma, x-rays remove electrons from atoms (Ionization). 2013 Ions are created, which are more chemically reactive than neutral atoms. Ions can form compounds that might interfere with cell division and metabolism or cause chemical changes in tissue.
  8. 8. X-Rays & Gamma Rays X-rays and gamma rays make up part of the electromagnetic spectrum. They can travel forever until they hit an object and one of three reactions occurs: Scattering Transmission Absorption 2013
  9. 9. Penetrating Radiation -X-Rays & Gamma RaysX-rays and gamma rays can penetrate the body and irradiate internal organs. Exposure can result in external and internal doses. Internal exposure can occur when rays are ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. 2013 9
  10. 10. Beta Particles Beta particles are excess electrons. Particles can be low or high energy emitters. Low energy emitters can be shielded by cardboard. High energy emitters need a more dense shielding material, such as Plexiglas. 2013 10
  11. 11. Non-Penetrating Radiation -Beta ParticlesCan not penetrate the body to irradiate internal organs. Can penetrate dead outer-layer of skin and result in damage to live skin cells. Can cause damage to eye lenses. Ingestion, inhalation, or absorption through the skin might result in internal exposure. 2013 11
  12. 12. Radiation Absorbed Dose -RADRAD is a unit of measurement used to describe the amount of energy transferred from a source of ionizing radiation to any material, including human tissue. It is the quantity of radiation received by a patient. As a unit of exposure, 1 rad means that each gram of air at 0° C and 1 atmosphere has absorbed 100 ergs of energy. As a unit of dose, 1 rad means that each gram of exposed tissue has abosorbed 100 ergs of energy. 2013 12
  13. 13. Radiation Equivalent Man -REMDifferent types of ionizing radiation cause differing degrees of biological effects even when the same level of energy is transferred (same number of ergs). Rem is used to express the quantity of radiation received by radiation workers and populations. The rate at which an individual is exposed also influences the level of biological harm. Dosimeter are used to measure a dose equivalent. 2013 13
  14. 14. Biological Effects of radiation Exposure above permissible levels may result in: Somatic Effects Physical effects May be immediate or delayed Genetic Effects Birth defects due to irradiation to reproductive cells before conception Teratogenic Effects Cancer or congenital malformation due to radiation exposure to fetus in utero 2013 14
  15. 15. Biological Effects -ThresholdThreshold effects might occur if an individual receives a dose above the threshold level. Acute Radiation Syndrome: large whole body dose in a short time Effects occur at 100 rad Radiation-induced cataract formation Acute effects occur at 200 rad Chronic effects occur at 800 rad Other thresholds Severe skin injury occurs at 1,500 rad Teratogenic effects occur at 20 rad 2013 15
  16. 16. Biological Effects -Non-thresholdNon-threshold effects might occur from any amount of exposure to radiation. Chance of effect occurrence is proportional to the received dose. Severity of effects are not necessarily related to exposure level. Chance effects include: Cancer - estimated to be 5 deaths per 10,000 persons, whom each received 1,000 mrem Genetic effects 2013 16
  17. 17. Summary of Biological Effects of Radiation Radiation may… • Deposit Energy in Body • Cause DNA Damage • Create Ionizations in Body • Leading to Free Radicals Which may lead to biological damage
  18. 18. Radiation Effects on Cells Radiosensitivity Theory of Bergonie & Tribondeau (1906). Stem cells are radiosensitive, mature cells are radioresistant. Younger tissues are radiosensitive. Tissues with high metabolic activity are radiosensitive. A high proliferation rate and a high growth rate result in increased radiosensitivity.
  19. 19. Response to radiation depends on: Total dose Dose rate Radiation quality Stage of development at the time of exposure
  20. 20. Whole Body Effects Acute or Nonstochastic • Occur when the radiation dose is large enough to cause extensive biological damage to cells so that large numbers of cells die off. • Evident hours to a few months after exposure (Early) • Skin burns
  21. 21. Late or Stochastic (Delayed) • Exhibit themselves over years after acute exposure. • Radiation induced cancers • Leukemia • Genetic effects 2013 21
  22. 22. Radiosensitivity of cells Low Sensitivity Mature red blood cells Muscle cells Ganglion cells Mature connective tissues Intermediate Sensitivity Gastric mucosa Mucous membranes Esophageal epithelium Urinary bladder epithelium High Sensitivity Primitive blood cells Intestinal epithelium Spermatogonia Lymphocytes
  23. 23. Radiation Protection
  24. 24. Minimize Exposure When working with radioactive material, remember to minimize your exposure at all possible times. 2013 24
  25. 25. Measure Your Radiation Dose -DosimetersUse to measure the occupational dose equivalent from x-ray, gamma, and high energy beta emitters. Dosimeters cannot detect radiation from low energy beta emitters. Measures… Is worn… Can detect… 2013 Luxel Whole body exposure On the torso or area of highest likely exposure Ring Dosimeter Fetal Dosimeter Extremity exposure Exposure to a fetus On either hand under the At the waist line gloves with the name facing the radiation source X-rays & gamma rays: X-rays & gamma rays: 1 – 1,000,000 mrem 30 – 1,000,000 mrem High energy beta emitters: High energy beta emitters: 10 – 1,000,000 mrem 40 – 1,000,000 mrem 25
  26. 26. Maximum Permissible Dose Limits (MPD) State and Federal regulations set maximum permissible yearly radiation dose (MPD) limits for adults. Exposure up to dose limits is not expected to cause adverse health effects. ADULT MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE DOSES Whole Body – head, neck, torso, upper arms and legs 5,000 mrem Lens of the eye 15,000 mrem Extremities, skin, and internal organs 50,000 mrem Declared pregnant woman 500 mrem 2013 26
  27. 27. As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Always practice ALARA AS LOW AS REASONABLY ACHIEVABLE 2013 27
  28. 28. Why Practice ALARA? Any type of ionizing radiation poses some risk. As exposure increases, so does risk. Research shows that some people’s DNA is more resistant or susceptible to damage, and some people have an increased risk of cancer after exposure to ionizing radiation. Limit your exposure whenever possible. 2013 28
  29. 29. Three Effective Strategies -TimeMinimize the time and you will minimize the dose. Pre-plan the experiment/procedure to minimize exposure time. 2013 29
  30. 30. Three Effective Strategies -DistanceDoubling the distance from the source can reduce your exposure intensity by 25%. Use forceps, tongs, and trays to increase your distance from the radiation source. Move the item being worked on away from the radiation area if possible. Know the radiation intensity where you perform most of your work, and move to lower dose areas during work delays. 2013 30
  31. 31. Three Effective Strategies -ShieldingPosition shielding between yourself and the source of radiation at all permissible times. Take advantage of permanent shielding (i.e. equipment or existing structures). Select appropriate shielding material during the planning stages of the experiment/procedure. Plexiglas, plywood and lead are effective in shielding radiation exposure. Use the proper shielding for the type of radioactive material present. 2013 31
  32. 32. Shielding X-Rays & Gamma Rays Lead shielding will reduce the intensity of x-rays and gamma rays being emitted from a source of radiation. To reduce exposure by a certain desired percent, lead shielding must be a certain thickness for each type of emitter. Remember: Lead shielding does not reduce exposure by 100%. 2013 32
  33. 33. Room shielding Lead lined plaster board Lead glass viewing window
  34. 34. Personal Protective Equipment Fig 3. Overshoes Often worn routinely in the Radiopharmacy for sterility reasons. Not always otherwise worn routinely to prevent the spread of contamination, but widely used for this purpose following a spillage.
  35. 35. Radiation protection in X-ray
  36. 36. Radiation Safety -Laboratory Rules1. Smoking, eating, and drinking are not permitted in radionuclide laboratories. 2. Food and food containers are not permitted in the laboratory. 3. Radionuclide work areas shall be clearly designated and should be isolated from the rest of the laboratory. 4. All work surfaces shall be covered with absorbent paper which should be changed regularly to prevent the buildup of contamination. 2013 37
  37. 37. Radiation Safety -Laboratory Rules5. Protective clothing shall be worn when working with radioactive materials. This includes laboratory coats, gloves, and safety glasses. 6. Dosimeters shall be worn when working with relatively large quantities of radionuclides which emit penetrating radiation. 2013 38
  38. 38. Radiation Safety -Laboratory Rules7. All containers of radioactive materials and items suspected or known to be contaminated shall be properly labeled with tape or tagged with the radiation logo and the word “RADIOACTIVE”. 8. All contaminated waste items shall be placed in a container specifically designed for radioactive waste. 2013 39
  39. 39. Warning Labels Mark all items used to manipulate or store radioactive material. Label all contaminated items. Remove all radiation labels and warnings on containers that no longer contain radioactive material and are not contaminated. 2013 CAUTION: Radioactive Material 40
  40. 40. Warning Label Requirements MUST be clearly visible, durable, and MUST state: “CAUTION: RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL” Labels must provide sufficient information on the container to minimize exposure and to make sure all proper precautions have been taken. Radionuclide(s) Estimated activity Date 2013 41
  41. 41. Radioactive Waste Disposal Radioactive waste includes anything that contains or is contaminated with radioactive material. Collect radioactive waste in proper containers. Keep containers closed and secured unless you are adding waste. Report the proper information on the radioactive waste tag when material is put in the waste container. Keep a tag on the waste container at all times. 2013 42
  42. 42. THANKS 2013 43

×