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Electricity, magnetism and electromagnetism

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Electricity, magnetism and electromagnetism

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Electricity, magnetism and electromagnetism

  1. 1. ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM.
  2. 2. ATOMS… Have neutrons, protons, and electrons.  Protons are positively charged  Electrons are negatively charged
  3. 3. ELECTRONS…  Are located on the outer edges of atoms…they can be moved. A concentration of electrons in an atom creates a net negative charge.  If electrons are stripped away, the atom becomes positively charged.
  4. 4. THE WORLD IS FILLED WITH ELECTRICAL CHARGES: + + - + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - -
  5. 5. STATIC ELECTRICITY  The build up of an electric charge on the surface of an object. The charge builds up but does not flow.  Static electricity is potential energy. It does not move. It is stored.
  6. 6. STATIC DISCHARGE… Occurs when there is a loss of static electricity due to three possible things: Friction - rubbing Conduction – direct contact Induction – through an electrical field (not direct contact)
  7. 7. ELECTRICITY THAT MOVES… Current: The flow of electrons from one place to another. Measured in amperes (amps)  Kinetic energy
  8. 8. HOW CAN WE CONTROL CURRENTS?  With circuits.  Circuit: is a path for the flow of electrons. We use wires.
  9. 9. Static electricity is stationary or collects on the surface of an object, whereas current electricity is flowing very rapidly through a conductor.
  10. 10. The flow of electricity in current electricity has electrical pressure or voltage. Electric charges flow from an area of high voltage to an area of low voltage.
  11. 11. Water pressure and voltage behave in similar ways.
  12. 12. THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF CURRENTS:  Direct Current (DC) – Where electrons flow in the same direction in a wire.
  13. 13. THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF CURRENTS:  Alternating Current (AC) – electrons flow in different directions in a wire
  14. 14. THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF CIRCUITS:  Series Circuit: the components are lined up along one path. If the circuit is broken, all components turn off.
  15. 15. SERIES CIRCUIT
  16. 16. THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF CIRCUITS:  Parallel Circuit – there are several branching paths to the components. If the circuit is broken at any one branch, only the components on that branch will turn off.
  17. 17. PARALLEL CIRCUIT
  18. 18. CONDUCTORS VS. INSULATORS Conductors – material through which electric current flows easily.  Insulators – materials through which electric current cannot move.
  19. 19. EXAMPLES Conductors: Metal Water Insulators: Rubber Plastic Paper
  20. 20. WHAT IS RESISTANCE? The opposition to the flow of an electric current, producing heat. The greater the resistance, the less current gets through. Good conductors have low resistance. Measured in ohms.
  21. 21. WHAT IS VOLTAGE? The measure of energy given to the charge flowing in a circuit.  The greater the voltage, the greater the force or “pressure” that drives the charge through the circuit.
  22. 22. OHM’S LAW Resistance = Voltage / Current Ohms = Volts / Amps V= IR I =V/R R=V/I
  23. 23. MAGNETISM
  24. 24. What is magnetism? Magnetism is the properties and interactions of magnets The earliest magnets were found naturally in the mineral magnetite which is abundant the rock-type lodestone. These magnets were used by the ancient peoples as compasses to guide sailing vessels.
  25. 25. Magnets produce magnetic forces and have magnetic field lines
  26. 26. The earth is like a giant magnet! The nickel iron core of the earth gives the earth a magnetic field much like a bar magnet.
  27. 27. MAGNETS  USUALLY MADE OF IRON  EVERY MAGNET HAS A NORTH AND SOUTH POLES  LIKE SIMILAR CHARGES REPEL  OPPOSITES ATTRACT
  28. 28. FERROMAGNETIC  OBJECTS THAT CAN BE MAGNETIZED (IRON, COBALT, NICKEL)  3 TYPES OF MAGNETS  LODESTONE – NATURAL (PERMANENT)  ARTIFICAL – INDUCED  ELECTROMAGNET – temporary magnets produced by moving electric current
  29. 29.  Ferromagnetic material such as iron attracts magnetic lines of induction, whereas nonmagnetic material such as copper does not.
  30. 30.  Demonstration of magnetic lines of force with iron filings  NORTH &  SOUTH POLES
  31. 31.  If a single magnet is broken into smaller and smaller pieces, baby magnets result
  32. 32.  A moving charge creates a magnetic field  When a charged particle is in motion – a magnetic force field perpendicular to the motion is created
  33. 33. ELECTROMAGNETISM
  34. 34. ELECTROMAGNETISM  A MOVING CHARGE CREATES A MAGNETIC FIELD
  35. 35. RT HAND RULE  Current flow direction of thumb –  Magnetic filed – fingers
  36. 36. ELECTROMAGNET IS CREATED BY:  SOLENOID: Current flowing through coil of wire  Putting a magnet in the middle of the coil of wire increases the strength of the electromagnet’s magnetic field
  37. 37.  A coil of wire is a helix  Supplied with current it is a solenoid  Add an iron core – simple form of ELECTROMAGNET
  38. 38. What is an electromagnet? When an electric current is passed through a coil of wire wrapped around a metal core, a very strong magnetic field is produced. This is called an electromagnet.
  39. 39. HOW ELECTRIC & MAGNETIC FIELDS INTERACT Faraday discovered that the magnetic lines of force and the wire must have a motion relative to each other to induce an electrical current
  40. 40. ELECTROMAGNET INDUCTION  Moving a wire through a magnetic field will induce a current (Faraday)  Wire or field can move  Moving a magnet through a coil of wire will induce an electrical current
  41. 41. “FARADAY’S LAWS : OR HOW TO INCREASE THE STRENGTH OF THE INDUCED CURRENT  Increase the Strength of field or size of magnet  Increase the SPEED of motion  Change the ANGLE (more perpendicular)  Increase the Number of Turns of coil
  42. 42. ELECTROMAGNET INDUCTION  MOVING A BAR MAGNET THROUGH A COIL OF WIRE WILL INDUCE A CURRENT TO FLOW THROUGH THAT WIRE
  43. 43. What are electric motors? An electric motor is a device which changes electrical energy into mechanical energy.
  44. 44. How does an electric motor work?
  45. 45. THE PRINCIPLE OF THE ELECTRIC MOTOR
  46. 46. GENERATORS  A generator is a device that uses induction to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
  47. 47. TRANSFORMERS A transformer is a device used to change the voltage in a circuit. AC currents must be used. 75,000 V in the power lines 120 V in your p = primary house s = secondary
  48. 48.  Transformers are extremely useful because they efficiently change voltage and current, while providing the same total power.  The transformer uses electromagnetic induction, similar to a generator.

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