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Weather Theory Part I (Group C)

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Weather Theory Part I (Group C)

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Weather Theory Part I (Group C)

  1. 1. Weather TheoryPart I. The Atmosphere<br />Group C: Second Year<br />
  2. 2. Essential Questions<br />?<br />?<br />What is the atmosphere and what is its lowestlevel?<br />How does atmospheric circulation work? What factors manipulate this circulation?<br />What is the Coriolis Effect?<br />What is atmospheric pressure? What factors effectit?<br />What are standard atmosphere conditions?<br />How does altitude relate to aircraft performance? The human body?<br />
  3. 3. Important Terms<br />Density – mass of something per volume<br />Pressure – force of something per volume<br />Coriolis Effect – the modification of air circulation patterns due to Earth’s rotation<br />
  4. 4. Section I. Atmosphere<br />Body of air that surrounds the Earth<br />Always striving to achieve equilibrium – always in motion due to unequal heating of Earth’s surface<br />High/low pressure<br />Supports all forms of life on Earth<br />
  5. 5. Composition of the Atmosphere<br />78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other<br />Water demo<br />Troposphere<br />Surface to 20,000 feet MSL<br />Possesses most weather activity<br />-2°C per 1,000 feet of altitude<br />-1 inch of Hg per 1,000 feet of altitude<br />Tropopause traps most weather inside troposphere<br />
  6. 6. Atmospheric Circulation<br />Warm air is thin (less dense) and has lower pressure, therefore it rises<br />Cool air is thick (more dense) and has higher pressure, therefore it sinks<br />Water/oil demo<br />Unequal heating is due to Earth’s curved surface and that it rotates on a tilted axis<br />Air is heated at equator, rises to pole, cools, and sinks back to equator – process repeats itself<br />
  7. 7. Balloon Activity 1<br />Step 1. Put the balloon into the top of the bottle without dropping it. Seal the top of the bottle with the lip of the balloon.<br />Step 2. Cover the hole and try to inflate the balloon.<br />Step 3. Uncover the hole and try to inflate the balloon.<br />What’s the difference? What happened during each trial?<br />
  8. 8. Atmospheric Pressure<br />The force exerted by the weight of air molecules<br />Atmospheric circulation also affects atmospheric pressure<br />A column of air would weigh more at sea level than at 18,000 feet<br />Pressure can be affected by altitude, temperature, and density<br />Pressure conditions affect aircraft performance, such as takeoffs, rates of climb, and landings<br />Generally, most high pressure exists over polar regions and most low pressure exists over equatorial regions because of difference in temperature<br />
  9. 9. Balloon Activity 2<br />Step 1. Blow up your balloon.<br />Based on the previous slide, what can you conclude about the differences in air pressure?<br />
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  11. 11. Section II. Coriolis Effect<br />Pattern of air circulation is modified by rotation of Earth, called coriolis effect<br />Northern Hemisphere:<br />Air deflected to right<br />Air rotates clockwise around high pressure areas<br />Air rotates counterclockwise around low pressure areas<br />Southern Hemisphere:<br />Air deflected to left<br />Air rotates counterclockwise around high pressure areas<br />Air rotates clockwise around low pressure areas<br />
  12. 12. Section II. Coriolis Effect<br />Coriolis deflects more closer to the equator and less closer to the poles<br />
  13. 13. Section III. Measurement of Atmosphere Pressure<br />Measured in inches of mercury (Hg) by a barometer<br />Atmospheric pressure also called barometric pressure<br />Pressure of atmosphere pushes on a column of Hg that is advanced up a glass tube on a scale<br />ISA – International Standard Atmosphere<br />Standard pressure = 29.92’’ Hg (at sea level)<br />Standard temperature = 15°C (59°F)<br />
  14. 14. Section III. Measurement of Atmosphere Pressure<br />Mercurial Barometer<br />
  15. 15. Section IV. Altitude and Atmospheric Pressure<br />Atmospheric pressure decreases as altitude increases<br />Pressure decreases by 1’’ Hg per every 1,000 feet<br />Pressure decrease = density decrease<br />Air density is changed by temperature which changes pressure<br />
  16. 16. Section V. Altitude and Flight<br />Takeoff/landing distances and climb rates increase at higher altitudes due to decreased atmospheric pressure<br />More speed is required to takeoff if air is thinner (less of it exists in the same area)<br />Propellers are also less efficient at higher altitudes – reduced rates of climb<br />
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  18. 18. Section VI. Altitude and the Human Body<br />Hypoxia<br />Less oxygen exists at higher altitudes, even though concentration stays constant<br />Hypoxia generally begins around 10,000 feet but can begin as low as 5,000 feet<br />Cabin oxygen systems allow some planes to fly at very high altitudes<br />
  19. 19. Water Activity<br />
  20. 20. O<br />6<br />33%<br />N<br />12<br />67%<br />N<br />6<br />67%<br />O<br />3<br />33%<br />:Gas:<br />:Quantity:<br />:Concentration:<br />N<br />O<br />N<br />O<br />Box A<br />Box B<br />Quantity vs. Concentration<br />
  21. 21. Quiz Time!!!<br />How does a barometer work?<br />Atmospheric pressure exerts force on mercury which advances up a glass tube.<br />
  22. 22. Quiz Time!!!<br />Explain the difference between quantity and concentration.<br />Quantity is the actual total amount of something within a given area, whereas concentration is the amount of that something in relation to the whole.<br />
  23. 23. Quiz Time!!!<br />How much does pressure decrease as altitude increases?<br />1’’ Hg per 1,000 feet of altitude<br />
  24. 24. Quiz Time!!!<br />What are standard atmosphere conditions?<br />29.92’’ Hg<br />15°C (59°F)<br />
  25. 25. Quiz Time!!!<br />Why is the atmosphere always in constant motion?<br />It strives to achieve equilibrium by replacing low pressure with high pressure until the pressures are equal.<br />
  26. 26. Quiz Time!!!<br />What happens to warm air? What happens to cool air?<br />Warm air: less dense/thinner, rises<br />Cool air: more dense/thicker, sinks<br />
  27. 27. Quiz Time!!!<br />What is the composition of the atmosphere?<br />78% nitrogen<br />21% oxygen<br />1% other<br />
  28. 28. Essential Questions<br />?<br />?<br />What is the atmosphere and what is the bottom-most level?<br />How does atmospheric circulation work? What factors manipulate this circulation?<br />What is the Coriolis Effect?<br />What is atmospheric pressure? What factors change it?<br />What are standard atmosphere conditions?<br />How does altitude relate to aircraft performance? The human body?<br />
  29. 29. Questions?<br />www.centennialaviationclub.com<br />logan@centennialaviationclub.com<br />

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