8th International Airship Convention, Bedford, 2010



                              Climate-1                       Paper...
Paper 19                                                        Adrian Peña Cervantes



1 INTRODUCTION                   ...
Paper 19                                                          Adrian Peña Cervantes



and foot patrols. Manned aircra...
Paper 19                                                          Adrian Peña Cervantes



of hyper-spectral imagers rangi...
Paper 19                                                            Adrian Peña Cervantes




                            ...
Paper 19                                                        Adrian Peña Cervantes



gained in recent years valuable  ...
Paper 19                                                       Adrian Peña Cervantes



Figures 4 and 5 show the display  ...
Paper 19                                                         Adrian Peña Cervantes



couple of private research cente...
Paper 19                                                         Adrian Peña Cervantes



the start point. Data Link neces...
Paper 19                                                        Adrian Peña Cervantes



The sensing devices that can be  ...
Paper 19                                                              Adrian Peña Cervantes



                           ...
Paper 19                                                      Adrian Peña Cervantes




5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                ...
Paper 19                                   Adrian Peña Cervantes



[5]Roy Langton, “Stability and Control
   of Aircraft ...
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005 Paper 19 Climate 1 Template Airship Papers 2010

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My paper is about the design and construction about an unmanned airship for remote perceptions tasks.

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005 Paper 19 Climate 1 Template Airship Papers 2010

  1. 1. 8th International Airship Convention, Bedford, 2010 Climate-1 Paper 19 Small unmanned helium airships with electric power plant as low cost remote-sensing platforms Adrian Peña Cervantes UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) Consultant, Mexico City, Mexico. Abstract As long as developing nations in Latin America make efforts to mitigate climate changes in their regions, the economic factor plays a major role in the implementation of affordable solutions. In the next years, mitigating climate change programs in Latin America will employ in larger scale aerial vehicles to collect, analyze and making modeling for biomass and soil carbon in community-level agricultural, agro forestry, or forestation/reforestation projects. In this case, unmanned remote sensing platforms could substantially change the costs and reliability of monitoring mitigation projects and enable greater participation even from small-scale agriculture in local communities across the region, where the use of satellite mapping or manned aircrafts could represent a prohibitive use because of the costs implied. The primary tool to map and estimate land cover or land use at the regional and local level could be a low-cost, unmanned helium airship under development by institutes and company partners in Mexico, Spain, Ecuador, Canada and USA which represents a better cost effective platform not needing specialized airfields, including energy efficient electric power plant with a photovoltaic envelope generator for auxiliary power storage devices, dependable new soil-analytical techniques that use visible-near-infrared reflectance (VNIR) spectroscopy and the most important: better training and operation qualities for farm and agro forestry operators.
  2. 2. Paper 19 Adrian Peña Cervantes 1 INTRODUCTION forest inventory data are few and in According to the National Forest and constant change. Soil Inventory of Mexico 2004-2009 [1], In Mexico have evolved some 15,000 In recent years, Mexican and Latin different plant species (between 50 and American Biologists have indicated that 60 percent of known species of Mexico forests in the region may be subjected to so far) that are Mexico’s endemic. This a variety of different activities means that half or more of Mexico’s simultaneously, which may have flora cannot found anywhere else in the interactive effects on ecological world. If one species becomes extinct in processes and the exploration of such Mexico, it disappears completely from interactions remains a significant the world. This is an example of critical modeling challenge in environment biodiversity issue that faces not only protection in the region [3]. Mexico but most of the countries across Latin America region, fig 1. [2] A key current challenge for SMF is to develop adequate cost/benefit methods for mapping the value of different ecosystem services on which livelihoods depend so this information may be incorporated in a high rate in spatial planning. Such analyses obtained in a big scale could potentially be integrated with spatially explicit models of forest dynamics, providing a tool for exploring provision of ecosystem services under different scenarios of environmental change. The research outputs obtained are also requested to support the development and implementation of policies relating to SFM, through the development of decision-support tools and management recommendations. Fig.1: Forests at Risk in Latin Actually, the Satellite and Manned America, with Assessment of Level of aircrafts mapping is a widely used tool to Threat. Image taken from the United obtain statistical models of the spatial Nations Environment Program dynamics of forest cover, species through its global environment distribution data, and other GIS outlook (GEO) website [2]. (Graphical Interface Systems) information among Latin America Although over the past two decades, countries, in order to identify areas of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) actual or potential biodiversity loss, and has become an environmental issue thereby helping to identify priorities for worldwide, there is a widespread conservation actions. concern about high rates of forest loss and degradation in many areas. This As another widely used tool, the local states the need for new efforts by local surveys and mapping by forest and agro-forestry communities and agriculture technicians are performed governments to collect new field data for today through a combination of model parameterization, as existing conventional, manned aircraft fly-overs 2
  3. 3. Paper 19 Adrian Peña Cervantes and foot patrols. Manned aircraft have a deploy in forest or remote geographic high cost rate, very high greenhouse areas as well as easy to launch and gas emissions, are dangerous, intrusive recover by on-field operators and agro- in ecosystems and are not very good forestry specialists. platforms for long and detailed imagery aerial photography due their normal high They provide real advantages in terms speed - high altitude above ground level of modularity, silence, substantial flight conditions. In the other hand, autonomy and high degree of conventional patrols are obviously very controllability during normal and labor intensive, and thus slow and scheduled day and night hours. dangerous for human beings. These decision-support tools mentioned Most of Its missions will take place before permit the adequate production within visual line-of-sight and at altitudes of map-based research outputs using ranging from 150 to 500 feet and are survey techniques and GIS (Graphical therefore outside airspaces used by Interface Systems) and greatly facilitate manned aircraft. Consequently, a data integration and presentation in a significant number of remote perception form that can be understood by decision applications could rapidly be fulfilled with makers and provide a tool for exploring this UAV Lighter-than-air technology. the potential impacts of different policy interventions. However, it is desirable to Additional to technological benefits, find decision-support tools that perform these systems reduce human life the same mapping activities, but with exposure in long, dull, intrusive and better cost-benefit conditions for the dangerous air missions for forestry and FSM challenges previously mentioned in agriculture use. They provide potential this introduction. economic savings and environmental benefits with less fuel consumption, less According to the previous assessment, it greenhouse gas emission, and less is the purpose of this paper to propose disruptive noise than for manned the embrace of airship technology as an aircraft. affordable remote perception and mapping platform in accordance with Given the economic constrains, the Latin American boundary conditions procurement of an unmanned airship given by the economic and ecological system is facilitated by the low required circumstances. financial outlay and the less sophisticated payload requirements The use of small unmanned helium (when compared to military and manned airships for remote perception in forest aircraft) despite the lower training and agriculture industry can represent a burden for forestry and agro-forestry viable option capable to efficiently operators. complement satellites, offering an excellent reactivity and a more permanent availability to the relevant environment specialists. These unmanned airships will bridge the These Small Unmanned airships can be gap between what can be measured by widely used for additional monitoring of satellites and what is measured at static wildlife and nature observation, and ground-based, research stations. They reveal excellent capabilities in support of are easy to transport, relatively simple to the SFM policies and actions by the use 3
  4. 4. Paper 19 Adrian Peña Cervantes of hyper-spectral imagers ranging the 2 DESIGN VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared 400 - In order to conduct highly dependable 1000 nm) and SWIR (Short- flight operations in harsh forestry Wavelength Infrared 900 - 1700 nm) environments at different altitudes spectrum. These cameras have a world- ranging from 0 – 9000 feet above sea wide use in various manned and level, the technical characteristics of the unmanned environment projects. They small unmanned airships are planned as represent the most growing technology follows: tools in remote perception techniques to identify spectral features that are related to water stress, nutrient deficiency and • 3 small airships versions ranging pest infestation, among many other 7.8 m – 14m long, 3.0m, biophysical characteristics. maximum diameter. • Equipped with 4 control rudders in a ``X shape'' configuration. Relaying the experience gained in • 2 electric motors power plant as Mexico during the last years with RPV main thrusters providing a Small Airships, Unmanned Aerial maximum speed 45 km/h, Vehicles and GNC (Guidance, decreasing in wind gusts to Navigation and Control) techniques, it 25 km/h. One Electric motor as was decided to create in a true stern propulsion thruster for Yaw interdisciplinary spirit, a teaming with control at low speeds is optional biologists, agriculture researchers, depending upon versions and environmental engineers, airship missions requirements. experts, forestry technicians, renewable • Flight endurance: 1- 2 hours with energy experts, institutes, companies 25Km/h cruising speed. and UAV professionals in different • Maximum available payload countries as Mexico, Spain, USA, prospected to 8 kg (18 lb). Canada and Ecuador to create an • Two envelopes in the airship hull airship technology test-bed body. Inner envelope works as demonstrator in the next years serving pressure-resistant gas helium the agriculture and forestry community bag. in Latin America region with commercial • Semi rigid configuration with and industry standards. outer envelope engineered to maintain rigidity necessary for the integration of solar cell array, This airship project is believed to be a gondola, stern thruster and successful technology development rudders in the airship. consortium that brings recent advances • Flight range according to in ultra-lightweight fabrics, composites, electrical propulsion system thin-film solar cells and unmanned (25Km/hr cruise speed) and control techniques, to create a small autopilot capabilities is unmanned airship as outlined in this calculated for 5Km (3 Miles). paper to become a viable decision- support tool for agro-forestry communities and environment protection organizations in Latin America. Figure 2 overviews the main Systems in the small unmanned airship vehicle design. 4
  5. 5. Paper 19 Adrian Peña Cervantes The onboard GNC (guidance, navigation and control) system will work autonomously to perform station keeping in the presence of varying winds and rising/falling atmospheric density. The GNC will be designed under a R&D program starting with the creation of control algorithms for the Fig.2: Small airship main systems unmanned airship in accordance to and airship design. efficient operational qualities for agro- forestry operators and portable Ground The operational requirements for the Control Stations. unmanned small airship will be designed under a logistic hierarchical plan These control algorithms will be tested executed under a mandatory flight using dynamic simulations through operations center, considered to be MATLAB – SIMULINK software. These implemented in the GCS (Ground simulations will identify potential errors Control Station) System. This system before carrying out any hardware will provide coordination, monitoring and development, and therefore reducing control of all systems of the UAVs small greatly development costs [5] airship versions as well as weather forecast, computerized strategies and Some of the simulations activities will be emergency operations [4]. the following: • Dynamics of the aircraft • Guidance and navigation • Control System 3 OPERATIONAL FEATURES • external disturbances (wind, etc ...) 3.1 GNC Guidance, Navigation and The research outputs from these Control. simulations will be the following: The GNC (Guidance, Navigation and Control) system provides an autopilot • Determine primary control capability to the airship, so that its flight equations. path meets the high-level objectives • Autopilot dynamics simulations commanded by the forestry and and control system response to agriculture operators. This system also perturbations. gathers state and flight conditions • Response of different versions information from itself and all other sub- platforms to changes in the systems, and transmits that data in a control system. telemetry stream back to the GCS (ground control station). When the Previous experience in Unmanned telemetry data is received by the GCS, it Aerial Vehicles platforms by the Spanish is displayed to the operator via user- and Mexican research companies and configurable, customized displays. This partner institutes in the consortium have feedback loop enables the operator to allowed the input of new control theories monitor the overall airship performance in airship technology giving a GNC and then issue commands as necessary (Guidance, Navigation and Control) according to the pre-programmed flight system project enrichment. Other mission. engineering partners in Ecuador have 5
  6. 6. Paper 19 Adrian Peña Cervantes gained in recent years valuable • Latitude, longitude and altitude experiences in airship projects, GNC from the GPS system on board. systems as well as unmanned vehicles. • Latitude, longitude and altitude They will provide many on-site tests and from the Kalman filter. research outputs at different altitudes • Airship’s Euler angles. above sea level in their region and will • Acceleration. take a design in the simulation loop for • Angular velocity. the electric propulsion management • Airship’s magnetic bearing. algorithms. • Static Pressure. • Dynamic pressure (Pitot-Tube) The entire GNC system and Payload according to airship’s management control system will be performance at low speeds. embedded in an on-board rugged high performance “node” PC from the Nematron Corporation Company showed in fig. 3. The GCS also provides for the creation of the following parameters for transmission to the airship: • Configuration parameters control system • Static pressure in the ground station. • Operation Mode. Fig. 3: Rugged High Performance • Points of programmed path on "Node" Industrial PC model nc100 the route or planned mission Photo courtesy of Nematron Corporation, Michigan, USA. It has been agreed that a condition of up to 2 hours endurance is required. Therefore, for the final system, larger capacity batteries will be required and designed in a strategic plan for Solar Cells chargers and local electrical power 3.2 GROUND CONTROL STATION when available at mission’s localities. Since the small unmanned airship development intended must be practical In order to obtain the best energy and easy to operate, the operator’s budget control in an automated version, interface will have a custom design the Ground Control Station and on- based in portable and rugged Ground board energy management system will Control Stations. be designed under the most advanced hardware and HMI (Human Machine The design and development of the Interface) in the industry. The Red Lion ground control station is carried out and Nematron Corporation companies under the graphical programming from USA were selected to provide the language LABVIEW to display the entire SCADA (Supervisory Control and following control and status data from Acquisition) system), PLC the airship’s autopilot, sensors and basic (Programmable Logic Controllers), PC instrumentation telemetry: embedded Main processors and Resistive touch screens panels. 6
  7. 7. Paper 19 Adrian Peña Cervantes Figures 4 and 5 show the display The power for these motors is supplied monitors and HMI hardware interfaces. by a bank of Lithium-Polymer batteries (14.8V 4-6 cells 1600mAh X 2) carried at the gondola’s compartment with 1250W maximum electric consumption for each motor as well as associated wiring with low current waste cables along the entire electrical system. The propeller (14” x 7”) and motors are Fig. 4: Energy Management SCADA protected by a plastic ducted fence monitors. Photography courtesy of mounted at the end of a bar, which Red Lion, Inc. rotates driven by a servomotor and a gear system to provide plurality of controllable pitch thrust vector, in order to ascend, descend or gain speed in level flight. The reason to opt for electric motors even when they do not weight more than fuel engines was mainly the clean energy factor they provide and Control qualities for the autopilot system. In comparison with fuel engines they are Fig. 5: Roughed portable PC system less powerful, meaning reduction in the with touch screen monitor for use in maximum reachable speed and the portable Ground Control Stations. small possibility to fly in wind gusts. Photography courtesy of Nematron Anyway, the missions foreseen for Corp. remote perception missions in forestry and agriculture lands do not require fast operation speeds but quite and low vibration flights. Their main drawback is the weight of the required batteries, 3.3 PROPULSION – ELECTRIC which considerably reduces the POWER PLANT available payload onboard. Even when The propulsion will be provided by a battery technology has reached amazing group of electric brushless motors (2 weight loss options, it is even a major motors) attached to each side of the factor to overcome in the present gondola below the center line of the outlined airship project. airship and controlled by a dedicated DSP controller module that takes part of the GNC design. A third electrical motor 3.4 SOLAR POWER ARRAYS will be installed in the stern portion of “Solar energy is attractive in an the hull to provide Yaw control under environmentally conscious age. Sunlight specific maneuvers at low speeds. This is a renewable, free non-polluting and motor will be driven by the GNC system non-inflammable fuel” (G. Khoury, as well as the other power plant Airship design, Chapter 16) [6]. Under equipment and will have a control this concept, the solar power system algorithm defined under software and cell arrays to be installed in the simulations and energy management. upper external surface of unmanned airship’s envelope, will be designed and constructed in Spain and Mexico by a 7
  8. 8. Paper 19 Adrian Peña Cervantes couple of private research centers, taking a screening of the most promising • Stiffness / flexibility and technologies in photovoltaic solar cell resistance. arrays based on requirements for the • Low weight. harsh environments where the Small • General operating conditions as unmanned airship will be operating. temperature, pressure, cycles of work, mode of operation, An analysis of costs and market environmental conditions, etc. conditions for selected photovoltaic • Permeability / leakage materials. technology is associated to this • Service Lifetime. screening program to meet the • Maximum costs (cost/benefit). requirements of the intended tasks, considering possible locations of the solar cells in the unmanned airship that could be consistent with the specific 3.5 DATA LINK regional maps of radiation in the forest The Small Unmanned Airship missions regions where agro-forestry remote require the use of a dependable data perception operations will be executed. link to control and command the unmanned GNC (Guidance, Navigation The target in mind in the research group and Control) system. A second data link for solar cell arrays is energetic will be installed on-board to down-link efficiency under limited energy the real-time hyper spectral camera, as consumption for essential telemetry, well an optional gyro-stabilized payload payload and GNC (Guidance, video streaming with a telemetry Navigation and Control) Systems, but wireless sensor network. This WSN not including the electric power plant (Wireless Sensor Network) could pick- which as previously stated in this paper, up sensor status signals across the will require a large amount of electrical forest and agriculture lands under power only guaranteed by battery monitoring. systems. Appropriate high speed Data Link will be Progress toward the implementation and designed by institutes and companies in encapsulation of photovoltaic materials Mexico, Spain and USA to ensure that and their integration into the envelope in maximum benefits shall be provided to final unmanned airship system assembly the unmanned airship operations with a has been slow but the first research high level of safety. Previous outputs found viable application experiences in unmanned aerial solutions. One of them would be the systems and High Altitude Platforms thermoplastic or thermosetting polymeric telecommunications programs have lead materials applied under different the research group to envision and manufacturing processes as propose highly dependable wireless thermoforming, resin infusion and technology to be integrated as Data link bonding. system on board the small unmanned airship [7]. The cell arrays development program considers in a step-by-step procedure Standardization and compatibility with the study results provided by structure broader telecommunications strategies and stress analyst engineers in the according to the Unmanned Aerial research group for the selection of Systems trends in the world will be photovoltaic cells mechanical properties considered as main design criteria from as following: 8
  9. 9. Paper 19 Adrian Peña Cervantes the start point. Data Link necessary equipment and to introduce wireless connectivity exists, and the required sensor networks technology. frequency and bandwidth to control the unmanned aircraft are available, but the main fact from this point is to design the This WSN system could enable on-field entire unmanned system in a worldwide biologists to unobtrusively collect new wireless normalization and types of data, providing a new decision- standardization format. support tool for static mapping of physical conditions along the forest or According to general operational terms, agriculture lands. The flight operations the Data Link will operate mainly in the across forestry and agriculture lands line-of-sight of the unmanned airship additional to obtain imagery and and in continuous presence of radio mapping through GIS photogram, could coverage. The knowledge of all flying become a sensor’s status collector in parameters (down-linked to the control areas previously prepared with sensor station by telemetry) is essential to nodes in trees, soils, waterways, rivers ensure the appropriate handling of the and any other biophysical status sensor airship. In addition, when automatic necessary. phases of flight are conducted, the pilot must be able to take over direct control The hardware design of sensor network of the unmanned airship during take-off nodes and network protocols for forest and landing stages as well as in the monitoring will be conducted by case of unexpected or emergency Biologists and telecommunication situations along the mission path with engineers in research institutes in radio coverage availability. Mexico, Canada and Spain in order to obtain a specialized custom technology An outside line-of-sight operation or test-bed with wide applications radio coverage lost strategy will relay to capabilities. the autopilot’s GNC (Guidance, Navigation and Control) system to autonomous command the airship for a The principle of operation of this system “back home” maneuver and tracking the is based under the assumption that the aircraft position in real time under small unmanned airship operations emergency RF signal beacons. This will along the mission corridors established help the operators in the GCS (Ground in environment monitoring programs will Control Station) to track and maintain provide the opportunity to collect command of the aircraft under different through wireless telemetry, sensed data emergency conditions. and re-transmit to the field biologists this information during flight visits to its Figure 6 shows an overview of the entire coverage areas. Collected data also will Data Link system and a WSN (Wireless be stored in the on-board database Network System) system. server, which will serve the user's management software queries. Users will be able to access a real-time display 3.5.1 WIRELES SENSOR NETWORK of forest information and also As mentioned before in the Data Link dynamically interact with the wireless description, there is a practical approach sensor network through the Ground for a type of forest monitoring system Control Station Mission management solution in a telemetry format to improve software. the presence of the monitoring 9
  10. 10. Paper 19 Adrian Peña Cervantes The sensing devices that can be encountered in the forest monitoring installed on individual trees or activities. This hyper spectral imaging agriculture and forestry soils are the instrument, built by the company following: Headwall Photonics Inc. (Fitchburg MA, USA), has a totally-reflective, aberration- • CO2 sensor. corrected concentric imager design with • Humidity and temperature an f/2.8 optical aperture, covering sensors. spectral ranges in the VNIR- Visible • Pressure sensor. and Near-Infrared (400 - 1000 nm) and • Soil moisture sensors. in the SWIR-Short-Wavelength Infrared (900 - 1700 nm). The Figure 6 shows the wireless sensor aberration-corrected, concentric imager network and its associated displays design delivers extremely low distortion through the Data Link system. over an exceptionally large Field of View, a large aperture for high signal to noise ratio (SNR), and very low stray light for accurate radiometric measurements, all very critical specifications in a spectral imaging instrument. The fully-integrated Micro- Hyperspec™ (Fig 7) Imaging Spectrometer model weighs 2.2 lbs including fore optic lens and 2-D camera. In the other hand, the weight of the additional technical equipment mounted on the payload port is a critical Fig. 6: Data Link and Wireless Sensor constraint expected to become around Network. 10 lb including shock resistant fanless Industrial PC built by the Nematron 3.6 PAYLOAD - HYPERSPECTRAL Corporation Company, the Data Link CAMERA equipment as well as associated power The small unmanned airship will employ supplies and batteries for the support of spectral imaging techniques to identify the hyper spectral payload tasks. spectral features that are related to surveys of forest and agriculture land, obtaining high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution imagery from biophysical parameters as water stress, nutrient deficiency, pest infestation in woodland and soils as many others. In order to obtain this data acquisition and image sequence into the system’s payload port, the research group conducted an evaluation trial for the selection of a very small, lightweight, and robust hyper spectral imaging Fig 7: Micro-Hyperspec™ Imaging instrument capable of being deployed in Spectrometer. Photography, courtesy harsh environments such as those of Headwell Photonics, Inc. 10
  11. 11. Paper 19 Adrian Peña Cervantes airworthiness of the system for the 4 CONCLUSIONS intended unmanned operations. The small unmanned helium airship could be considered as a “flying robot”. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (or UAVs) However, we are far from being able to can fly in segregated air space as well design actual lighter-than-air as in non-segregated air space. When autonomous flying machines with highly flying in non-segregated air space, they developed and reliable artificial shall do so with the same safety intelligence. This project in terms of guarantees as manned aircraft. This is unmanned aerial vehicles systems is a therefore an issue with multiple new opportunity to increase autonomous dimensions, such as legal, regulatory tasks for airships platforms. Despite, and certification, which need to be “unmanned” term might give the wrong addressed globally therefore not in idea that there is no “flight crew” or “no isolation one from the others. [7] man in the loop”, the human part of the operation will be the main aspect in the flight/mission tasks. Furthermore, the In Latin America, UAV/AUS regulations “man in the loop” for remote perception are a very unclear subject, but the activities will be mainly the field project outlined in this paper means an biologists, the agriculture and forest opportunity to open discussions about technicians and the ecologists that know the way to introduce new really “what to see” in environmental standardizations for lighter-than-air terms and “what to look for” in spectral unmanned aerial vehicles in the region. imagery terms. The autonomous ability inherent to the small airship through its autopilot system and GNC system will Despite technical, administrative and assist mainly the operators to conduct budgeting issues, the proposed small easer and more precise operations and unmanned airship project under to reduce work load activities in a highly consortium model in different countries dependable control loop from the is a great opportunity to expand the Ground Control Station. lighter-than-air technology knowledge in Latin America with an environmental, technological and social deep impact. Another important aspect to solve in this project will be the legal and regulatory implications with civil authorities like FAA (Federal Aviation Administration), DGAC (Dirección de Aviación Civil, in spanish –General Direction of Civil “If you have built castles in the air, your Aeronautics, in English) in Mexico and work need not be lost; that is where they other aviation regulatory organisms as should be. Now put the foundations ICAO (International Civil Aviation). under them” - Henry David Thoreau, American author, Generally speaking, if we want to get poet, naturalist, historian and airborne the small unmanned airship in philosopher. a commercial sustainable mode, first we need to get the corresponding certificates and/or permits, and one of them is the one that certifies the 11
  12. 12. Paper 19 Adrian Peña Cervantes 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 6 REFERENCES • I express my gratitude to the [1]National Forestry Commission National Council for Science and http://www.conafor.gob.mx/bibliotec Technology (CONACyT) of a/Inventario-Nacional-Forestal-y-de- Mexico [9] for its funding and Suelos.pdf El Inventario Nacional technical support to airships and Forestal y de Suelos de México unmanned vehicles programs in 2004-2009. Una herramienta que previous years. Without the da certeza a la planeación, Mexican government policies to evaluación y el desarrollo forestal support science, technology and de México. innovation, this research project could not be possible. [2]http://www.unep.org/geo/. United Nations Environment Programme. • I acknowledge with gratitude the Global Environment Outlook. valuable help of biologists from the Institute of Ecology AC of [3]Toward Integrated Analysis of Mexico, INECOL [10] for their Human Impacts on Forest valuable engagement, advice, Biodiversity: Lessons from Latin and review of various materials America. Copyright © 2009 by the to help me understand the author(s). Published here under environmental problems faced in license by the Resilience Mexico and Latin America and to Alliance.Newton, A. C., L. Cayuela, help me take my project involved C. Echeverría, J. J. Armesto, R. F. in the environment conservation. Del Castillo, D. Golicher, D. • I want to express sincere Geneletti, M. Gonzalez-Espinosa, appreciation for the intense and A. Huth, F. López-Barrera, L. dedicated work performed by the Malizia, R. Manson, A. Premoli, N. funders, members and Ramírez-Marcial, J. Rey Benayas, collaborators of the International N. Rüger, C. Smith-Ramírez, and G. Airship Association to promote Williams-Linera. 2009. Toward the airship technology. Their integrated analysis of human advice and enthusiasm are impacts on forest biodiversity: invaluable for Latin American lessons from Latin America. airship researchers. Ecology and Society 14(2): 2. [online] URL: • I would like to express my http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/v gratitude to the Western ol14/iss2/art2/ Hemisphere Information Exchange, especially to Ricardo Arias from the Science & [4]Jurgen Bock, Airships to the Arctic V Technology Stability directorate Symposium, Calgary, Canada, of the U.S. Southern Command 2009. “Lay-out of an LTA cargo for their support to my research carrier for autonomous operation”, p activities thorough the invitation 12-21. to join conferences and forums devoted to unmanned vehicles systems and environmental projects in Latin America [11]. 12
  13. 13. Paper 19 Adrian Peña Cervantes [5]Roy Langton, “Stability and Control of Aircraft Systems Introduction to Classical Feedback Control”, Aerospace Series-Wiley. [6]Airship Technology, Edited by Gabriel A. Khoury and J. David Gillett, Cambridge University Press 1999 [7]Cuevas Ruiz-José Luis, Aragón- Zavala Alejandro, Delgado-Penin Jose Antonio. “High-Altitude Platforms for Wireless Communications”, Wiley, first Edition 2008 [8]International Civil Aviation Organization – Information paper www.icao.int/anb/panels/acp/wg/f/... /acp-wgf18ip08_eads_rev%201.doc ACP-WGF 18/IP08 12/05/08. [9] The National Council for Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACyT) URL: http://www.conacyt.gob.mx/ [10]INECOL Institute of Ecology AC, Mexico. http://www.inecol.mx/index.php/engl ish [11]Latin America Fuel and & Unmanned Vehicles Conference. Panama City, December 2009. http://www.arc.fiu.edu/WHIXConfere nce/Default.aspx 13

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