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Networked Privacy
Beyond the Individual:
Four Perspectives to ‘Sharing’
Airi Lampinen (@airi_)
Mobile Life Centre, Stockho...
This Talk
• Builds on an understanding of networked
privacy that has been developed in and around
HCI over the past decade...
What is
a Social Network Site?
a networked communication platform in which participants
(1) have uniquely identifiable pro...
The Ubiquity of
Social Network Sites
• The widespread adoption of social network sites
affects sociality beyond the activi...
Interpersonal Boundary
Regulation (Altman)
Communication Privacy
Management (Petronio)
Interpersonal
Boundary Regulation
• The negotiation of accessibility and inaccessibility
that characterizes social relatio...
Boundary Regulation
in the Networked World
• Interpersonal boundaries are not just an analogue of
physical demarcations, b...
• The boundary regulation framework originates in
considerations of social life in physical settings
• Yet, offline activi...
• The idea that not just individuals, but groups,
too, need to regulate their boundaries was a part of
the original bounda...
‘Sharing’
a central way in which people talk about
their engagement with SNSs
and their efforts to manage what gets
publis...
‘Sharing’ is not
a monolithic activity
• the sharing of manually selected digital
content
• the streaming of automatically...
Four Perspectives
to ‘Sharing’
(1) Sharing with multiple groups
(2) Sharing on behalf of others
(3) Sharing via automated ...
#1 Sharing
with Multiple Groups
• SNSs may bring about group co-presence,
a situation in which many groups important to an...
#1 Sharing
with Multiple Groups
• Maintaining a broad social network in an SNS may
lead to a sense of having to present on...
#2 Sharing
on Behalf of Others
• While individuals can (try to) regulate
interpersonal boundaries on their own, ultimately...
#2 Sharing
on Behalf of Others:
Subtle acts of support
• Facebook users reckon on how and by whom
the content that they sh...
#2 Sharing
on Behalf of Others:
Explicit co-operation
• This can involve coming into agreement on shared
codes of conduct ...
#3 Sharing via
Automated Mechanisms
#3 Sharing via
Automated Mechanisms
• Automated sharing mechanisms are promoted as a
means to make sharing increasingly ef...
#3 Sharing via
Automated Mechanisms
• Boundary regulation is not solely a matter of restricting
access but also one of pro...
#4 Sharing
as a Group
• A service where members can engage in hospitality exchange
by hosting visitors or by staying with ...
#4 Sharing
as a Group
• Multi-person households regulate access to their home
cooperatively as they welcome couchsurfers
•...
Concluding Points
• SNSs have characteristics that disrupt
conventional premises of interpersonal
boundary regulation
• Ye...
Going Forward
• How might we design technologies and policies
that are supportive of interpersonal boundary
regulation aim...
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Networked Privacy
 Beyond the Individual: Four Perspectives to ‘Sharing’ / Airi Lampinen

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Paper presentation at Critical Alternatives 2005, the fifth decennial Aarhus Conference.

Abstract below, the paper is available at: https://goo.gl/RtissL

My dissertation, Interpersonal Boundary Regulation in the Context of Social Network Services, includes a longer discussion of the topics of the paper: https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/42272

For further publications, see: airilampinen.fi/publications

"Synthesizing prior work, this paper provides conceptual grounding for understanding the dialectic of challenges and opportunities that social network sites present to social life. With the help of the framework of interpersonal boundary regulation, this paper casts privacy as something people do, together, instead of depicting it as a characteristic or a possession. I illustrate interpersonal aspects of networked privacy by outlining four perspectives to ‘sharing’. These perspectives call for a rethink of networked privacy beyond an individual’s online endeavors."

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Networked Privacy
 Beyond the Individual: Four Perspectives to ‘Sharing’ / Airi Lampinen

  1. 1. Networked Privacy Beyond the Individual: Four Perspectives to ‘Sharing’ Airi Lampinen (@airi_) Mobile Life Centre, Stockholm University Critical Alternatives August 19, 2015
  2. 2. This Talk • Builds on an understanding of networked privacy that has been developed in and around HCI over the past decade • Casts privacy as something people do together instead of depicting it as a characteristic of a piece of content or a possession of an individual • Outlines four perspectives to ‘sharing’ derived from prior empirical work
  3. 3. What is a Social Network Site? a networked communication platform in which participants (1) have uniquely identifiable profiles that consist of user- supplied content, content provided by other users, and/or system-provided data (2) can publicly articulate connections that can be viewed and traversed by others (3) can consume, produce, and/or interact with streams of user-generated content provided by their connections on the site (Ellison and boyd, 2013)
  4. 4. The Ubiquity of Social Network Sites • The widespread adoption of social network sites affects sociality beyond the activities that take place on these platforms • Even those who do not use SNSs are embedded in social settings that are shaped by their existence • Refusing to join a social network site does not mean that one would not be referred to or featured in the service in question
  5. 5. Interpersonal Boundary Regulation (Altman) Communication Privacy Management (Petronio)
  6. 6. Interpersonal Boundary Regulation • The negotiation of accessibility and inaccessibility that characterizes social relationships • Access to social interaction is regulated both by how physical spaces are built and through the behaviors that take place in them • These practices are applied to achieve contextually desirable degrees of social interaction
  7. 7. Boundary Regulation in the Networked World • Interpersonal boundaries are not just an analogue of physical demarcations, but they are, in part, determined by physical structures • The widespread adoption of SNSs challenges customary mechanisms for regulating interpersonal boundaries • Palen & Dourish (2003) raised the issue of boundary regulation in an networked world, setting the scene for research on interpersonal networked privacy
  8. 8. • The boundary regulation framework originates in considerations of social life in physical settings • Yet, offline activities have often been bypassed when examining boundary regulation and SNSs • Boundary regulation efforts must be understood holistically, since these platforms are tightly woven into everyday life, with consequences also to those who can or will not use them Boundary Regulation Online and Offline
  9. 9. • The idea that not just individuals, but groups, too, need to regulate their boundaries was a part of the original boundary regulation framework • Petronio and colleagues have elaborated on how individuals and groups make decisions over revealing or concealing private information, collaboratively • Yet, this notion of group privacy has received scarce attention within HCI Boundary Regulation as a Group
  10. 10. ‘Sharing’ a central way in which people talk about their engagement with SNSs and their efforts to manage what gets published, to whom, and with what kinds of implications
  11. 11. ‘Sharing’ is not a monolithic activity • the sharing of manually selected digital content • the streaming of automatically tracked behavioral information • acts of sharing that directly challenge the hypothetical online–offline divide
  12. 12. Four Perspectives to ‘Sharing’ (1) Sharing with multiple groups (2) Sharing on behalf of others (3) Sharing via automated mechanisms (4) Sharing as a group
  13. 13. #1 Sharing with Multiple Groups • SNSs may bring about group co-presence, a situation in which many groups important to an individual are simultaneously present in one context • Challenges related to this tendency of SNSs to flatten diverse audiences into one group have been well documented as context collapse (e.g. Vitak, 2012; Lampinen et al, 2009)
  14. 14. #1 Sharing with Multiple Groups • Maintaining a broad social network in an SNS may lead to a sense of having to present oneself and one’s social connections consistently with everyone • Regulating interpersonal boundaries can be difficult when it is hard to keep track of to whom access is provided, or to figure out whether/when these audiences interact with what is made available (Lampinen et al, 2009)
  15. 15. #2 Sharing on Behalf of Others • While individuals can (try to) regulate interpersonal boundaries on their own, ultimately their success always relies on others’ support • First, who does the ‘sharing’? • Second, maintaining a boundary requires that others affirm one’s actions and support the definition of oneself that is put forward
  16. 16. #2 Sharing on Behalf of Others: Subtle acts of support • Facebook users reckon on how and by whom the content that they share will be viewed/interpreted • Some ponder whether the content they share might inadvertently create challenges for a friend • Efforts to cooperate can include considerate acts of sharing, discretion in self-censorship, and benevolent interpretation (Lampinen et al, 2011)
  17. 17. #2 Sharing on Behalf of Others: Explicit co-operation • This can involve coming into agreement on shared codes of conduct through explicit negotiation of what to share, and under what conditions • A strong emphasis is placed on being trustworthy and considerate – not only something desired of others but also a standard to live up to (Lampinen et al, 2011)
  18. 18. #3 Sharing via Automated Mechanisms
  19. 19. #3 Sharing via Automated Mechanisms • Automated sharing mechanisms are promoted as a means to make sharing increasingly effortless and authentic in its presumed completeness • Yet, much work can go into regulating what is being shared via them (profile work) • Interpersonal boundary regulation entails decisions beyond sharing per se, affecting how people behave in the first place (Silfverberg et al, 2011; Uski & Lampinen, 2014)
  20. 20. #3 Sharing via Automated Mechanisms • Boundary regulation is not solely a matter of restricting access but also one of providing it • Users make efforts to regulate sharing • when the sharing mechanism risks to publicize content that they do not want to have in their profiles • when the sharing mechanism fails to publicize content that it should have and that users want to appear in their profiles (Silfverberg et al, 2011; Uski & Lampinen, 2014)
  21. 21. #4 Sharing as a Group • A service where members can engage in hospitality exchange by hosting visitors or by staying with others as guests • Here, boundary regulation takes place not only in online interaction but also in the course of interacting with guests face- to-face
  22. 22. #4 Sharing as a Group • Multi-person households regulate access to their home cooperatively as they welcome couchsurfers • Beyond sharing credentials, account sharing involves negotiations over • how to present multiple people in a single profile • how to decide and communicate whom to host • how to share the benefits of a good reputation (Lampinen, 2014)
  23. 23. Concluding Points • SNSs have characteristics that disrupt conventional premises of interpersonal boundary regulation • Yet, boundaries are regulated through co- operative processes also in their presence • People regulate both individual and collective boundaries cooperatively, with consideration to others, and in line with relevant social norms and the affordances of technologies
  24. 24. Going Forward • How might we design technologies and policies that are supportive of interpersonal boundary regulation aims and practices? • How can we rethink networked privacy beyond the individual and his/her online endeavors? • How could we better connect this line of research with other issues regarding privacy in a networked world?

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