Module 4 developing the hospitality culture


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  • Establishing a center of excellence is one way that your organization can improve a corporate culture that has become stagnant.You can use a center of excellence to explore corporate-culture issues, as well as to set an agenda for change to ensure that people at alllevels of the organization — from senior management to entry-level assistants, customer service representatives, and operations staffmembers — have a holistic view of the mission and goals of the organization.There is a need to recognize internal customers and create a team based organizations.
  • Culture in general is concerned with beliefs and values on the basis ofwhich people interpret experiences and behave, individually and ingroups. Broadly and simply put, “culture” refers to a group or communitywith which you share common experiences that shape the way you understandthe world. This has usually been seen at the national level and theorganizational level. We believe that it is now possible to talk of a touristicculture which exerts pressure on the hospitality industry, that is to say thedemands placed on the hospitality industry are themselves culturallydetermined. However the demands arise from a group – the tourists – thatexist within and beyond national cultural boundaries and share the commonexperience of travel, thereby forming a distinct culture of their own.
  • Thus, the same person can belong to several different cultures dependingon his or her birthplace, nationality, ethnicity, family status, gender, age,language, education, physical condition, sexual orientation, religion, profession,place of work and its corporate culture.Culture is the “lens” through which you view the world. It is central towhat you see, how you make sense of what you see and how you expressyourself.For example, consider what it means to say you are an American. Arecent search in Yahoo for “American Culture” pulled up 56 categories!America, once considered a global melting pot, is now viewed as a saladbowl filled with a large variety of ingredients.
  • Hofstede argued that an individual’s culture may have several levels: (1) national; (2) regional, ethnic, religious, linguistic; (3) gender; (4) generation; (5) socialclass; (6) organizational. We can see that this mixture provides an intriguingcocktail for anyone involved in organizational recruitment toattempt to disentangle for a performance assessor to misunderstand duringan appraisal a management consultant or trainer to “correct”. All inall, there is
  • Example: The cultural icebergCulture is like an iceberg. As everyone who has seen Titanicknows the problem with icebergs is not the part that you can see,as this represents only some 10% of the iceberg. The other 90%is hidden below the waterline but is most definitely still there.The tip of the cultural iceberg is easy to see. This includes thevisible aspects and do’s and taboos of working in other cultures.The remaining huge chunk of the iceberg hidden below the surfaceincludes the invisible aspects of a culture such as the values,traditions, experiences and behaviours that define each culture.Venturing into different cultures without adequate preparationcan be just as dangerous as a ship manoeuvring icy waters withoutcharts, hoping to be lucky enough to avoid hitting an iceberg.The difference is that the ship will know immediately whenit hits an iceberg.Unsuspecting companies may never realize they hit an icebergbut they will, nevertheless, feel the impact. It appears in the formof delayed or abandoned projects, misunderstood communications,frustrated employees and a loss of business and reputation.The costs of cultural myopia and the inability to adjust can bestaggering. By definition, cross-cultural awareness means notonly becoming culturally fluent in other cultures but also havinga solid understanding of your own culture.
  • The final element in our presentation of the dynamic surrounding the culturalunderstanding of hospitality deals with the tourist or the guest, whowe forget at our peril. It is becoming apparent that there are patterns ofbehaviour emerging that would allow us to consider them as a form ofculture. There are codes of dress and behaviour which are manifestly differentfrom the styles adopted by the same people in their own home orworking environments. There are also sets of expectations about the qualityof the service and increasingly of the experience as a whole that underpinthe consumption of hospitality. It is certainly still possible to identifythe national characteristics of groups of tourists, but within these nationalcharacteristics are some underlying elements that underpin the process.The level of demand is increasing and the knowledge base of the guests isincreasing.
  • Module 4 developing the hospitality culture

    1. 1. Developing the Hospitality Culture HRTM 122 TOTAL QUALITY SERVICE MANAGEMENT AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 1 “Every organization of today has to build into its very structure the management of change.” Peter Drucker (1909 - 2005) Austrian-born U.S. management consultant. Post-capitalist Society THE HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE: Define and build a total service culture
    2. 2. Chapter content: • Redesigning organizations for quality • Importance of leaders • Culture and its importance • Beliefs, values and norms • Culture and the environment • Total quality and organizational improvement • Communication and cultural change • Cultural behavior in organizations After working through this chapter, you should be able to:  Identify the context of international hospitality management  Determine the roles of different cultures in international hospitality management  Explore the cultural dynamic for organizations with national cultures, organizational cultures and touristic cultures  Examine the processes used in managing cultural diversity  Consider the implications of overlapping cultures in international hospitality management AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 2
    3. 3. Developing and Leading an Excellent Team of Workers Managers get work done through people---and a manager’s greatest challenge is to create a service team that delivers the ―service experience‖ consistently and well to the member community. Poor organization design can make be devastating to a company. Team of workers can contribute to customer satisfaction and continuous improvement . AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 3
    4. 4. The Ritz Carlton Mystique
    5. 5. Ritz Carlton: Known for its fine Service • Private bath in guest room • Lighter fabrics in rooms • White and black tie uniformed staff • Fresh cut flowers in public areas • Ala Carte dining / gourmet cuisine • Intimate smaller lobbies • Personalized guest experience
    6. 6. The Ritz Carlton Culture • The Gold Standards are the foundation of The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, L.L.C. They encompass the values and philosophy by which they operate and include: – The Credo – The Three Steps of service – Service Values – The Employee Promise • These Gold Standards are printed on a card carried by all employees to insure flawless service to their guests
    7. 7. Redesigning organizations for Quality • Moments of Truth AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 7 ―[W]e could say that the perceived quality is realized at the moment of truth, when the service provider and the service customer confront one another in the arena. At that moment they are very much on their own… It is the skill, the motivation, and the tools employed by the firm’s representative and the expectations and behavior of the client which together will create the service delivery process.‖ Richard Normann
    8. 8. Creating centers of Excellence • It is a process of bringing together key people from all areas of the business and operations to focus on best practices. • Provides a way for groups within the company to collaborate. This group also becomes a force for change, as it can leverage its growing knowledge to help different business units learn from experience. AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 8
    9. 9. Internal marketing …marketing aimed internally at a company’s own employees o Enables employees to deliver brand promise o Ensure consistently high service o Four-step process: • Establish a service culture • Develop a marketing approach to human resource management • Disseminate marketing information • Implement reward and recognition system o Too few organizations apply the concept o No unified concept o Corporate distraction (boost revenues, cut costs)
    10. 10. Link Between Internal Marketing and Profits INTERNAL MARKETING 1. Service Culture 2. Marketing approach to HRM 3. Communication 4. Reward & Recognition SERVICE QUALITY GAPS model Measuring Service Quality CUSTOMER SATISFACTION LOYALTY Relationship marketing PROFITS Figure 4.1
    11. 11. What is Culture? AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 11
    12. 12. Activity: The cultural minefield…..identifying yourself • Understanding and effectively interacting within the cultural groups to which we belong is like walking through a minefield. Being culturally aware means much more than just understanding the culture of other groups or countries. It means understanding who you are and your own cultural dynamic. Consider the following ―cultures‖, and the impact on your life: – Where you were born. – Your nationality and heritage. – How you were raised and your family life. – The schools you attended. – Your religious preferences. – Your profession. – Your company and its corporate culture. – Your gender. AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 12
    13. 13. Teaching new values… • Employees learn to get to know the cultural values from day one • Disney’s four cultural values: safety, courtesy, show and efficiency AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 13
    14. 14. Beliefs, norms and values • Beliefs – Form of ideological core of the culture; how people in organizations make sense of their relationships with the external world and its influence on the internal organizations. • Values – Preferences of certain behaviors or outcomes over others; defines what is right and wrong • Norms – it how people are expected to act • Norms in advertising • Norms in personal appearance • Folklores and mores AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 14
    15. 15. Service culture ….a culture that supports customer service through policies, procedures, reward systems, and actions o Culture must support customer service o Leaders crucial for transmitting, preserving culture o Commitment from management • positive attitude toward customers and employees • time and money transmitting value system • properly trained employees respond appropriately • empowered to do so by the organization o Establishing a service culture may have regional characteristics
    16. 16. 16 Leader Influence on Culture • Much! • Can manipulate or influence factors that determine culture and therefore service culture. • Cannot manage simply through guiding principles. People do not automatically fall in line. • Key: the leader’s behavior. Continued next slide
    17. 17. 17 Continued Culture strongly determined by: • What leaders do during good times and bad times. • How they do it. • What they pay attention to. • What they measure. • How they reward.
    18. 18. 18 Quality Service Climate • Establishes atmosphere for everyone. • Climate is a subset of culture. • Leaders set the tone, mood, and culture that set the climate in an org. • A positive service climate reinforces and supports quality service. • Climate is controlled by the leader(s).
    19. 19. 19 Characteristics of Supportive Leadership Climate • Service providers generally treat customers like they are treated as employees. • Dignity and respect. • Feel like winners. • Pride is fostered. • Group cohesion among teams. • During good and bad times!
    20. 20. 20 Four Leadership Imperatives 1. Leaders must allow a strong sense of personal control over job outcomes and behaviors. – Empower employees. – Allow wide discretion to solve issues. – Allow ees to create own schedules. – Collaborate with ees about ways to improve conditions and service.
    21. 21. 21 Continued 2. Instill a sense of meaning and contribution in service work. – Let ees know how they are doing. – Allow task variety via job rotation. – Job visitation—ees to other areas of the operation to observe. – Allow ees to work in area(s) of interest. – Allow responsibility (and power).
    22. 22. 22 Continued 3. Ensure a strong sense of social connection. – Create service teams. – Allow job rotation. – Encourage multiteam meetings. – Informal social hours. – Out-of-work sporting events (softball). – Team-building activities.
    23. 23. 23 Continued 4. Allow employees to soar. – Service provider development programs. – Survey personnel skills and interests. – Reward innovation and creativity. Whole is Greater Than the Sum of Individual Parts A well integrated program using these concepts will create an organization which is stronger than its aggregate parts.
    24. 24. 24 Culture Plus • In order to move to the next step in the process, there must be a system, which fosters-- – Clear benchmarks (service standards). – Concise goals and objectives. – An agreed upon method for measuring progress. • Objective versus subjective.
    25. 25. Culture across boundaries: • Culture differences play a key role in the creation of trust in multicultural teams. AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 25 The Power of Diversity Diversity is a term that describes a workplace that includes people from various backgrounds and backgrounds – a concept which we come across in international hospitality all the time. Employees who have cross-border responsibilities and/or cross-cultural relationships need to be prepared to effectively handle the inevitable intercultural tasks and challenges involved.
    26. 26. Six fundamental patterns of cultural difference 1. Different communication styles – Language barriers 2. Different attitudes towards conflict – Attitudes and perceptions of time as one element of complexity 3. Different approaches to completing tasks – Cultural complexity or roles (religion, politics, practices) 4. Different decision making styles 5. Different attitudes towards disclosure 6. Different approaches to knowing AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 26
    27. 27. Four cultural dimensions 1. Directness (get to the point versus imply the messages); 2. Hierarchy (follow orders versus engage in debate) 3. Consensus (dissent is accepted versus unanimity is needed) 4. Individualism (individual winners versus team effectiveness) AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 27
    28. 28. Case study: Tipping • Tipping is a sensitive topic in Asia, where breaches of social convention are taken more personally than they would be in the West. Tipping practices are widespread, and rewarding good service without causing anyone to ―lose face‖ in Asia can be difficult. Tipping is not a Chinese custom, but with British influence came the practice of tipping. Though there is a 10% service gratuity added to most restaurant and hotel bills, tips are still expected. Dewald’s research (2001) examined the tipping habits of tourists from six distinct countries – three Asian and three Western – while visiting Hong Kong. This study shows that even though there is a slight adaptation to local tipping habits, those who tip more often at home do the same while travelling abroad. Americans tended to tip more often and in relation to service whereas British and Australian tourists tipped less frequently. Mainland Chinese tipped the least often. Furthermore there seemed to be a relationship between the level of service quality and tipping frequency for some personal, one-on-one services (Plate 4). AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 28
    29. 29. Cont. • This photograph taken recently in a five-star hotel in China underlines the differences in practices and cultures. Not only is the issue of tipping addressed directly, but also explicitly prohibited. Also of interest is the way that the tip is represented with a $ sign, underlining the cultural differences at play in this international meeting point. AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 29
    30. 30. Organizational Culture • Explains how people think and act at work; • Comes from various directions inside or out of the organization; • May be weak or strong; • Formal and informal guidelines, actually activities; • Shared values and beliefs, behavioral norms 30 Robbins (2001) suggested that there are seven elements that define an organization’s culture. These elements will be more or less present in all organizations, but their specific alignment would allow you to explore the nature of the organization (Figure 2.2).
    31. 31. Org Culture is Not: • A technique. • A gimmick. • A how-to. • A method. • A solution. 31
    32. 32. 32
    33. 33. Touristic Cultures: 1. Touristic culture is not innate, but learned (travel, interaction) 2. Various aspects of touristic culture are interrelated – meaning that certain aspects of touristic culture will connect with aspects of other cultures that can influence the experience such as religion and diet. 3. Touristic culture is shared – when people visit there is an exchange, no matter how limited, with the other elements of culture in a region or organization, such as religion or language. 4. Touristic culture defines boundaries of different groups both within and without the tourist experience – such as the distinction between the host and the guests or the paying customers and their servants. AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 33
    34. 34. Total quality and cultural change Types of change • Cultural change • Continuous improvement (kaizen) • Breakthrough improvement (benchmark) • Organizational learning Importance of change: • Total quality implementation towards strategic advantage • Reengineering – Redesign service process to provide high quality at lower cost. AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 34 Organizations can't change without people changing first
    35. 35. Why organizational change? AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 35 Triggering Conditions: • Unstable and unpredictable world economic environment • Speed in technological advancement that hastens product obsolescence • Rise of information technology and cybernetics shifting competition towards intelligence, networking and strategic alliances. • Capital rationing based on quality and security of investment returns. • Competitive advantage derived from lower cost and speed of reaction to changing markets • Move towards flatter, leaner organizations • Doing more of the same no longer works
    36. 36. STRATEGIC CHANGE vs. PROCESS CHANGE • Strategic Change – Organizational changes resulting from strategy development and implementation • Process change – Organizational changes resulting from operational assessment activities
    37. 37. STRATEGIC PROCESS PROCESS CHANGE Theme to change Shift in organizational direction Adjustment of organizational processes Driving force Usually environmental forces – market, rival, technological change Usually internal – ―How can we better align our processes?‖ How much of the organization changes? Typically widespread Often narrow – divisional or functional Examples Entering new markets Seeking low-cost position Mergers and acquisitions Improving informational systems Establishing hiring guide Table 6.2 Strategic vs. Process change
    38. 38. AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 38
    39. 39. AIREEN Y. CLORES 39
    40. 40. Review Questions: • Can you describe the levels of culture involved in international hospitality management? • How can cultural differences be made into positives for an organization rather than being seen as problems? • Explore the tensions generated by intercultural communications in at least one international setting. • Why do you need to do more than understand other cultures? AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 40
    41. 41. AIREEN Y. CLORES DCHM, VSU 41