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New wct slide

  1. 1. dia zam ns sya2 jen
  2. 2. World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty, (WIPO Copyright Treaty or WCT)
  3. 3. WHAT IS WCT? • International treaty on copyright law adopted by the member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in 1996. • The WCT is a special agreement under the Berne Convention. Any Contracting Party (even if it is not bound by the Berne Convention) must comply with the substantive provisions of the 1971 (Paris) Act of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (1886) • Contracting Parties (90 countries as of December 2012) – from around 37 in 2002
  4. 4. THE PREAMBLE OF WIPO: • Outlines the objectives ie to : (i) Maintain copyright protection (ii) Introduce new rules and clarify existing interpretation (iii) Recognize effect of information and communication technologies (iv) Emphasize the effect of copyright protection on literary and artistic work (v) To achieve balance
  5. 5. ARTICLE 1 : RELATION TO BC (1) Made under the power given under Article 20 of BC (2) Obligations of Berne’s Convention Countries are not derogated (3) Berne Convention = Paris Act of July 24, 1971 (4) Shall comply with all provisions of BC
  6. 6. ARTICLE 2 : SCOPE Similar to BC, covers expression and not • Ideas • Procedures • Methods of operation • Mathematical concept …As such
  7. 7. ARTICLE 3 : ART2-ART6 OF BC • To be applied mutatis mutandis
  8. 8. ARTICLE 4 : COMPUTER PROGRAMS • Expand the definition of literary work under Article 2 of BC to include computer programs • Thus, computer programs have similar protection as other literary works
  9. 9. ARTICLE 5 : DATABASES • Compilation + intellectual creation = protection • Protection does not include the data or material itself • Does not prejudice its existing copyright
  10. 10. ARTICLE 6 : RIGHT OF DISTRIBUTION (1) Exclusive right to distribute ie making available to public (2) Except : exhaustion of right applies after first sale/other transfer of ownership
  11. 11. ARTICLE 7 : RIGHT OF RENTAL (1) Given to author of : i. Computer programs ii. Cinematographic works iii. Works embodied in phonograms (as determined by law of the contracting states) (2) Not given ; i. Where the computer programs are not the essential of the rental ii. Where the commercial rental of the cinematographic works has led to widespread copying (3) Proviso : Standing equitable enumeration for rental right of phonograms as on 15th Apr 1994 shall continue to be in force unless prejudice the author
  12. 12. ARTICLE 8 : RIGHT OF COMMUNICATION – Author shall enjoy right of communication either by wire or wireless means including the making available to the public of their works in such a way that members of the public may access these works from a place and at a time individually chosen by them – Without prejudice to Article 11 and 14 of BC
  13. 13. ARTICLE 9 : DURATION OF PROTECTION FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC WORKS • Similar to Article 7(4) of the Berne Convention.
  14. 14. ARTICLE 10 : LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS (1) As provided by Contracting Parties so long as do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author. (2) Same when applying the Berne Convention
  15. 15. ARTICLE 11 :OBLIGATIONS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURE • If author has used effective technological measures to protect their rights under this Treaty or the Berne Convention for their works, • And it has been circumvented (by-pass) without authorization • The author should be provided with legal protection and remedies
  16. 16. ARTICLE 12 :OBLIGATIONS CONCERNING RIGHTS MANAGEMENT INFORMATIONS (2) Definition of “rights management information”; information which identifies the - work, - the author of the work, - the owner of any right in the work, - or information about the terms and conditions of use of the work and any numbers or codes that represent such information, either attached to a copy of a work or appears in connection with the communication of a work to the public. (1) Act that should be given protection against by the contracting states; i. to remove or alter any electronic rights management information without authority Ii. to distribute, import for distribution, broadcast or communicate to the public, without authority, works or copies of works knowing that electronic rights management information has been removed or altered without authority.
  17. 17. ARTICLE 13 : APPLICATION IN TIME • Contracting Parties shall apply the provisions of Article 18 of the Berne Convention to all protection provided for in this Treaty
  18. 18. ARTICLE 14 : ENFORCEMENT OF RIGHT (1) Necessary measures to be taken by Contracting States in line with this treaty (2) The measure is to be made available under the law to combat infringement of rights covered by this Treaty, including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies which constitute a deterrent to further infringements.
  19. 19. ARTICLE 15 : ASSEMBLY THE ASSEMBLY (1)(a) + (b) Each Contracting Party shall be represented by one delegate who may be assisted by alternate delegates, advisors and experts to be members of the Assembly. (1)(c) The expenses of each delegation shall be borne by the Contracting Party that has appointed the delegation but The Assembly may ask “WIPO” to grant financial assistance to developing countries ITS FUNCTIONS (2)(a) To deal with the maintenance ,development and the application and operation of this Treaty. (2)(b) To manage admission of certain IGOs to become party to this Treaty under Article 17(2) . (2) (c) To decide the convocation of any diplomatic conference for the revision of this Treaty and give the necessary instructions to the Director General of WIPO for the preparation of such diplomatic conference.
  20. 20. Cont. VOTE (3)(a) Each Contracting Party that is a State shall have one vote and shall vote only in its own name. (3)(b) Any Contracting Party that is an IGOs may participate in the vote, in place of its Member States, with a number of votes equal to the number of its Member States which are party to this Treaty. But shall not participate when.. any one of its Member States exercises its right to vote and vice versa. SESSION (4) Once every two years upon convocation by the DG of WIPO. RULES OF PROCEDURE (5) Establish its own rules of procedure, including the convocation of extraordinary sessions, the requirements of a quorum and, subject to the provisions of this Treaty, the required majority for various kinds of decisions.
  21. 21. ARTICLE 16 -20 • • • • • • Article 16 : International Bureau The International Bureau of WIPO shall perform the administrative tasks concerning the Treaty. Article 17 : Eligibility for Becoming Party (1) Any Member State of WIPO (2) Any IGOs as decided by the Assembly (3) The European Community Article 18 : Rights and Obligations To be enjoyed by Contracting Parties unless specified otherwise by this treaty Article 19 : Signature of the Treaty Open for signature until December 31, 1997, by any Member State of WIPO and by the European Community. Article 20 : Entry into Force of the Treaty This Treaty shall enter into force three months after 30 instruments of ratification or accession by States have been deposited with the Director General of WIPO.
  22. 22. ARTICLE 21-25 • Article 21 : Effective Date of Becoming Party to the Treaty This Treaty shall bind: (i) the 30 States referred to in Article 20, from the date on which this Treaty has entered into force; (ii) each other State, from the expiration of three months from the date on which the State has deposited its instrument with the Director General of WIPO; (iii) the European Community, from the expiration of three months after the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession if such instrument has been deposited after the entry into force of this Treaty according to Article 20, or, three months after the entry into force of this Treaty if such instrument has been deposited before the entry into force of this Treaty; (iv) any other intergovernmental organization that is admitted to become party to this Treaty, from the expiration of three months after the deposit of its instrument of accession.
  23. 23. cont. • • Article 22 : No Reservations to the Treaty Article 23 : Denunciation of the Treaty May be made by any Contracting Party by notification addressed to the Director General of WIPO. Any denunciation shall take effect one year from the date on which the Director General of WIPO received the notification. • Article 24 : Languages of the Treaty (1) This Treaty is signed in a single original in English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish languages, the versions in all these languages being equally authentic. (2) Other text in any language other than those referred is to be established by the Director General of WIPO on the request of an interested party, after consultation with all the interested parties. • Article 25 : Depositary The Director General of WIPO
  24. 24. IS THERE ANY CRITICISM? • Too broad (for example in its prohibition of circumvention of technical protection measures, even where such circumvention is used in the pursuit of legal and fair use rights). • Applies a 'one size fits all' standard to all signatory countries despite widely differing stages of economic development and knowledge industry.
  25. 25. REFERENCES • WIPO Intellectual Property Handbook: Policy, Law and Use available at -ip/en/iprm/pdf/ch5.pdf#wct • WIPO Website available at • Wikipedia on WCT available at _Treaty