WHAT ENERGIZED AND DIRECT OUR BEHAVIOUR
TOWARDS A GOAL?
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
Intrinsic motivation arise from an internal drives and interest that moves an
individual to carry the task without expecting any rewards.
“Intrinsic motivation is the natural tendency to seek out and conquered
challenges as we pursue personal interest and exercise capabilities”
( Deci &Ryan ,1985;Reeve,1996)
“What motivates us to do something when we don’t have to do anything”
(James Raffini ,1996)
• Extrinsic motivation refers to the external drive/ encouragement that moves
individual to carry certain action.
“We are not really interested in the activity for its own sake; we care about what it will gain us”
• This encouragement can be shown in various forms such as the following :
• Extrinsic Motivation should be applied by a teacher to enhance the quality of
• Eg: In school, a sensitive teacher can use moderate extrinsic motivation such as
praise or inspiring words to drive pupils to study.
EFFECTS OF INTRINSIC VS. EXTRINSIC
MOTIVATION ON STUDENT LEARNING
• Eager to learn
• Enjoy learning
• Welcome challenges
• Process information effectively
• Reluctant to engage in learning tasks
• Dislike learning
• Avoid challenges
• Process information superficially
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTRINSIC AND
EXTRINSIC SOURCES OF MOTIVATION
• The relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is complex.
• Sometimes motivation can start out extrinsic and lead to intrinsic.
• For example, Jim studies geometry because he believes studying will lead
to a good job in the future.The more Jim learns, the more he becomes
intrinsically interested in the subject.
• People can be intrinsically and extrinsically motivated at the same time.
• Ideally, intrinsic motivation should be used, but sometimes extrinsic
motivation, in the form of attendance policies for example, can be
FIVE GENERAL APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION
Behavioral Approach To Motivaton
Humanistic Approach To Motivation
• Sources of Motivation : Extrinsic
• KeyTheorist : Skinner
• Two components are considered to be necessary for motivation: REWARDS and INCENTIVES
• Rewards is attractive object or event supplied as a consequences of particular behavior.
• Incentives is an expected object or event that encourages and discourages behavior, the promise of a reward
• Paul gets an A on his history exam (reward) and knows that he will get 10 dollars for receiving an A
• Sources of Motivation : Intrinsic
• KeyTheorist : Maslow,Deci
• These approaches assume that motivation is based on intrinsic sources such as a person’s need
• for “self-actualization” and “self-determination”
• Therefore, it is important to encourage inner resources, such as self-esteem, autonomy, and self-
Cognitive Approach To Motivation
Social Cognitive Approach To Motivation
• Sources of Motivation : Intrinsic
• KeyTheorist : Weiner,Graham
• In many ways, cognitive theories of motivation also developed as reaction to the behavioral views.
• Cognitive theorist believe that behavior is determined by our thinking ,not simply by whether we have been
rewarded or punished for the behavior in the past .
• Sources of Motivation : Intrinsic and Extrinsic
• KeyTheorist : Lockr & Latham, Bandura
• Integrations of behavioral and cognitive approaches.They take into account both behaviorist concern with
the consequences of behavior and the cognitivist interest in the impact of individual believe and
• Motivation can be characterized as expectancy-value theories
• Motivation can be seen as a product of two main forces :The individual expectation of reaching a goal and
the value of that goal to him/ her.
• Eg: If I try hard, can I succeed ? & ‘If I succeed ,will the outcome be valuable or rewarding to me”?
Social Cultural Approach To Motivation
• Sources of Motivation: Intrinsic
• KeyTheorist : Lave,Wenger
• Socio- cultural theories emphasizes participation in communities of practices
• People engage in activities to maintain their identities and their interpersonal relations
within the communities
• Eg: Students are motivated to learn if they are members of a classroom or school
community that value learning to be identify
• We are motivated to learn the value and practices of the community to keep our identity
as community members (Lave & Wenger,1991;Wenger,1998)
MOTIVATION TO LEARN IN SCHOOL
• Instructional leaders are concerned about developing particular kind of motivation in their school, the
motivation to learn.
• Motivation to learn been describes as ; “ A student tendency to find academic activities meaningful and
worthwhile and try to derive the intended academic benefits from them” (Jere Brophy ,1998)
• What makes student motivation challenge in a classroom?This is some of the reason
a) School attendance is compulsory .Curriculum content and learning activities are
selected primarily on the basis of what society believe students need to learn , not what
they would choose if given opportunity
b) Too many student in a class, cannot meet each individual's need
c) Student are graded and periodic reports are sent home to their parents
d) Teacher and student often settle into familiar routine and become “ daily grind”
Goal is what an individual is striving to accomplish .
Goal motivate people to act in order to reduce the discrepancy between
„where they are” and “where they want to be”
It is roughly similar to purpose or aim, the anticipated result which
guides reaction, or an end, which is an object, either a physical object or
an abstract object, that has intrinsic value.
WHY GOALS SETTING IMPROVES PERFORMANCE?
Goals direct our attentions to the task
Goal promote the development of new strategies , when old
stratigies fall short (Lock & Latham,2002)
Goal mobilize effort (The harder the goal, the greater the efforts)
Goal increase persistence (When we have a clear goal ,we are less
likely to be distracted or give up until we reach the goals)
TYPES OF GOALS
• The type of goals we set influences the amount of motivation we have to reach
• The goals must be specific, moderately difficult and likely to be reach (reachable)
• Specific goals provide clear standard of judging performance.For example, you want
to buy a car. It can not be goal if you say any car will do.You have to be specific
about the details such as the make, model, colour, interiors, and the price.
• Moderate goals; something that provide challenges but not something
• Reachable /Attainable ; Goals that can be reach .Setting goals that are unrealistic
can actually have a negative effect rather than positive one. It is good to stretch
yourself a bit, so that you can grow more towards your potential, but it must not be
something that is impossible to be real.
• Patterns of beliefs about goals related to achievement in school
• Goal orientations include the reason why we pursue goals and the standards we use to
evaluate progress towards goals
• The point of learning
goals is to learn and
• A desire to acquire
or master new skills
Learner : concerned
of mastering task and
not worried about
• A desire to look
good and receive
• A desire not to look
bad and receive
• Avoid doing work
• Do as little work as
• No desire to look
smart or to learn
• Feel successful
when they don’t
have to try hard
• When the social
and include more
• Include wide
variety of need and
• Pursuing goal – to
NEEDS AND MOTIVATION
“ A biological or psychological requirement; a state of deprivation that
motivates a person to take action towards a goal”
( Darley,Glucksberg & Kinchla,1991)
• Needs are seldom satisfied completely and perfectly; improvement always
• How do learners’ needs influence their motivation to learn?
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
High Needs for Achievement
• Need for achievement refers to an individual's desire for significant accomplishment,
mastering of skills, control, or high standards.
• People who strive for excellence in a field for sake of achieving ,not for some reward, are
considered to have high need of achievement.
• If achievement ,initiative, and competitiveness are encouraged and reinforced at home and
if parent let children solve problem without becoming irritated by the children’s initial
failure , children are more likely develop a high need of achievement
Low need for achievement
• Avoid challenges because fear of failure outweighs expectations of success
• Seek easy tasks which guarantee success or very difficult tasks in order to guarantee an
excuse for failure
To instill motivation:
• Place people in situation where they can succeed.
• Emphasize setting reasonable and achievable goals.
• Get people to take responsibility for their actions.
• Provide clear and constructive feedback on performance.
The Need for Self-Determination
• Self determination is the need to experience choice to have our own wishes
• When students experience self determination, they are intrinsically motivated
• Help students plan actions to accomplish self-selected goals
• Hold students accountable for the consequences of their choices
• Provide rationales for limits, rules, and constraints
• Self-Determination in the Classroom: associated with greater student interest and curiosity, sense of
competence, creativity, conceptual learning, and preference for challenge.
The Need for Social Support : Need for Relatedness ( Involvement & Autonomy)
• The need for relatedness is the desire to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with others
• Student who feels a sense of relatedness to administrator,teacher,parents and peers are more
emotionally in school (Furrer & Skinner,2003)
• 2 component in need for relatedness :
* INVOLVEMENT :- parent n teacher interested in their children activities
- Student feels sense of belonging, more interested in their class work
* AUTONOMY : - Parent and teacher encourage children to make their own choice
- Less pressure on their children
- Feel can act successfully on one’s own
ATTRIBUTION ,BELIEFS AND MOTIVATION
• Attribution theory deals with what people believe about why they succeed or fail at different
tasks and the effects on future behavior or learning.
Locus : Do students attribute performance to internal or external causes?
Stability :Do students attribute performance to stable or unstable causes?
Controllability :Do students attribute performance to causes they can control or
those beyond their control
• Maximize motivation by knowing what causes outcomes, knowing the cause is internal and
controllable, and knowing cause is amenable to change
Failure or Success ?
• People tend to attribute success to internal causes and failure to external causes (LOCUS)
• When student attributions for failure are stable and uncontrollable, students are unlikely to
change their behaviors in ways that might lead to future success (STABILITY & CONTROLABILITY )
When asked, people give four common and basic reasons for success or failure on specific tasks:
No Control Ability Luck
Weiner (1994) summarizes the sequences of motivation when failure is attributed to lack of
ability and ability is uncontrollable
Failure lack of ability uncontrollable not responsible shame performance decline in future
When failure attributed to lack of effort
Failure lack of effort controllable responsible guilt performance improves in future
What students think about learning/knowing and about themselves – their competence
and the causes for success and failure
Beliefs about Ability
Entity view : Intelligence is fixed, stable, and uncontrollable
Choose performance goal that protect their self-esteem
Eg : Student who hold an entity view of intelligent tend to set performance goals.
Incremental view : Intelligence is a set of skills that can be changed
Unstable but controllable
Hard work and persistence can pay off
Set performance goals to gauge progress
Beliefs about Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy is the extent or strength of one's belief in one's own ability to complete tasks
and reach goals.
• According to Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory (1986,1997)
Individuals make conscious decisions about their behavior.
The extent to which people believe that they have the capacity to execute a course of action
that is required to succeed is their self-efficacy, their self efficacy, motivates behavior.
Self-efficacy affects individual choice
Choose activities in which you will succeed and avoid those in which you believe you will fail.
Strong self-efficacy increases effort at the task.
Strong self-efficacy increases persistence.
Strong self-efficacy increases resilience.
Sources of strong self-efficacy
• Sources of strong self-efficacy:
Mastery Experiences Vicarious experiences Verbal Persuasion Physiological State
BUILDING SELF –EFFICACY IN SCHOOL
STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE SELF-EFFICACY
• Help students master basic skills
• Help students make noticeable progress
• Communicate confidence in students’ abilities
• Expose students to successful peers
• Performance in school and self-efficacy increased when students
Adopt short term goals
Are taught to use specific learning strategies
Receive rewards based on performance
PROMOTING INTRINSIC MOTIVATION THROUGH SELF-EFFICACY
• Provide competence promoting feedback
• Promote mastery on challenging tasks
• Promote self-comparison rather than social comparison
• Be sure errors occur within an overall context of success
A MODEL OF TEACHER EFFICACY
Sources of Efficacy
Analysis of the
ATTRIBUTIONS, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION &
Beliefs about Self - Worth
Focus on learning goals
Ability viewed as improvable
Goal is to avoid failure
Do not take risks
Claim not to care about their performance
Believe failures are due to low ability
Entity view of ability
• Emphasize that abilities are always
• Teach directly about the difference between
learning goals and performance goals
• Make the classroom a place where failure is
just diagnostic – failure provides feedback
• Encourage help-seeking and help-giving
INTEREST ,EMOTION ,CURIOSITY & ANXIETY
How do you feel about learning? Excited,bored,curious,fearful?
• Learning and information processing are influenced by emotion ( Miller, 2002)
• Student are more likely to pay attention to learn, and remember event ,images, and
reading that provoke emotional responses (Alexander & Murphy 1998) OR that are
related to their personal interests ( Renninger,Heidi & Krapp ,1992)
Interests is “the state of wanting to know or learn about something or someone”
There are 2 kind of interest ,and personal and situational
Personal Interest :
More endurance aspect of the person; like an interest in sport, art and etc
Situational Interest :
More short-lived aspect of the activity, text or material that catch student ‘s attention
Curiosity could be defined as a tendency to be interested in wide range area ( Pintrich, 2003)
Building on student’s interests and curiosity
• Relate content objectives to student experiences
• Identify student interests, hobbies, and extracurricular activities that can be incorporated
into class lessons and discussions
• Use humor, personal experiences, and anecdotes that show the human side of the
• Use original source material with interesting content or details
• Create surprise and stimulate curiosity
Coping with anxiety
“Stress can come from any event or thought that makes you feel frustrated, angry, or nervous.
Anxiety is a feeling of fear, unease, and worry. The source of these symptoms is not always known”
How does anxiety Interfere with Achievement?
• Highly anxious student evidently divide their attention between new material with
preoccupation how nervous they are feeling.
• Most of their attention is taken up by negative thought about performing poorly,
being criticized and feeling embarrassed
• Avoid situations in which highly anxious students will have to perform in front of large
• Make sure all instructions are clear. Uncertainty can lead to anxiety
• Avoid unnecessary time pressures
• Remove some of the pressures from major tests and exams
• Develop alternatives to written tests
LEARNING IN SCHOOL
MOTIVATION IN LEARNING AND TEACHING
How To Improve Motivation In School?
• Most educators agree that motivating students is one of the
critical tasks of teaching
• In order to learn student must be cognitively, emotionally,
and behaviorally engaged in productive class activities
• Students' motivation has a direct and powerful impact on
their social interactions and academic achievements
• Motivation affects performance
Necessary Condition in Classroom
Classroom must be organized & free from interruptions
Teacher must be patient , supportive and never embarrasses
student for making mistakes
Work must be challenging but reasonable,CANNOT be too easy
or difficult will focus on FINISHING not LEARNING
MOTIVATION IN LEARNING AND TEACHING
Can I do It ? Building Cinfidence and Positive Expectations
1. Begin works at student level’s and move in small steps
2. Make sure learning goals are clears, specific and possible to
3. Stress self comparison ,not comparison to other
4. Communication to student that academic ability is improvable
and specific to the task at hand
5. Model good problem solving.
Do I want To Do It? Seeing the Value of Learning
Attainment value: why learning a particular content or skill is
1. Tie class activities to student interest : Provides student with
choice based on their own interest
2. Arouse Curiosity : Point out puzzling discrepancies. Discussion
rather than giving straight answer
3. Make learning task fun
4. Make use of familiarity : Use variety and familiarity to
capitalize on student interests