The latest development networks and communications (Microsoft Word)


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The latest development networks and communications (Microsoft Word)

  1. 1. SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN RAJA LUMU LA3.S07.1 Describe the Latest Development Networks and Communications Name : Siti Ainiz Binti Bahari Class : 4 Iswara (2013) Subject : Information’s and Communication Technology (ICT) Teacher’s Name : Mr. Vayrevel
  2. 2. 1.0 Introduction A computer network is a system of interconnected computers and peripheral devices . For example , it may connect computers , printers , scanners , and cameras. Communications is about the transfer of information from a sender , across a distance to a receiver whilst computers communicate with digital signals . The older forms of communications technology such as telephones , and radios , use analog signals and others . 2.0 Mobile Computing 2.1 Definitions Mobile computing is a generic term describing one’s ability to use technology while moving as opposed to portable computers , which are only practical for use while deployed in a stationary configuration . Many types of mobile computers have been introduced since the 1990s including the : * Wearable Computer *Personal digital assistant / Enterprise digital assistant *Smartphone *Ultra-Mobile PC 2.2 Specification , services & frequencies of Mobile Computing Specification Mobile computing used to be exclusively a matter of dragging a laptop computer around ,* plus various adapters and other widgets . “Road warriors” have more choices now . Of course , USB thumb drives , also called USB flash drives , are probably the benchmark technology for mobile computing these days ; before you think about other methods , check if you can do it cheaper and easier with a thumb drive . Services Mobility services can be classified into three groups. First there are services designed to overcome common restrictions of mobile computing, which arise mainly from the slowness, insecurity and instability of wireless or analogous connection lines utilized by the mobile user. These services are called common mobility services (CMS). The second group of services handles the management and administration of mobile users moving around and connecting their portables to networks at different places. These mobility management services (MMS) include tasks such as the authentication of users, accounting and billing issues or profiling of the users’ habits. The tasks necessary to adapt certain existing applications to mobile usage are implemented by high level services, which are called special mobility services (SMS) . Special
  3. 3. mobility services adapt existing services to the mobile conditions. For example to allow remote database access over a wireless connection line one has to take special care of possible frequent connection losses especially in the context of the state of the database. Viewing services as distinct building blocks, we are able to sketch an architecture for a “mobility services enhanced system”. Frequencies Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs). Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones , laptops , PCs , printers , digital cameras and video game consoles over a secure , globally unlicensed short-range radio frequency . The Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group . Bluetooth technology relies on two things, a radio frequency technology and the protocol software enabling it to transmit data to other devices . Bluetooth-capable devices can transmit data to other devices not within the line of sight of the user . 3.0 Internet Technology and Services 3.1 VoIP Voice over internet protocol (VoIP) is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over IP networks such as the internet or other packetswitched networks . Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with VoIP are IP telephony , Internet telephony , voice over broadband (VoBB) , broadband telephony and broadband phone . Internet telephony refers to communications services-voice , facsimile , and
  4. 4. voicemessaging applications-that are transported via the Internet rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN) . The basic steps involved in originating an Internet telephone call are conversion of the analog voice signal to digital format and compression/translation of the signal into internet protocol (IP) packets for transmission over the internet ; the process is reversed at the receiving end . VoIP systems employ session control protocols to control the setup and tear-down of calls as well as audio codes which encode speech allowing transmission over an IP network as digital audio via an audio stream . Codec use is varied between different implementations of VoIP (and often a range of codes are used) ; some implementations rely on narrowband and compressed speech , while others support high fidelity stereo codes . 3.2 BLOG A blog is a type of website usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary , descriptions of events , or other material such as graphics or video . Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order . Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject ; others function as more personal online diaries . A typical blog combines text images and links to other blogs , Web pages and other media related to its topic . The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs . Most blogs are primarily textual , although some focus on art (artlog) , photographs (photoblog) , sketches (sketchblog) , videos (vlog) , music (MP3 Blog) and audio (podcasting) . Microblogging is another type of blogging , featuring very short posts .
  5. 5. 4.0 Types of Network 4.1 Personal Area Networking (PAN) A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one person . The devices may or may not belong to the person in question . The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters . PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication) , or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink) . Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB and FireWire a wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with network technologies such as IrDA , Bluetooth , UWB , Z-Wave and ZigBee . 4.2 Virtual Private Network (VPN) A Virtual Private Networks (VPN) utilizes public telecommunications networks to conduct private data communications . Most (VPN) implementations use the Internet as the public infrastructure and a variety of specialized protocols to support private communications through the Internet . A (VPN) provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organizations network . A virtual private network can be contrasted with an expensive system of owned or leased lines that can only be used by one organization . The goal of an VPN is to provide the organization with the same capabilities but at a much lower cost .
  6. 6. 4.3 Wireless LAN (WLAN) A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a wireless local area network that links two or more computers or devices using spread-spectrum or OFDM modulation technology based to enable communication between devices in a limited area . This gives users the mobility to move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network .
  7. 7. 4.4 WiMAX Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a communications technology that uses radio spectrum to transmit tens of megabits per second in bandwidth between digital devices such as laptop computers . Similar to WiFi , WiMAX brings with it the ability to transmit over far greater distances and to handle much more data . 5.0 Conclusion The digital world involving and the trends are changing , making the world faster ever before and technology more stable . Mobility is all about today’s world which took birth with the invention of the first pager in 1956 by the Japanese . New technologies are being implemented , tested and applied in mobile computing making us and the future another step closer . The internet is also getting better along the lines of the information age . Meanwhile types of network available for us is making computer networks and communications the new man’s best friend . The computer networks and communications are expanding rapidly each and every day making the sharing of information easier and faster . Mobile computing is now getting more high-tech by the day and now focused in small , medium and large businesses , and hence becoming a competitive industry in the global market . Mobile computing may be beneficial to the environment as less transportation will be utilized . This mobility aspect may be carried further in the people will interact via mobile stations , eliminating the need to venture outside pf the house . In conclusion , the future of mobile computing looks increasingly exciting with the emphasis on compact , small mobile computers that it may also be possible to have all the practicality of a mobile computer in the size of a hand held organizer or even smaller .The working lifestyle will change , with the majority of people working from home , rather than commuting .
  8. 8. 6.0 References 1. ICT Form 4 Notebook 2. http http http 072010 http http http