Poliomyelitis, literally meaning “gray spinal
It is a viral infection.
It is contagious usually spread from person
Only harmful to humans
Orthotic treatment in the context of
rehabilitation medicine is a frequently
applied intervention to promote mobility.
Orthoses should be used until no further
recovery is anticipated.
orthoses are given in stage of greatest
Appropriate orthotic appliances are
prescribed to prevent deformities due to
Static joint stability usually can be
controlled by orthoses
Dynamic joint instability eventually results
in a fixed deformity that can not controlled
No specific treatment.
Pt. either will or will not recover the muscle
power depend upon the severity of
Duties of orthopedic team are to prevent
deformities, to assist returning muscle power
by gradual exercises, and to reduce residual
disability in final stage by the provision of
appropriate appliances or by operations on
joints or muscles.
The upper limbs the following are commonly prescribed
To support a weakend spine
To check abdominal protrusion when the abdominal muscles
To hold the knee extended in case of severe quadriceps
Below knee brace:
To stabilize a flail ankle or foot
Ankle foot orthoses:
To hold the foot up when the Dorsiflexion muscles are
If the hip abduction power is poor (i.e., < 2),
the appliance will include a pelvic band
with a hip joint (hip-knee-ankle-foot
orthoses) to prevent the lurching gluteus
A knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) is an orthosis that
covers the knee, ankle and foot.
When the quadriceps power is 2 or below, the knee has
to be stabilized and hence a knee-ankle-foot orthoses
(full or above-knee calliper) is prescribed.
Motion at all three of these lower limb areas is affected
by a KAFO.
assisting motion in any or all of the 3 planes of motion
saggital, coronal, and axial.
A knee orthosis (KO) or knee brace is a
brace that extends above and below the
knee joint and is generally worn to support
or align the knee.
KO prevent flexion or extension instability
of the knee
An ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) is an orthosis or
brace (usually plastic) that supports the ankle
When the power of muscles controlling the hip
and knee are normal and the weakness is only
in the dorsiflexors or plantar flexors of the
ankle or invertors or evertors of the foot, the
patient is prescribed an ankle-foot orthoses
(below-knee orthoses or calliper).
AFOs are externally applied and intended
motion of the ankle
compensate for weakness
or correct deformities.
It is used to support weak limbs, or to
position a limb with contracted muscles
into a more normal position.
The Milwaukee brace, also known as a
cervico-thoraco-lumbo-sacral orthosis or
Milwaukee brace are use in 3 ways to treat
As a corrective apparatus
Hold the spine in position
A substitute for surgery
Is that of biomechanical back up to the
clinical team. From the point of view of the
person with polio, the Orthotist provides
These include insoles to persons’ shoes,
foot Orthoses, ankle-foot orthoses (AFO),
knee ankle foot orthoses (KAFO) (Short or
long callipers), and spinal jackets.
In some cases, orthopaedic the majority of
AFOs and KAFOs (callipers) are now made
to a cast, Footwear is also prescribed
Old style orthoses of sidebars andT-straps
are not so common anymore and use
These orthoses are normally lighter and fit
directly inside footwear.This often means
footwear does not have to be Adapted and
walking is made easier.
The Orthotist, when making orthoses,
considers skeletal alignment, joint integrity
and ease of walking