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Grammar book new azura


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Grammar book new azura

  1. 1. GRAMMAR BOOK Por Azura Cruickshank
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Subjunctive with Adjective Clause 2. Tú Commands 3. Nosotros Commands 4. Past Participles Used As Adjectives 5. Present Perfect 6. Past Perfect 7. Future Tense 8. Conditional Tense 9. Past Subjunctive
  3. 3. SUBJUNCTIVE WITH ADJECTIVE CLAUSE • Adjective clauses modify nouns or pronouns • subjunctive used to indicate that someone or something is indefinite. • The subjunctive is used in an adjective clause that refers to a person, place, thing, or idea • The indicative is used when the adjective clause refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that is certain
  4. 4. TÚ COMMANDS • Affirmative Tú Commands • Put in tú form and remove “–s” • Irregular Commands • - Di, Haz, Ve, Pon, Sal, Se, Ten Ven • Pronouns attach to the end of irregular affirmative commands • Accents are added: • Third from last • Fourth from last • Negative Tú Commands • Put in YO form, drop “–o”, switch the vowel, and add an s • Irregular Commands • Pronouns go before verb Tengas Vengas Digas/Des Vayas Sepas Hayas/Hagas Estes Seas
  5. 5. NOSOTROS COMMANDS • replace the vowel of the indicative word • when conjugating a reflexive verb into a nosotros command, it becomes a “mono” verb • Stem changers don’t change • Affirmative nosotros commands add pronouns to the end of the word and accents are places on the vowel that is changed • Negative nosotros commands place pronouns before the comand
  6. 6. PAST PARTICIPLES USE AS ADJECTIVES • “–ar” verbs form the past participle “– ado” and regular “–er” and “–ir” verbs form the past participle with “–ido” • The past participles of “–er” and “–ir” verbs that stems end in “–a”, “-e”, or “–o” accent mark on the “–I” of “–ido” Irregular Past Participles Abrir  Abierto Cubrir  Cubierto Decir  Dicho Hacer  Hecho Escribir  Escrito Describir  Descrito Morir  Muerto Poner  Puesto Resolver  Resuelto Romper  Roto Ver  Visto Volver  Vuelto
  7. 7. PRESENT PERFECT Haber Conjugation Yo - He Nosotr os - HemosTú - Has Ellos - HanÉl - Ha • perfect tense is used to describe recent past • use the auxillary verb haber to help infinitive verb • The infinitve verb is replace with the past participle as an adjective • Pronouns and other words go before haber Haber + -ar = ado + -er/ir = ido
  8. 8. PAST PERFECT • refers to something you had done in the past • It is formed the same way as present perfect but one exception • The haber verb is conjugated into the imperfect tense • The past perfect is often used with the word ya (already) Haber Conjugation Yo – Había Nosotros - Habíamos Tú – Habías Ellos - HabíanÉl - Había
  9. 9. FUTURE TENSE • Infinitive + ending = future • Endings used for all verbs including –ar, - er, and –ir Irregular Future Tense Infinitive Future Stem Decir Dir- Hacer Har- Poner Pondr- Salir Saldr- Tener Tendr- Valer Vald- Venir Vendr- Poder Podr- Querer Querr- Saber Sabr- Add -é -ás -á -emos -án
  10. 10. CONDITIONAL TENSE • The conditional tense expresses what you would do or what would happen under certain circumstances • The conditional endings are the same for all –ar, -er, and –ir verbs • Conditionals are formed by combining the infinitive form of the verb with the correct ending • Conditionals have same irregulars as future tenses Conditional Endings -ía -íamos -ías -ía -ían
  11. 11. PAST SUBJUNCTIVE • Also called “imperfect subjunctive” • the past subjunctive is formed with the ellos/ellas form of the preterite • Drop the “–ron” ending and add past subjunctive ending • Irregular preterite tenses keep their irregularity with past subjunctive Past Subjunctive -ra -ramos -ras -ran-ra