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Situational Method Engineering


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Situational method engineering represented as 4 level of method (meta)modeling activities that performed by ontologists and logicians, methodologists, method engineers, project managers.

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Situational Method Engineering

  1. 1. Situational method engineering PraxOS 0 . 8
  2. 2. Methods ( ways of work ) <ul><li>Synonyms : process frameworks , practices , disciplines, bodies of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Unit of work allocation/coordination / execution </li></ul><ul><li>Role ( also “position” – becoming « stuck » in performed role ) is defined by a method </li></ul><ul><li>Method – a unit of modeling/description ( thus - the way to discuss and teach activity ) </li></ul><ul><li>Have multiple levels : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems engineering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements engineering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use cases for functional requirements definition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Example: methods in management ( endeavour management : enterprise , program , project ) 140 organisational fashions and fads , 2003. Thomas H.Davenport, Laurence Prusak, &quot;What's the Big Idea?: Creating and Capitalizing in the Best Management Thinking&quot;
  4. 4. Implementation cycle of powerful methods <ul><li>Yesterday - 10 years / method *, </li></ul><ul><li>Today - 3 years / method , </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow… singularity </li></ul>* In the end method isn’t necessary gone. Methods are not fads!
  5. 5. Problems in method abundance? <ul><li>Methods are scarce ! Methods are used only indirectly ( they are unique for the situation , any generalization is just a « method knowledge »). </li></ul><ul><li>Methods are « non-weaveable » in concurrent use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-comparable in form ( monographs , handbooks , reference process frameworks , standards , bodies of knowledge, etc. ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-comparable in content (different ontologies) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-formality, non-completeness of current descriptions  no way for improvement or automation . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Situational method engineering ConcOrg method library ( typical guides for workers) Reference method library ( OPFRO, PraxOS, … -- « handbooks » ) <ul><li>Systems engineering ( general description ) </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>requirements engineering </li></ul><ul><li>project management </li></ul><ul><li>Project management (options ) </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li>PMBoK </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of constraints </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li>Make-to-order : project buffer management </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production : drum-buffer-rope </li></ul>ConcOrg situational method : Theory of constraints in make-to-order projects of type X systems, with project planning and control tool Y used Specific operations with real objects and documents in concrete time period Method adjustment Method enactment ConcOrg reference method N Метод N Метод N Method N ConcOrg reference method N ConcOrg reference method N
  7. 7. Situational method engineering and methodology Model representation ISO 15926, UML, OWL Methods (systems engineering , project management , ITIL, PMBoK, BABoK, MFESA, Theory of constraints…) Endeavor = process instance (life cycle, workflow) Metamodel = « element classes and relationships » in method modeling ( ISO 24744, SPEM, PraxOS Schema) method enactment М0 М1 M2 M3 methodologist method engineer ontologist , logician <ul><li>engineer </li></ul><ul><li>project manager </li></ul><ul><li>organizer </li></ul><ul><li>client </li></ul>Method generation knowledge situation
  8. 8. Methodologist job <ul><li>Standardization as main activity </li></ul><ul><li>Principal output : ( meta ) models ( schemas ) for formal method descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Major challenges : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of different views/viewpoints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption of dynamic planning in method implementation ( agile life cycle ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automation of method enactment </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Model = instrument ( to see invisible ) Where is throughput ?!
  10. 10. Two views of life cycle (pic .17 from ISO TR 19760:2007 ) In the standard « enterprise view » and « management view » are mixed up.
  11. 11. ( Meta ) model of method element : to provide at least 4 views/viewpoints Model knowledge ( schema , metamodel ) Method element Management ( project , resources) Engineering (process , roles ) Organizational ( agreements , actors - transactions ) Client/value (system/product) Project/workflow model System/product/facility model System and life cycle information model System and system life cycle (process/project) models are assembled from method elements System/product/plant model is dependant on methods used! Functional models Logical Models Physical Models Requirements Re. parameters
  12. 12. Method content vs. process/life cycle (SPEM 2.0) RUP (Rational Unified Process) MFESA (Method Framework for Engineering of System Architecture) t Activities = method content use
  13. 13. Method element Schema ( Metamodel ) STA-methodology (G.P.Schedrovitsky): Act of activity OPF (Open process framework): method element goal knowledge means A1 … An source materials product transformation Awareness display
  14. 14. Metamodel standards for methods Metamodel standard Definition of « activity » ISO 24774 , 15288 The activities are a list of actions that may be used to achieve the outcomes. Each activity may be further elaborated as a grouping of related lower level actions. Rather than describing the results of executing a process, activities describe a set of actions that might be undertaken to execute the process. ISO 24744 (ProcessKind) A process kind is a specific kind of process, characterized by the area of expertise in which it occurs. ProcessKind is a subclass of WorkUnitKind. SPEM 2 An Activity is a Work Breakdown Element and Work Definition that defines basic units of work within a Process as well as a Process itself. In other words, every Activity represents a Process in SPEM 2.0. It relates to Work Product Use instances via instances of the Process Parameter class and Role Use instances via Process Performer instances. BPMN 2 An Activity is work that is performed within a Business Process. An Activity can be atomic or non-atomic (compound). The types of Activities that are a part of a Process are: Task, Sub-Process, and Call Activity, which allows the inclusion of re-usable Tasks and Processes in the diagram. However, a Process is not a specific graphical object. Instead, it is a set of graphical objects. The following sections will focus on the graphical objects Sub-Process and Task. ISO 15926 A 15926-4 actual individual that brings about change by causing the event that marks the beginning, or the event that marks the ending of an individual. NOTE: Behavior is a term used to describe an activity either where there are preconditions and the activity is a response to those preconditions, e.g. reaction to touching a hot surface, or where the way an activity occurs is described by some property or function, e.g. fluid flow being described by the viscosity of the fluid. OPF the highest-level work unit consisting of a cohesive collection of tasks that are performed by one or more collaborating producers when producing a set of related work products or providing one or more related services.
  15. 15. ISO 24744 notation
  16. 16. BPMN 2.0 notation
  17. 17. Ontology is about reality, not names/labels Ontology answers question: « what is there in the world ?» From FutureModels presentation
  18. 18. Picture from FIATECH presentation Product/service catalog standards quagmire
  19. 19. Solution for models incompatibility : ISO 15926 ( life cycle data integration ) Integration ontology : reference data library ISO 15926-3 , 4 Method 1 model Method 2 model + library amendments rules ISO 15926-6 + notations of ontology representation ISO 15926-7,8 + computer application interoperability rules ISO 15926-9 Model integration Model interoperability categories ISO 15926-2 Ontologist, logician Methodologist Method engineer
  20. 20. Data model pyramid ISO15926 : Not only product/plant model, also project/method/practices/process/activities models Challenge : process/method ontology almost non-existent in RDL ISO 15926 !!! Douglas Lenat : « blue-collar philosophers » role , entity , individual General engineering concepts : connection, detail, flow ... 201 categories and concepts 10 ths. items : requirement , pump, heat exchanger ISO 15926-2 ISO 15926-4 Rules for addition ISO 15926- 7,8 100 ths . 1 ml . 10 ml .
  21. 21. Dynamic method (meta)modeling : method creation / change in real time <ul><li>Main question of each collaboration : « what we do next ?» </li></ul><ul><li>Development method trend : from Waterfall to Agile. </li></ul><ul><li>Agent approach in software engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling-in-lagre ( interactive modeling ) </li></ul><ul><li>Automation of enactment ( workflow generation) : orchestration and choreography </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge : metamodel changes when model instance already exist ( instantiated individuals need to be reclassified in updated metamodel ) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Situation variability (variety of systems , life cycle stages, tools) From ISO/IEC TR 24748-1 (draft)
  23. 23. Systems engineering : an attempt in a generic method description <ul><li>Organizational Project-Enabling Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life cycle model management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project portfolio management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resource management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder requirements definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project assessment and control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement </li></ul></ul></ul>Agreement Processes Acquisition Supply provides 25 recommended systems engineering (life cycle) processes ISO 15288 :2008 <ul><li>Processes are applied : </li></ul><ul><li>sequentially </li></ul><ul><li>recursively </li></ul><ul><li>iteratively </li></ul>(26 – Tailoring metaprocess)
  24. 24. Method description example : requirements engineering
  25. 25. Example: Method choice in Project planning Process management in manufacturing ( queue to « work station ») Traditional project management ( one multitasked worker ) Critical chain (TOC) (common time buffer for task group) Activity with 3 tasks Using data from Eli Schragenheim и Daniel P.Walsh
  26. 26. Software tools for situational method engineering ( method composers and modelers ) ISO 15288:2008 processes in Eclipse Process Framework Composer Difference between « method composers » and process/project management tools : integrated support of many views/viewpoints (according to method metamodel) – role, project, process, product, guidance, etc.
  27. 27. Method enactment <ul><li>Process instance – use of method elements by specific people, supported by tools (computers, paper sheets, facilities, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary planning </li></ul><ul><li>Project initiation ( resource allocation, work assingment ) </li></ul><ul><li>Before-enactment communication (knowledge management) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>training ( communicate method knowledge to people ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>automation ( communicate method knowledge to computers: “semantic models” ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamics/interactions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-modeling (up to re-metamodeling) when difficulties are met and obstacles arise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agile methodologies ( planning-on-the-fly ) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Reflection in process enactment: maturity levels 1. Method applied ad hoc , outcomes usually achieved 2. Method applied and described (modeled) , method model disscussed (reflected). 3. Method modeled and activities are defined by model (disciplined execution). 4. Method systematically reviewing in the cycle of continuous method improvement. Life cycle stages of situational method
  29. 29. Questions ? <ul><li>Anatoly Levenchuk </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Victor Agroskin </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>+7 (495) 7 48 5388 </li></ul>