Sounds

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the elements of language (sounds)

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Sounds

  1. 1. Teaching the Elements of Language A. SOUNDS (Phonology) Aileen Pacayra Page 1
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  3. 3. is "the study of sound pertaining to the system of language”. is "the study of sound pertaining to the act of speech." (Nikolai Trubetzkoy  in Grundzüge der Phonologie )  The ways in which languages use sounds or signs to construct meaning are studied in phonology.  The study of how humans produce and perceive vocal sounds is called phonetics. (Wikipedia) Page 3
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  7. 7. The Family of Consonant Consonant Sounds sounds can be classified according to three dimensions: 1.voicing (voiceless or voiced) 2.the place of articulation(where the sound is made) 3.the manner of articulation (how the sound is made) Page 7
  8. 8. Voicing A sound is voiced if the vocal chords vibrate, whereas a sound is voiceless if the vocal cords are not vibrating upon the production of sounds. Page 8
  9. 9. Place or Point of 1. BilaBial- two lips touching Articulation each other 2. laBio dental- lower lip touches the upper teeth 3. dental- tip of the tongue and the inner edge of the upper teeth 4. alveolar- tip of the tongue and hard palate Page 9
  10. 10. 5. Palatal- the tongue and hard palate 6. velar- dorsal tongue and soft palate 7. Glottal- throat passage Page 10
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  12. 12. Manner of Articulation 1. StoPS/PloSiveS- These are the sounds produced when the air stream is blocked completely before it is abruptly released. The sounds P,T,K,B,D,G, are the members of this family. 2. FricativeS- These are the sounds produced when the air stream is compressed and passes through a small opening creating friction. The sounds Page 12
  13. 13. F,V,S,Z,TH (voiced) and (voiceless), SH, ZH are members of this group. 3. aFFricateS- These are the sounds produced when a plosive is followed by a fricative. CH and J are the members of this group 4. naSalS- These are the sounds produced when the oral cavity is blocked, and so the air passes through the nose. N, M and NG are nasal sounds. Page 13
  14. 14. 5. liquid/lateral- Sounds are produced when air stream moves around the tongue in an obstructed manner. Sounds like L and R are examples. 6. GlideS- Sounds that are close to vowel sounds. Sounds like W and Y. Page 14
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  16. 16. Vowel Vowel sounds are produced with one’s mouth open. It is also a fact that all vowel sounds are voiced sounds. Vowel sounds can be classified according to the height of the tongue and jaw, and the way the mouth opens. Page 16
  17. 17. What You Need to Know for Vowels • FRONT/CENTRAL/BACK: These three refers to the position of the tongue from front to back of the mouth during the production of the sound. • HIGH/MID/LOW: This designation refers to whether the lips are rounded (O shape) or spread (no rounding) when the sound is being made. Page 17
  18. 18. •TENSE VS. LAX: Also important in describing vowel sounds are the designations TENSE and LAX, which refer to the relative tenseness of the vocal muscles. Page 18
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  20. 20. International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) • In order to represent the sounds of the world's languages in writing, linguists have developed the International Phonetic Alphabet, designed to represent all of the discrete sounds that are known to contribute to meaning in human languages. Page 20
  21. 21. Voiced Consonant Sounds IPA symbol Sound IPA symbol Sound /b/ b /ŋ/ ng /d/ d /l/ l /ð/ th /r/ r /g/ g /w/ w /z/ z /j/ y /ʒ / zh /dʒ / j /v/ v /m/ m /n/ n Page 21
  22. 22. Voiceless Consonant Sounds IPA symbol /s/ /ʃ / /θ/ /f/ /h/ /tʃ / /k/ /t/ /p/ Sound s sh th f h ch k t p Page 22
  23. 23. Short Vowels Schwa Sounds IPA symbol Sound IPA symbol Sound /I/ short i /ə/ unstressed syllable /3/ eh /ɚ / er /æ/ ae /ɑ / ah /ɔ / oh/”awe” /ʊ / uh /ʌ / stressed syllable Page 23
  24. 24. Long Vowel Sounds IPA symbol Sound Diphthongs IPA symbol Sound /i/ long i /aʊ / aw /u/ ooh /aɪ / ay /ɔɪ / oy /oʊ / ow /eɪ / ey Page 24
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  27. 27. Consonant IPA sound Voicing Place of Manner of Articulation Articulation s sh th th ch zh j ng y t Page 27
  28. 28. Consonant IPA sound s s Voicing Voiceless Place of Manner of Articulation Articulation Alveolar Fricative sh ʃ Voiceless Palatal Fricative th θ Voiceless Dental Fricative th ð Voiced Dental Fricative ch tʃ Voiceless Palatal affricative zh ʒ Voiced Palatal Fricative j dʒ Voiced Palatal Affricative ng ŋ Voiced Velar Nasal y j Voiced Palatal Glides t t Voiceless Alveolar Stops Page 28
  29. 29. Vowel Sound IPA Placement of the tongue from roof to floor of the mouth Position of the Tenseness of tongue from the vocal front to back muscles of the mouth Lip rounding 1.short e 2.eh 3.aah 4.ah 5.oh 6.ey 7.voiced schwa 8.unvoiced schwa 9.long e 10.ooh Page 29
  30. 30. Vowel Sound IPA Placement of the tongue from roof to floor of the mouth Position of the Tenseness of tongue from the vocal front to back muscles of the mouth Lip rounding 1.short e I High Front Lax Unrounded 2.eh ɛ Mid Front Lax Unrounded 3.aah æ Low Front Lax Unrounded 4.ah ɑ Low Back Lax Unrounded 5.oh ɔ Mid Back Lax Rounded 6.ey e Mid Front Tense Unrounded Mid Central Lax Rounded ə Mid Central Lax Rounded 9.long e i High Front Tense Unrounded 10.ooh u High Back Tense Rounded 7.voiced schwa 8.unvoiced schwa Page 30
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