ITALIAN ITALY
 
HISTORY <ul><li>Preferred term(s)- Italian or Italian American </li></ul><ul><li>is located on the  Italian Peninsula  in ...
HISTORY <ul><li>1497-the earliest Italian dated </li></ul><ul><li>  -Giovanni Caboto (John  CABOT ), an Italian navigator ...
HISTORY <ul><li>Over 75% of Italian immigrants to Canada have come from southern Italy, especially from the regions of Cal...
HISTOROCAL SITES
 
SPIRITUAL / RELIGIOUS  ORIENTATION <ul><li>For Italians, about 84 percent of them identify themselves as Roman Catholics, ...
Spiritual/religious Orientation
Spiritual Practices <ul><li>As Catholics, Italians celebrate 7 practices: </li></ul><ul><li>-Baptism  </li></ul><ul><li>-C...
Baptism
Communion
Reconciliation
Confirmation
Marriage
Family Relationships <ul><li>For Italians, family is extremely important. Families may vary in size by having </li></ul><u...
Family Relationships <ul><li>In the past, it was common for Italians to have arranged marriages where the women would give...
One Big Happy Family
HOLIDAYS
HOLIDAYS <ul><li>2009 </li></ul><ul><li>January 1, Thursday New Year's Day (A&I) </li></ul><ul><li>January 6, Tuesday Epip...
 
HOLIDAYS <ul><li>BUONA PASQUA </li></ul><ul><li>The History and Tradition Of Easter In Italy. We all know about Christmas,...
 
HOLIDAYS <ul><li>FESTIVAL OF THE REPUBLIC </li></ul><ul><li>June 2nd marks the day in 1946 when Italy voted in a referendu...
 
FOOD PRACTICE <ul><li>HISTORY AND FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>From the early Middle Ages (beginning around A.D. 500) to the lat...
 
FOOD PRACTICE <ul><li>FOODS OF THE ITALIANS </li></ul><ul><li>Although Italians are known throughout the world for pizza, ...
 
KNOWLEDGE ,BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS DENTAL HYGIENE AND ORAL HEALTH CARE <ul><li>Dental Hygiene and Oral Health Care...
 
BARRIER TO ORAL CARE <ul><li>known about the oral health status </li></ul><ul><li>Participants were aware of the major ora...
 
COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Oral Communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Greetings: Extend hand to shake. </li></ul><ul><li>    Acknowl...
COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Written communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy Assessment:  97% English. </li></ul><ul><li>Consen...
QUESTIONS? <ul><li>What does another preferred name for Italians? </li></ul><ul><li>How many waves have Italian immigrants...
 
<ul><li>www.bp3.blogger.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.pietrobeconcini.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.big-italy-map.co.uk/maps/italy...
 
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Italy

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  • Italy

    1. 1. ITALIAN ITALY
    2. 3. HISTORY <ul><li>Preferred term(s)- Italian or Italian American </li></ul><ul><li>is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe , and on the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea , Sicily and Sardinia . </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Canadians </li></ul><ul><li>Total population </li></ul><ul><li>1.45 million, 4.6% of Canada 's population </li></ul><ul><li>Regions with significant populations </li></ul><ul><li>Toronto :  467,000, Montreal :  260,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Languages </li></ul><ul><li>Predominantly English and/or French . Also Italian and/or Italian dialects . </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Predominantly Roman Catholic </li></ul>
    3. 4. HISTORY <ul><li>1497-the earliest Italian dated </li></ul><ul><li> -Giovanni Caboto (John CABOT ), an Italian navigator from Venice, explored and claimed for England the coasts of Newfoundland. </li></ul><ul><li>1524- there’s another Italian named </li></ul><ul><li> - Giovanni VERRAZZANO , explored part of Atlantic Canada for France. </li></ul><ul><li>1881 -almost 2000 people of Italian origin lived in Canada, particularly in Montréal and Toronto. </li></ul><ul><li>1897 -Mackenzie KING , then working as a journalist, described the first street entertainer who lived in Toronto in the 1880s. </li></ul><ul><li>-This early Italian immigrant, King wrote, had worn out 5 street pianos and earned an average of $15 daily in his first years in Toronto. Some of the wandering street musicians eventually settled down to teach music or to organize bands and orchestras. </li></ul>
    4. 5. HISTORY <ul><li>Over 75% of Italian immigrants to Canada have come from southern Italy, especially from the regions of Calabria, Abruzzi, Molise and Sicily, each with over 10% of the total. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that &quot;pulled&quot; Italians to Canada included rising expectations, the low cost of ocean travel, the example of successful relatives and friends in the New World, and the significantly higher wages there. </li></ul><ul><li>2006-60% of Italian Canadians lived in Ontario. </li></ul><ul><li>An Italian Canadian is a Canadian of Italian descent or heritage. As of the 2006 census, 1,445,335 Canadians (4.6% of total population) consider themselves to be of Italian origin, as well as 4,360 (0.01% of the total population) who considered themselves as Sicilian, according to the 2006 Canadian census. </li></ul>
    5. 6. HISTOROCAL SITES
    6. 8. SPIRITUAL / RELIGIOUS ORIENTATION <ul><li>For Italians, about 84 percent of them identify themselves as Roman Catholics, although only about one third of them are active members. Few may be Greek orthodox, Jehovah’s Witness, Pentecostal, and even Jewish. Over the years, attending church has weakened, but still remains strong with the older generation of Italians. As Catholics, Italians honour the death of Christ and resurrection when attending masses. They pray to God and many saints for different events and to protect them from harm or illness. Italians believe god to be good, but can also do harm to those who sin. </li></ul>
    7. 9. Spiritual/religious Orientation
    8. 10. Spiritual Practices <ul><li>As Catholics, Italians celebrate 7 practices: </li></ul><ul><li>-Baptism </li></ul><ul><li>-Communion </li></ul><ul><li>-Reconciliation </li></ul><ul><li>-Confirmation </li></ul><ul><li>-Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Holy orders and illness. </li></ul><ul><li>During mass, older Italians may pray the rosary for those who have passed or who are very ill. </li></ul>
    9. 11. Baptism
    10. 12. Communion
    11. 13. Reconciliation
    12. 14. Confirmation
    13. 15. Marriage
    14. 16. Family Relationships <ul><li>For Italians, family is extremely important. Families may vary in size by having </li></ul><ul><li>one or more relative living in the same household. In most Italian family it is a </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition for most newly marriage couples to live with the brides parents until they find a place of their on. </li></ul>
    15. 17. Family Relationships <ul><li>In the past, it was common for Italians to have arranged marriages where the women would give money or properties that she bought to her new husband (Dowry). Currently, marriage is like any where else. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Italians marry, but there are some who enter a clergy and it is custom that one child in the family does not marry in order to care for their aged parent. Divorce is not forbidden, but it is frowned upon. </li></ul><ul><li>It is common for the husband to be ruler and provider for the family, while the wife takes care of the children and household activities. </li></ul>
    16. 18. One Big Happy Family
    17. 19. HOLIDAYS
    18. 20. HOLIDAYS <ul><li>2009 </li></ul><ul><li>January 1, Thursday New Year's Day (A&I) </li></ul><ul><li>January 6, Tuesday Epiphany (I) </li></ul><ul><li>January 19, Third Monday Martin Luther King's Birthday (A) </li></ul><ul><li>February 16, Third Monday Presidents' Day (A) </li></ul><ul><li>April 13, Monday Easter Monday (I) </li></ul><ul><li>April 25, Saturday* Anniversary of Liberation (I) </li></ul><ul><li>May 1, Friday Labor Day (I) </li></ul><ul><li>May 25, Last Monday Memorial Day (A) </li></ul><ul><li>June 2, Tuesday Foundation of the Italian Republic (I) </li></ul><ul><li>June 24, Wednesday St. John's Day (I) (Florence only) </li></ul><ul><li>June 29, Monday* St. Peter and St. Paul's Day (I) (Rome only) </li></ul><ul><li>July 4, Saturday** Independence Day (A) </li></ul><ul><li>August 15, Saturday* Assumption Day (I) </li></ul><ul><li>September 7, First Monday Labor Day (A) </li></ul><ul><li>September 19, Saturday* St. Gennaro's Day (I) (Naples only) </li></ul><ul><li>October 12, Second Monday Columbus Day (A) </li></ul><ul><li>November 1, Sunday** All Saints' Day (I) </li></ul><ul><li>November 11, Wednesday Veterans' Day (A) </li></ul><ul><li>November 26, Fourth Thursday Thanksgiving Day (A) </li></ul><ul><li>December 7, Monday St. Ambrogio's Day (I) (Milan only) </li></ul><ul><li>December 8, Tuesday Feast of the Immaculate Conception (I) </li></ul><ul><li>December 25, Friday Christmas Day (A&I) </li></ul><ul><li>December 26, Saturday* St. Stephen's Day (I) </li></ul>
    19. 22. HOLIDAYS <ul><li>BUONA PASQUA </li></ul><ul><li>The History and Tradition Of Easter In Italy. We all know about Christmas, Easter, and New Years, but Italy celebrates other holidays as well. </li></ul><ul><li>EPIPHANY </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrated on the sixth of January, it originally began as a celebration of the birth of Jesus, and is still celebrated as that in the Eastern Orthodox Church. However, when the Catholic Church decided to celebrate Christmas on December 25th instead, the meaning of the holiday changed. Greek for &quot;miracle,&quot; Epiphany came to be known as a celebration of three important events that took place early in Jesus' life: his visit with the three magi, his baptism by John the Baptist, and the first miracle he performed at the wedding in Cana. </li></ul><ul><li>LIBERATION DAY </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrated on April 25th, it commemorates the liberation of Italy by Allied troops in the Second World War. The holiday is meant to honor all those who died during the war, from soldiers fighting overseas to civilian victims of Allied bombings and atrocities committed during Nazi Germany's bitter retreat from its former ally's territory. The lives of those who served as partisans in the Italian Resistance are especially honored. </li></ul><ul><li>MAY DAY </li></ul><ul><li>May 1st is Labor Day for most of the world. In Italy, it is not just a workers holiday, but a day for political parties of the left to hit the streets and protest their various causes. The atmosphere is usually festive, like one big street fair, however protests can sometimes get carried away and become a little too rowdy. </li></ul>
    20. 24. HOLIDAYS <ul><li>FESTIVAL OF THE REPUBLIC </li></ul><ul><li>June 2nd marks the day in 1946 when Italy voted in a referendum to abolish the monarchy and become a republic. Support for the monarchy had plunged because the king of Italy had supported Mussolini. So hostile was the public, that the royal family was exiled from Italy forever as punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>FERRAGOSTO </li></ul><ul><li>Next to Christmas, Easter, and New Years, Ferragosto is one of the most celebrated holidays in Italy. Celebrated on the fifteenth of August, it celebrates the rise of Mary up to heaven to join her son Jesus, taking her place by his side to look after those of us remaining here on Earth. It is a day of great festivities with celebrations in the streets and prayers to the Virgin Mary for thanks and support. All of Italy shuts down to celebrate Ferragosto. </li></ul><ul><li>ALL SAINTS DAY </li></ul><ul><li>The festival of All Saints takes place on November 2nd. It is celebrated in honor of all the Catholic saints and martyrs, known and unknown. It is also a time to reflect on those who have passed in general, a Memorial Day of sorts. </li></ul><ul><li>IMMACULATE CONCEPTION </li></ul><ul><li>The Feast of the Immaculate Conception on December 8th is generally a Holy Day of Obligation. The faithful are required to attend Mass, where they commemorate when Mary was graced by God to lead a life completely free of sin. </li></ul><ul><li>FEAST OF ST. STEPHEN </li></ul><ul><li>The Feast of St. Stephen is celebrated on December 26th, the day after Christmas. It is part of the Twelve Days of Christmas, and marks the day of St. Stephen, the first martyr for the newborn king. </li></ul>
    21. 26. FOOD PRACTICE <ul><li>HISTORY AND FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>From the early Middle Ages (beginning around A.D. 500) to the late 1800s, Italy consisted of separate republics, each with different culinary (cooking) customs. These varying cooking practices, which were passed down from generation to generation, contributed to the diversity of Italian cuisine. Italy's neighboring countries, including France, Austria, and Yugoslavia, also </li></ul><ul><li>contributed to differences in the country's cuisine. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy changed in many ways when the economy flourished following World War II (1939–45). During this time, farming was modernized and new technologies and farming systems were introduced. Various culinary practices throughout the country's regions began to be combined after people started migrating from the countryside to the cities. Many southern Italians traveled to the north at this time, introducing pizza to northern Italians. Those from the north introduced risotto (a rice dish) and polenta (a simple, cornmeal dish) to the south. Fast foods, mostly introduced from the United States, have brought more culinary diversity to Italy. However, pride in the culture of one's region, or companilismo, extends to the food of the locality, and regional cooking styles are celebrated throughout the country. </li></ul>
    22. 28. FOOD PRACTICE <ul><li>FOODS OF THE ITALIANS </li></ul><ul><li>Although Italians are known throughout the world for pizza, pasta, and tomato sauce, the national diet of Italy has traditionally differed greatly by region. Prior to the blending of cooking practices among different regions, it was possible to distinguish Italian cooking simply by the type of cooking fat used: butter was used in the north, pork fat in the center of the country, and olive oil in the south. Staple dishes in the north were rice and polenta, and pasta was most popular throughout the south. During the last decades of the twentieth century (1980s and 1990s), however, pasta and pizza (another traditional southern food) became popular in the north of Italy. Pasta is more likely to be served with a white cheese sauce in the north and a tomato-based sauce in the south. </li></ul><ul><li>Italians are known for their use of herbs in cooking, especially oregano, basil, thyme, parsley, rosemary, and sage. Cheese also plays an important role in Italian cuisine. There are more than 400 types of cheese made in Italy, with Parmesan, mozzarella, and asiago among the best known worldwide. Prosciutto ham, the most popular ingredient of the Italian antipasto (first course) was first made in Parma, a city that also gave its name to Parmesan cheese. </li></ul>
    23. 30. KNOWLEDGE ,BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS DENTAL HYGIENE AND ORAL HEALTH CARE <ul><li>Dental Hygiene and Oral Health Care </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Hygienists work under direct supervision of a dentist. Most are employed in private practices. The working week is approximately 40 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Country Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Total Population 56,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Dental Hygienists: Male/Female 1,400/50 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Dentists 23,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Dental Hygiene Schools/Students per year 23/200 </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing Dental Hygienists: Full Time/Part Time 900/500 </li></ul><ul><li>Dental Hygienists in Private Sector/Public Sector almost all/6 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Dental Hygienists practicing as clinicians almost all </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>One final note, dental health care in Italy tends to be very pricey and the majority of dental services are not covered by National Health Services, therefore Italians wait until they have serious problems before making an appointment. </li></ul>
    24. 32. BARRIER TO ORAL CARE <ul><li>known about the oral health status </li></ul><ul><li>Participants were aware of the major oral diseases and treatments available </li></ul><ul><li>they knew of the need for periodic dental check-ups, there were barriers which interfered with seeking check-ups.  </li></ul><ul><li>BUT!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Participants also held a number of false beliefs, and strong negative attitudes towards dentistry. Conclusions:  If programs are to increase the use of oral health services, specific barriers, myths, false beliefs and negative attitudes must be addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO </li></ul><ul><li>Italian participants most often identified cost, length of waiting lists and language barriers </li></ul>
    25. 34. COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Oral Communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Greetings: Extend hand to shake. </li></ul><ul><li> Acknowledge elderly first formally with titles and surnames. </li></ul><ul><li> Younger generation may use first names but address them formally just in case. </li></ul><ul><li>Tone of Voice: Conversations among families may be loud. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct or Indirect style of speech: Some may need time time to get used to the surroundings, so clinicians should be patient and give small doses of infoemation at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    26. 35. COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Written communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy Assessment: 97% English. </li></ul><ul><li>Consents: older generation might not know English so well so might need interpreter. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal Communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Contact: Direct eye contact conveys sincerity and interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Space: Italians sit very close to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Use and Meaning of Silence: Sit quietly with sick person. </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures: Often use gestures for emphasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Openness in Expressing Emotions: They are open with their families, but not with strangers. May perceive healthcare providers who hold in their emotions as cold and uncaring. </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy: Do not share family problems with outsiders. </li></ul><ul><li>Touch: Frequently touch each other when talking. Clinicians should use appropriate forms of touch after asking permission. </li></ul>
    27. 36. QUESTIONS? <ul><li>What does another preferred name for Italians? </li></ul><ul><li>How many waves have Italian immigrants faced? </li></ul><ul><li>What mostly are the religion of Italians? </li></ul><ul><li>Name 2 foods of Italians? </li></ul><ul><li>What culture/ ethnic group are we presenting? </li></ul>
    28. 38. <ul><li>www.bp3.blogger.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.pietrobeconcini.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.big-italy-map.co.uk/maps/italy%20400.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>www.moonrisebaywine.com/images/HangingGrapes.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>www.imagecache2.allposters.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.farm2.static.flickr.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.binx101.files.wordpress.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.instatravel.org/images/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.freefoto.com/images </li></ul><ul><li>www.italianvisits.com/images/veneto-im/venice </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.lifeinitaly.com/potpourri/fun-facts.asp </li></ul><ul><li>www.gourmatrade.com/img/olives.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>www.imagecache2.allposters.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.claralieu.files.wordpress.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.creativeworkshop.net </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ifdh.org/workabroad/italy.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.expatsinitaly.com/health/dentists.htm l </li></ul><ul><li>http://lib.bioinfo.pl/auth:Calache,H </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0004079 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.athabascau.ca/cll/research/hisitcan.htm </li></ul>REFERRENCE

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