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Hse principles and practises [compatibility mode]


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the present describes basic principals behind health, safety and environment in workplace and also describe best practices regarding HSE.

Published in: Health & Medicine

Hse principles and practises [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. HSE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTISES PREPARED BY: ALI IRFAN KHAWAJA, COUNTRY DIRECTOR, STAREGISTER PAKISTAN QMS, FSMS, EMS and OHSAS Lead Auditor CIPM (AAPM), Certified Trainer (PRM/AAPM), IQF Approved Six Sigma Trainer, NPO Approved Trainer, PMQA Assessor, linkedin: email: /
  3. 3. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN Health, Safety & Environment WHAT IS HSE H S E Health (Occupational) Prevention of occupational sickness Safety Prevention of Accidents / Injuries Environment Protection of Environment Every minute there are: 2 Occupational Fatalities 475 Occupational Injuries 300 Occupational Diseases
  4. 4. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN Health, Safety & Environment WHY HSE Legislative Requirements Competitive Business Environment Image Building Reduction in Downtime Importance of HSE Certification Financial Losses from Business Interruptions
  5. 5. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HIDDEN COSTS OF ACCIDENTS Accident Investigation Payments for non productive time (injured persons) Payments for non productive time (witnesses, First-aiders investors, clearing up etc.) Replacement labour (probably less effective) Training for replacement labour Business interruption/disruption Loss of reputation Damage repair Replacement plant Compensation payments Legal costs and fees Insurance
  6. 6. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN BENEFITS OF GOOD HEALTH AND SAFETY PRACTICE Increased levels of compliance with rules and procedures Improved production Improved staff morale Improved company reputation Reduced accidents Reduced ill health Reduced damage to equipment Reduced absenteeism Reduced staff turnover
  7. 7. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN Successful Management systems 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Policy: health and safety aims of the organization, health and safety objectives and management commitment Organizing: clear roles and responsibilities, competence, commitment and control, co-operation,communication Planning and Implementation: identify hazards, assess risks, and decide how risks can be eliminated or controlled. sets standards against which performance can be mean surd Measuring performance: used as a means of determining the extent to which health and safety policy and objectives are being implemented and should be both reactive and proactive Reviewing: analyzing data gathered through monitoring to see whether performance is adequate Audit: Systematic critical examination of each stage of an organization’s management systems and procedures
  9. 9. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PURPOSE OF A SAFETY POLICY Set out the employer’s/management commitment to safety Set out the organization and arrangements for controlling work related hazards Protect people from injury and occupation ill health Comply with legal requirements and avoid prosecution Manage health and safety on a cost-effective Basis
  10. 10. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN TYPES OF TARGETS Reduced/zero accidents Zero prosecutions Reduced sickness absence Reduction in compensation claims Improve reporting of near misses Improve reporting of minor accidents Improve audit scores
  11. 11. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN INEFECTIVE SAFETY POLI CIES a. No commitment or leadership b. No annual objectives c. Health and safety not given enough priority d. Insufficient resources provided e. Personnel do not understand the aims f. Too much emphasis on employee responsibility g. No measurement of performance h. Management unaware of their role i. No training of management in their responsibilities
  13. 13. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN INDICATORS OF POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE CULTURE Attitude Morale Accidents Absenteeism/sickness rate Staff turnover Complaints about working condition
  14. 14. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN FACTORS THAT CAN CAUSE THE CULTURE TO DECLINE Lack of effective communication Perception of growing blame culture Lack of leadership and commitment Lack of monitoring Failure to implement remedial action
  15. 15. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HOW SAFETY CULTURE CAN BE IMPROVED Senior management commitment Ownership of health and safety at every level Effective communication and consultation Training for all levels of employee Shared perception of risks BENEFITS A POSITIVE CULTURE Increased levels of compliance with rules and procedures Improves production Improved staff morale
  16. 16. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRACTICAL MEASURES TO IMPROVE HEALTH AND SAFETY Involve employees investigations, in risk assessments, accident The development of safety systems and procedures, Encouraging hazard-spotting and the reporting of defects, Setting up suggestion schemes, Organizing training courses and information programs, Supporting active involvement in safety committee meetings, Accompanied by employees on safety tours & inspections, Giving employees workers. responsibilities for mentoring young
  17. 17. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PERSONAL FACTORS CAUSING GREATER RISK OF HARM Poor attitude to work Low motivation Physical capabilities Poor perception of risk
  18. 18. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WHAT MOTIVATES PEOPLE Incentives Recognition Job satisfaction Personal achievement Team spirit Peer approval Realistic goals Committed management/involvement in decisions Safe environment Threat of discipline
  19. 19. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN EMPLOYERS CAN MOTIVATE THEIR WORKFORCE BY: The recognition of good health & safety performance Disciplining employees who choose to ignore safe working procedures Involving employees in carrying out risk assessments etc. Demonstrating a high level of management commitment; Ensuring a good working environment Providing training & ensuring good communication Setting a good example Realistic goals
  20. 20. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WHY PEOPLE FAIL TO COMPLY WITH SAFETY PROCEDURES Lack of motivation Unrealistic working procedures Lack of management commitment Over-familiarization Repetitive work leading to boredom Peer group pressure Inadequate supervision Fatigue and stress Lack of information, training and consultation Job insecurity
  21. 21. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HUMAN ERROR CAUSES: Slips Lapses of attention Mistaken actions Misperceptions Mistaken priorities Willfulness Inadequate information Violations
  22. 22. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN REDUCING HUMAN ERROR: Skilled competent workers Well motivated employees Clear roles and lines of responsibility Adequate levels of supervisions Drug and alcohol prevention policies Good environmental condition e.g. lighting, noise etc. Avoiding monotonous work Breaks to avoid fatigue
  23. 23. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WHY HAZARDS ARE UNDERESTIMATED Over familiarity and complacency Lack of instruction, information and training Lack of experience The fact that some hazards may be invisible and/or intangible Sensory impairment Involvement in routine, repetitive tasks can lead to lack of attention Hazard: Something with the potential to cause harm Risk: Likelihood that harms will occur and the severity of the harm
  24. 24. Risk Assessment
  25. 25. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HAZARD Something with the potential to cause harm RISK Likelihood that harm will occur and the severity of the harm
  26. 26. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN EXAMPLES OF HAZARDS Rotating Machinery Forklift Trucks Raised Object Raised Object Traffic Working at Height Chemicals
  27. 27. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WHAT IS A CONSEQUENCE An event or chain of events that result from the release of a hazard Resulting from loss of control of the hazard
  28. 28. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN EXAMPLES OF CONSEQUENCE Minor Injury Lost Time Legal Action Fire Fall in Share Price Serious Injury Death Explosion
  29. 29. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SNGPL WHAT IS RISK? Risk has two parts The likelihood that a hazard will affect us The severity of its consequences if it does
  30. 30. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SUITABLITY OF RISK ASSESSMENT Be proportionate to the level of risk Ensure that all aspects of work activity are covered Take account of the way the work is organized Identify the significant hazards and risks Evaluate the risks Identify control measures Enable priorities to be set Residual risk low
  31. 31. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN COMPETENCE OF RISK ASSESSOR Experience and training in risk assessment techniques Knowledge of process or activity Technical knowledge of the plant or equipment Good communication and report writing skills Ability to interpret legislation and guidance Possess right attitude Knows limitation
  32. 32. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN FIVE STEPS TO RISK ASSESSMENT Identify the hazards Decide who might be harmed and how Evaluate the risks and the existing precautions Records the findings Review the assessment and revise if necessary
  33. 33. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN IDENTIFYING HAZARDS Task observation Accident, ill-health or near miss data Workplace inspections Job safety analysis Legal standards
  34. 34. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HIERARCHY OF CONTROL Eliminate Reduce Isolate Control PPE Discipline
  35. 35. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WHEN ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE REVIEWED After an accident/incident New equipment Changes to equipment, plant, process Changes in personnel Changes in legislation Result of monitoring or audit Action by enforcing authority New information becomes available
  36. 36. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WHY YOUNG PERSONS AT RISK Lack of experience and/or training Body not fully developed More likely to take risks Respond to peer group pressure Be over enthusiastic
  37. 37. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN RISKS TO DISABLED WORKERS Reduced mobility for access and egress Ability to access welfare facilities Reduced sensory ability e.g. speech, hearing or eyesight Reduced ability to lift, carry or move objects Ergonomic hazards
  38. 38. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN TECHNIQUES OF HAZARD IDENTIFICATION HAZID HAZOP ‘What If’ Analysis Structured Brainstorming Hazard Identification & Checklists FMEA
  39. 39. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HAZARD IDENTIFICATION (HAZID) A HAZID study is carried out by a team of competent engineers from a mixture of disciplines and is led by a person, the HAZID Leader who is experienced in the HAZID technique. Hazard Checklists for the areas to be considered are used to assist the process. Where it is agreed that a hazard exists, it is considered and all possible means of either eliminating it or controlling the risk and/or the necessity for further study are noted on a HAZID worksheet. Actions are assigned to either discipline groups or individuals to ensure the mitigating control, or further study is completed.
  40. 40. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HAZID Effect driven internal or external cause potential for any number of simultaneous failures Lateral thought process able to identify low likelihood events major hazard screening pre-supposes that a failure could occur Solution Orientated
  41. 41. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HAZID PROCESS Assemble workshop team Use Hazard Checklist to identify potential HSE hazards Record all hazards, sources & scenarios Use Risk Assessment Matrix to assess risk Record consequences & worst-case potential risk Identify all Major Accident Hazards (MAHs) Assess MAHs in detail Identify risk control and mitigation Identify any remedial actions Record risk control and mitigation Hazard Register Rank all remedial actions and assign to relevant person
  42. 42. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HAZOP PROCESS Select line/node Select guideword and deviation Is deviation possible? Assess consequence of deviation Record all consequences Report: Management summary Team members HAZOP Record Sheets HAZOP Action Sheets Marked-up P&IDs Identify controls & safeguards to prevent or mitigate consequence Record all controls & safeguards Identify any remedial actions Rank all remedial actions and assign to relevant person
  43. 43. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HAZOP PROCESS Four main questions asked: What is the intention of system being examined? Is there potential to deviate from this intention? What are the causes of the deviation What are the consequences of the deviation Use guidewords to ensure all process parameters and deviations are systematically examined
  44. 44. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HAZOP–Basic Guideword Matrix No More/High Low/Less Reverse X X X X Pressure X X Temperature X X Level X X Flow Other common HAZOP guidewords include: Composition Contamination/impurities Viscosity Relief/vent Maintenance Instrumentation/Control Sampling Corrosion/erosion Service failure Etc.
  45. 45. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HAZID vs. HAZOP Systematic and structured review of system Design. Systematic and structured review of HSE risks for an operation, activity or project. Utilises a checklist approach. Assesses risk associated with hazards identified. Does not require Process & Instrumentation Diagrams HAZID HAZOP Utilises a guideword / Deviation approach. Does not typically assess risk Requires Process & Instrumentation Diagrams They are complimentary approaches
  46. 46. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN RISK ANALYSIS A process consisting of three components: risk assessment risk management risk communication
  47. 47. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN TYPES OF HAZARDS 1) Ergonomic Hazards 2) Mechanical Hazards 3) Toxic Hazards 4) Explosion Hazards 5) Electrical Hazards 6) Chemical Hazards
  48. 48. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN TYPES OF HAZARDS 7) Fire Hazards 8) Pneumatic Hazards 9) Falling Hazards 10) Noise Hazards 11) Vibration Hazards 12) Biological Hazards 13) Radiation Hazards
  49. 49. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN RISK ASSESSMENT Risk Analysis Hazard Identification Risk Estimation Risk Evaluation
  50. 50. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN RISK ASSESSMENT The process of establishing information regarding acceptable levels of a risk and/or levels of risk for an individual, group, society, or the environment. (OR) Overall process of estimating the magnitude of risk and deciding whether or not the risk is tolerable. Before undertaking any task, always identify the hazards and assess the risks. Then implement the measures required to remove or minimise the risk before starting work.
  51. 51. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN FORMAL RISK ASSESSMENT Identification Risks categorized as affecting Confidentiality, Integrity, or availability Prioritization Risks are prioritized by their impact, and probability
  52. 52. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN FORMAL RISK ASSESSMENT Controls Controls are identified and recommended based on the risks identified. Controls are prioritized based on cost, priority, and capability to implement. Report A report is prepared by the facilitator and approved by the team.
  53. 53. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN OVERALL RATING OF RISK The overall risk is determined as per below mentioned formula: Risk = Likelihood X Effect on health R=LxH Risk rating 9 and above should be considered un-tolerable risk and needs to be controlled.
  54. 54. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN OVERALL RATING OF RISK A casual definition of Risk is Risk = P * S Where P is the probability of occurrence & S is the severity of an event Risk = ¦{ hazard, exposure, safeguard}
  55. 55. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN OVERALL RATING OF RISK This will help us in answering: -- How likely is an event to occur? -- What likely are the effect (consequences)? Risk = frequency * consequence
  56. 56. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN EXAMPLE If we can’t take away the Hazard we shall have to reduce the risk i.e. Reduce the frequency and/or reduce the consequence For this we need to first Estimate the frequency and/or estimate the consequence EXAMPLE: 1 Risk on a Cricket Field Sohaib Akhtar is the bowler : He is the Hazard You are the batsman : You are at risk Frequency = 6 times per over. Consequence = bruises! Risk = 6 X bruises! Risk reduction : Limit bounces to 2 per hr. Wear more pads Risk = 2 X small bruises!
  57. 57. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES CHANGE ANALYSIS This technique emphasizes change to correct the problem. Examination of deviations from the norm are scrutinized. Consider all problems to result from some unanticipated change. Analyze the changes to determine its cause.
  58. 58. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS RISKS Routine Slips, trips, falls Hazardous substances Identify Hazards and Effects Coarse Screening Assess Risk Significant Plant and machinery Noise Further Screening Judgement Standard Competences Procedures Responsibilities Performance Measurement Spills Major Fires and explosions Major integrity failures Detailed Analysis
  59. 59. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN RECORD THE FINDINGS Site / Area / Department: Activity # SiteOperation /Activity Equipment Hazard Y/N Safety & Health Hazard Potential Health & Safety Impact L H R Potential Causes of Hazards Current Control Preventive Measure Suggested
  61. 61. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PREVENTION Avoid the risk e.g. eliminate the hazard or task Evaluate risks which cannot be avoided Combat risks at source Adapt the work to the individual Adapt to technical progress Replace the dangerous by the less dangerous Develop a coherent prevention policy Give collective measures priority over individual measure
  62. 62. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PERMIT-TO-WORK A formal written procedure requiring written conformation that certain actions have been carried out to eliminate or control risks before a specific high risk activity is carried out.
  63. 63. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN OPERTION OF PERMIT-TO-WORK Identify the task (where and when) Identify the hazards List the precautions to eliminate or reduce the hazards Additional precautions Time limits Issue by competent person Receipt by person in charge of work Completion Cancellation
  64. 64. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CONFINED SPACE Any space where there is a specified risk of serious injury from hazardous substances or conditions with in the space.
  65. 65. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WHAT ARE THE HAZARDS IN A CONFINED SPACE Fire or explosion Loss of consciousness due to increased body temperature Loss of consciousness due to asphyxiation Drowning Asphyxiation due to free flowing solids Confined space excavation, sewers, silos, tanks, vats
  66. 66. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRECAUTIONS FOR WORKING IN A CONFINED SPACE Permit-to-work Competent staff Appoint a supervisor Isolate Ensure suitable size of entry Gas purging Ventilation Regular testing of the atmosphere Special tools and lighting PPE Communications Limit working time Emergency procedures
  67. 67. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) Benefits of people Often low cost Can be used as short term measure Portable for worker away from base Disposable PPE reduces risk of infection
  68. 68. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WHY PPE USED AS LAST RESORT Does not eliminate the hazards Does not reduce the hazard Only protects the wearer Always fail to danger May introduce new hazards Relies on worker to use it May not be comfortable Worn for only part of task of shift Wrong size Used when damaged Not properly maintained Management may not enforce wearing
  69. 69. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SELECTION OF PEE What are the hazards Type of equipment Made to suitable standards Comfort Compatibility Storage Training Cost
  70. 70. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN FACTORS AFFCTIVING THE WEARING OF PPE Fit Health of worker Period of use Comfort Maintenance Training Interference Management commitment Peer pressure
  71. 71. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRECUATIONS FOR LONE WORKERS Information on hazards Training to deal with hazards Regular contact Supervisors regularly visiting Automatic warning devices Check the worker has returned home PPE Emergency action if worker becomes ill
  73. 73. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN THE REASONS FOR MONITORING Identify substandard H & S practices Identify trends Compare actual performance against targets To benchmark Identify use and effectiveness of control measures Make decisions on suitable remedial measure Set priorities and establish realistic timescales Assess compliance with legal requirements Provide information to Board, committees etc.
  74. 74. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN REACTIVE MONITORING Accidents Incidents Ill-health statistics Near misses Dangerous occurrences Complaints by workforce Enforcement action Prosecutions Civil claims
  75. 75. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SAFETY AUDITS A safety audit is a thorough, critical examination of an organization’s safety management systems & procedures. It is normally a lengthy process carried out by trained auditor, often someone from outside the organization. It is a structured way of assessing the H&S performance of an organization by supplying answers to a series of questions & often involves a scoring system such that improvements can be made.
  76. 76. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN DOCUMENTS LOOKED AT DURING AUDITS INCLUDE: Safety policy Risk assessment Procedures Safety monitoring procedures Maintenance records Accident and incident reports Health surveillance records Safety committee minutes etc. Training records Statutory inspections Previous audit reports
  77. 77. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WORKPLACE INSPECTIONS A safety inspection involves the straightforward observation of a workplace and/or the activities or equipment within it. A safety inspection, usually carried out by a manager or employee representative and often aided by the use of a checklist, may be carried out routinely and has the aim of identifying hazards and assessing the use and effectiveness of control measures.
  78. 78. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN LIMITATIONS OF INSPECTIONS Some hazards are not visible Some hazards not always present Unsafe practices not seen
  79. 79. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PEOPLE WHO CARRY OUT INSPECTIONS Managers Supervisors Health and Safety advisors Employee safety representatives Enforcement agencies
  80. 80. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN INSPECTION CHECKLIST Condition of processes and plant Contractors Electrical Environmental conditions Fire protection First aid Hand held tools Hazardous substances Housekeeping/cleanliness Lifting equipment Manual handling Machinery guarding Noise etc.
  81. 81. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN STRENGTHS OF CHECKLISTS Enable prior preparation and planning so inspection is more structured and systematic Reduces the chances of important areas or issues being overlooked Provides an immediate record of findings Ensures consistent approach Provides easy method of comparison and audit
  82. 82. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WEAKNESSES OF CHECKLISTS May lead to blinkered approach meaning significant risks might be missed May not be reviewed or updated to take account of changes in work processes etc. Become routine with no follow up questions Too objectives and restrictive, no scope for peripheral issues Procedure subject to human error or abuse
  84. 84. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN ACCIDENT DEFINITION An accident is an unplanned/unpremeditated event caused by unsafe acts or conditions which results in a loss.
  85. 85. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN NEAR MISS (INCIDENT) A near miss is an unplanned/unpremeditated event that has the potential to cause injury to people or damage to property. IMMEDIATE / DIRECT CAUSES The immediate/direct cause is the unsafe act or condition that results in an accident or incident.
  86. 86. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN ROOT / UNDERLYING CAUSES The Root (Underlying) cause is the failure of procedure / management systems that have resulted in the unsafe act or condition.
  87. 87. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRINCIPLE CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS Attitude Unsafe acts Unsafe conditions
  88. 88. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN BENEFITS OF COLLECTING NEAR MISS DATA To identify underlying causes which may allow preventative action to be taken before something more serious occurs Gives message to workforce that all failures are taken seriously, not just those leading to injury Generally accepted that near misses greatly outnumber accidents and can therefore produce more data from which a greater understanding of the deficiencies in management systems can be identified and rectified
  89. 89. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN THE AIM OF ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION IS: To determine cause to prevent a recurrence Identify weaknesses in management systems Identify weaknesses in risk assessment procedure Demonstrate management commitment To comply with legal requirements To provide information for any subsequent criminal/civil action Provide information to insurance company
  90. 90. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN IMMEDIATE AND LONGER TERM ACTION AFTER AN ACCIDENT First aid for injury party Calling medical assistance if necessary Isolation of the accident scene Report to relevant enforcing authority if necessary Identification of witnesses Setting up investigation team Full investigation to determine root cause Making recommendations Implementing corrective action
  91. 91. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PREPARATION BEFORE INVESTIGATION Who should be involved If possible the accident scene is left untouched Collating relevant existing documents Identifying who are witnesses Check that legal reporting requirements have been met What equipments is needed The style to be adopted The style of report and who should receive it The depth of the investigation
  92. 92. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN INVESTIGATION TEAM Line Manager: has knowledge of the processes involved Supervisor: has knowledge of the process Employee Safety Representative: has legal right Safety Practitioner: to advice on health and safety implications Engineer: to advice on technical matters Senior Manager from different department: unbiased
  93. 93. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN INVESTIGATION REPORT Who – the injured person When – date and time Where – location details What – type of accident and nature of injury How – details of events Why – analysis of cause Recommendations Documentation Reference to possible breaches of law
  94. 94. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN REASONS FOR REPORTING ACCIDENTS Implement initial controls Monitoring health and safety performance Starting point for investigation To comply with legal requirements To prevent recurrences and further injuries / losses To provide information for any subsequent civil claim Review of risk assessments
  95. 95. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN ACCIDENT DATA CAN: Show patters and trends Identify weaknesses in procedures and policies Prioritize safety measures Identify areas for improvements Set targets for reduction
  96. 96. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN EMPLOYEES CAN BE DISCOURAGED FROM REPORTING ACCIDENTS BECAUSE: Ignorance of procedures Peer pressure Retribution by management’s safety record Over-complicated reporting procedures Lack of management response to reports
  98. 98. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN Leading Causes of Workplace Deaths In SNGPL Miscellaneous (16%) Personal Protective Equipment (6.75%) Violation of Operating Procedures (11%) Road / Vehicle Related (40%) Electric Shock / Burns (7.43%) Line Pipe Handling (20%)
  100. 100. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN COMMONALITY Accidents have two things in common 1) They all have outcomes from the accident 2) They all have contributory factors that cause the accident
  101. 101. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN OUTCOMES OF INCIDENTS POSITIVE ASPECTS Accident investigation Prevent recurrence Change to safety programs Change to procedures Change to equipment design
  102. 102. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN OUTCOMES OF INCIDENTS NEGATIVE ASPECTS Injury & possible death Disease Damage to equipment & property Litigation costs Lost productivity Morale
  103. 103. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CONTRIBUTING FACTORS Environmental Design Systems & procedures Human behavior
  104. 104. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CONTRIBUTING FACTORS HUMAN BEHAVIOUR Common to all accidents Not limited to the person involved in the accident
  105. 105. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN THE AIM OF THE INVESTIGATION The key result should be to prevent a recurrence of the same accident. FACT FINDING: What happened? What was the root cause? What should be done to prevent recurrence?
  106. 106. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN THE AIM OF THE INVESTIGATION IS NOT TO: Exonerate individuals or management. Satisfy insurance requirements. Defend a position for legal argument. Or, to assign blame.
  107. 107. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN Who Should Do The Incident Investigation An investigation would be conducted by someone Expert in incident causation Experienced in investigative techniques Knowledge of the work processes, procedures, persons and industrial relations environment of a particular situation. Three essential qualifications of an investigator are • Objectivity • Investigative knowledge (non-linear thinking) • Ability to understand system.
  108. 108. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN INVESTIGATION PROCESS 1) Control the scene (Initial response) 2) Gather Data 3) Analyze Data (analysis) 4) Write Report (corrective action)
  109. 109. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN INITIAL RESPONSE Effective Initial Response includes the following steps: • Take control by securing, barricading or isolating the scene • Ensure First aid/ transporting victim of any • Control secondary accidents • Identify sources of evidence • Determine loss potential • Notify managers Sequence is not important
  110. 110. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN 4 P’s INTERVIEWING Do: • Put the witness at ease • Emphasize the real reason for investigation, to determine what happened and why • Let the witness talk. • Confirm that you have correct statement • Make only short notes during the interview • Ask open ended questions that cannot be answered by Yes or No.
  111. 111. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN 4 P’s INTERVIEWING Do Not: • Intimidate the witness • Interrupt • Prompt • Ask leading questions • Show your own emotions • Make lengthy notes while witness is talking
  112. 112. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN 4 P’s PARTS Third category of evidence is parts and include physical evidence such as: • Tools, equipment, parts, material and PPE. • Worn or failed equipment parts. • Improper tools and equipments. • Process liquid/ solid samples, before and after.
  113. 113. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN COLLECTING AND SHIFTING EVIDENCE (ANALYSIS) - HARD EVIDENCE Data which is not disputed such as time and place of accident, logs and other written reports, the position of physical evidence. - WITNESS STATEMENT • Statement from the persons who saw accident happen. • Statement from those who came upon the scene immediately afterwards. - CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE the logical interpretation of facts that leads to a single but un proven conclusion.
  114. 114. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN THE FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE OT SLIP AND TRIP ACCIDENTS ARE: The floor surface: slippery surface, holes, uneven surface. Contamination: spillages, leaks etc. Obstruction: rubbish, training cables, rugs etc. The task: carrying loads, space to work Environment: lighting Footwear: unsuitable footwear The people: unaware of the dangers
  115. 115. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT SLIPS AND TRIPS Designated walking routes where possible Ensure walkways are level Ensure walkways are non slip Well lit and clearly marked walkways Procedures to quickly identify and remove spillages and obstacles Eliminate need to carry loads Make employees aware of the hazards
  116. 116. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HAZARDS OF STAIRS Inadequate design (dimensions, treads, no handrails) Poor housekeeping (obstructions, trailing cables) Poor lighting Slippery surfaces (oil/water/ice) or unsuitable footwear Damaged flooring or coverings Manual handling Hurrying on stairs
  117. 117. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN ACTION NEEDED TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS ON STAIRS Adequate width of walkways / stairs and handrails fitted Remove obstructions/training cables Improve lighting levels and install emergency lighting
  118. 118. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WORKING AT HEIGHT All work at height is properly planned and organized Those involved in work at height are competent The risks from work at height are assessed and appropriate work equipment is selected The risks from fragile surfaces are properly controlled Equipment for work at heights is properly inspected and maintained
  120. 120. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PLANNING TRAFFIC ROUTES CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE: Keeping pedestrians and vehicles apart Separate routes, designated crossing places and suitable barriers at recognized danger spots. High visibility clothing if necessary Clearly marked and signed traffic routes Roads, gangways and aisles should have sufficient width and overhead clearance for the largest vehicle Speed limits are established and enforce
  121. 121. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRECAUTIONS WHERE PEOPLE WORK IN VEHICLE AREAS Segregated systems for vehicle & pedestrians traffic Appropriate road markings Maintaining good visibility (mirrors, transparent, doors, provision of lighting etc) & audible warnings on vehicles Drawing up & enforcement of site rules The provision of refuges The wearing of high-visibility clothing Good standard of housekeeping Training and supervision of all concerned
  122. 122. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN REVERSING OF VEHICLES One-way systems Drives-through systems Turning circles Separation of vehicles and pedestrians Suitable workplace design Audible reversing alarms Mirrors on blind corners Adequate lighting Use of banksmen (men guiding the vehicle when reversing) High-visibility clothing Site rules Training
  123. 123. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN DRIVER SELECTION Reliable and mature Subject to prr-employment medical check Physically fit Routine medicals e.g. every 5 year orfit suffering from limited limb movement, heart problems Licensed Trained and competent Supervised and monitored Given refresher training
  124. 124. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN TRANING FOR DRIVERS OF VEHICLES IN A WORKPLACE Personal responsibilities Safe working load estimation Pre-use vehicle inspection and maintenance Safe parking and security of vehicle Speed restrictions Safety rules and signs – sounding horn/no passengers etc. Floor conditions – pot holes/housekeeping etc. Vehicle revering – audible wearing/banksmen etc.
  126. 126. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN LOAD Weight Size Shape Rigidity Difficult to grasp Unstable Sharp, hot, cold, etc.
  127. 127. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN INDIVIDUAL Sex Stature Individual capability Training Persons’s assessment of own capability
  128. 128. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN TASK Holding away from trunk Twisting Stooping Reaching upwards Large vertical movement Long carrying distances Strenuous pushing or pulling Unpredictable movement of loads Repetitive handling Insufficient rest or recovery Work rate imposed by the process
  129. 129. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN ENVIROMENT Constraints on posture Poor floors Variations in levels Hot / cold / humid conditions Poor lighting
  130. 130. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PARCTICLAL MEASURE TO AVOID MANUAL HANDLING INJURIES Avoid manual handling Risk reduction Automation and mechanization Team handling Training Smaller lighter laods selection Good environmental working conditions
  131. 131. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CORRECT KINETIC HANDLING TECHNIQUE Assess the load Position feet as close to load as possible Bend the knees and keep back straight Secure grip Lift using thigh muscles Load close to the body Avoid jerking, make a smooth movement avoid twisting Put down, slide to desired position Types of cranes Mobile Tower Gantry Overhead
  132. 132. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SAFE USE OF MOBILE CRANES Suitable crane Suitable ground conditions Use of outriggers Avoidance of obstructions Care near overhead power lines Designated and protected area Suitable and tested lifting tackle Correct slinging technique Competent personnel Load near ground if traveling Good visibility Good communications Suitable storage for fuels etc
  133. 133. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CRANES MAY FAIL BECAUSE OF: Overturning Overloading Unsuitable support or inadequate bases for carne Loss of load Failure of maintenance Failure of load bearing part High winds
  134. 134. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SAFETY DURING LIFTING Not exceeding safe working load Trained personnel (crane operator, slinger, banksman (signaler)) Good communication between all operatives Properly maintained equipment Equipment has undergone statutory inspections Correct lifting accessories free from defect Warning of lift taking place Ensure load is secure
  135. 135. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SAFETY DURING LIFTING Path free from obstacles Avoid overhead power lines All personnel clear of the load Load lifted vertically Lifted to correct height Moved at appropriate speed Put down in a safe position and tension released Safety helmets Adequate supervision
  136. 136. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PERCAUTION WHEN USING ACCESSORIES All accessories properly certificated and tested Properly inspected by a competent person at regular intervals Safe working Load (SWL) clearly marked Inspection prior to use No repair to accessories on site Not used for purposes not intended Packing between accessory and load Properly stored after use Training provided for staff in safe use
  138. 138. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN FACTORS TO CONSIDER PRIOR TO INSTALLING NEW MACHINERY What are the hazards e.g. a. Are there heat or cold problems b. Chemicals c. Biological Is it suitable guarded The location of the equipment Is it capable of being isolated/locked off Is there safe access and egress Are personnel trained and competent Any other specific risks
  139. 139. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN THE HEIRARCHY OF CONTROLS FOR MACHINERY GUARDING Fixed enclosing guards Other guards or protection devices such as interlocked guards and pressure mats Protective appliances such as jigs, holders, push sticks, etc. The provision of information, instruction training, and supervision
  140. 140. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN MECHANICAL HAZARDS OF MACHINERY Entanglement Traps Impact Contact Ejection
  141. 141. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN NON MECHANICAL HAZARDS OF MECHINERY Electricity Hot surfaces Dust and fumes Fire/explosion Noise Vibration Biological Hazardous chemicals Radiation Access and egress Obstructions and projections Manual handling Noise Splinters
  143. 143. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRECUATIONS USING PORTABLE POWER TOOLS Never carry a tool by the cord or hose Never pull the cords to disconnect it Keeps cords and hoses always from heat Disconnect tools when not in use Keep observers at a safe distance Secure work with clamps Avoid accidental starting Use RCDs etc. with electrical tools Ensure good footing Wear appropriate PPE Maintain tools Regular inspection and defect reporting Remove damaged tools from use
  144. 144. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HAZARDS OF MACHINERY Unintentional starting of machinery Release of stored energy e.g. pressure, electricity Movements due to gravity Residual high or low pressure Restricted access/egress Residues e.g. toxic, flammables, corrosives Mechanical hazards Heat or cold Biological hazards
  146. 146. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN MAIN HAZARDS OF ELECTIRCITY Electric shock Arcing Fire/explosions Burns
  147. 147. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN FACTORS INFLUENCING SEVERITY OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK Current in amperes Length of contact time Current path through the body Conductivity/resistance of the body The voltage Conductivity of the environment The nature of the contact Age and health status of the victim
  148. 148. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN FACTORS INFLUENCING SEVERITY OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK Current in amperes Length of contact time Current path through the body Conductivity/resistance of the body The voltage Conductivity of the environment The nature of the contact Age and health status of the victim
  149. 149. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN ACTION ON FINDING SOMEONE IN CONTACT WITH ELECTRICITY Isolate the supply if possible Summon help Give first-aid if capable Remain with casualty until emergency services arrive
  150. 150. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CAUSES OF ELECTRICAL FIRE Inadequate circuits Overloaded circuits Damage wiring and insulation Loose connections Overheating of cables on coils Overheating due to lack of ventilation Flammable materials too close to electrical equipment
  151. 151. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HEALTH EFFECTS OF ELECTRICITY ON THE BODY Damage to nervous systems Irregular heartbeat (fibrillation) Internal burns Muscular contractions Stopping breathing Stopping of the heart
  152. 152. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SECONDARY EFFECTS OF ELECTRICITY Thrown backwards Falls from height Unintentional movement of machine FUSE: a weak link designed to melt, breaking the circuit at excessive currents CIRCUTIT BREAKERS: electromagnetic device which performs the same function as fuses i.e. break the circuit at excessive current although slightly faster EARTHING: electricity will always try reach earth and earthing means providing a path to earth lower than the human body
  153. 153. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SECONDARY EFFECTS OF ELECTRICITY ISOLATION: the disconnection and separation of the electrical equipment in such a way that the disconnection and separation is secure REDUCED VOLAGE SYSTEMS: reducing the voltage present in the systems the consequences of electrical shock can be greatly reduced RESIDUAL CURRENT DEVICES (RCD): Compares the current flowing into the system with the current flowing out. When the level differs by a preset value the RCD will open rapidly and interrupt the supply DOUBLE INSULATION: covering live parts by two separated layers of insulation
  154. 154. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SAFETY OF PORTABLE ELECTRICAL APPLIANES The appliance: Battery operated Checked before use Suitable selected equipment Properly maintained equipment
  155. 155. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRECAUTIONS FOR PORTABLE EQUIPMENT Reduced voltage operation Use of residual current circuit breakers Apparatus and cable should be protected against overload by fuses and/or circuit breakers All cables should be insulated and protected against mechanical damage Correct types of sheathing to suit working conditions Sufficient socket outlets to minimum the need for trailing cables The use of cable drums wherever possible
  156. 156. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN ELECTRICAL SAFETY IN OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS Equipment is of approved standard e.g. British standard Maintenance of fixed installations There is a means of isolation All connections, wiring free from damage Correct fuses Plug correctly wired Avoid overloading of outlets Switch off appliances when not in use Maintain good housekeeping around electrical equipment PAT testing is in date System not overloaded Cables correctly routed to avoid hazards RCDs used System for reporting defects
  157. 157. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRECAUTIONS FOR LIVE ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS People who are properly trained and competent Accompanied by another person Provision of adequate information Suitable insulated tools Insulated barriers and screens Suitable instruments and test probes Personal protective clothing Rubber mats Permit-to-work Restricted access
  159. 159. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN THE FIRE TRIANGLE Fuel, source of ignition, oxygen
  160. 160. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SOURCES OF IGNITION Naked flames Electricity (overheating/arcing) Smoking materials Hot work (welding, burning) Chemical reactions (giving off heat) Heating appliances (hot surface) Friction (inadequate lubrication) Static electricity Lighting Improper storage of flammable materials Lack of inspection and supervision
  161. 161. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WAYS IN WHICH PERSONS CAN BE HARMED IN FIRES ARE: Being burnt Inhaling toxics fumes Effects of smoke Depletion of oxygen supply Collapse of building Being cursed or suffering some other type of injury in attempting to escape.
  162. 162. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRINCIPLE CAUSES OF THE SPREAD OF FIRE: Conduction: heat travels within a solid material from hotter to cooler parts Convection: hot air rises in currents causing the build up of hot and unburnt gases under ceilings etc. and allows fire to spread from one room to another. Direct contract: the flame and a combustible fuel heats up and eventually ignites.
  163. 163. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CUASES OF FIRE Deliberate reason) Electrical faults Misuse of electrical equipment Smoker’s materials Smoking in prohibited area Loss of control over the firing of rubbish Oil/gas heating equipment and portable heaters Unsafe storage of materials Use of flammable liquids or gases in unsuitable areas Welding/hot work Mechanical heat (sparks/friction)
  164. 164. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN MINIMISING THE RISK OF ELECTRICAL FIRE Pre-inspection by users Suitability of equipment for task Frequent inspection and maintenance by competent persons Avoid misuse of equipment Prevent overloading of circuits Correct design and rating for tasks Isolate if not in use Improved means of protection, e.g. RCD High standards of housekeeping Staff awareness training
  165. 165. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN FIRE RISK ASSESSMENT Identify the hazards: the hazards are the three elements of the fire training – the fuel, ignition and oxygen sources Identify who cold be harmed and how: who are the persons at risk and consider especially vulnerable people such as the disabled Evaluate the risks and the adequacy of the control measures: this should consider the prevention, protection and precautions measures Record findings and actions Review: if no longer valid
  166. 166. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERS IN FIRE RISK ASSESSMENT Construction and use of building Flammable materials Sources of ignition Work activities generating heat Methods of control Means of fire detection Means of raising alarms Means of fighting fire and maintenance of equipment Evacuation routes/protection of evacuation routes Numbers of persons specially at risk Fire prevention training/fire drills
  167. 167. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PREVENTION OF FIRE Eliminate or reduce the storage of flammable materials Control of ignition sources Control smoking and smoking materials Good housekeeping (preventing accumulation of rubbish) Lubrication of machinery to prevent friction No overloading of electrical systems Regular inspection of electrical systems Ventilation outlets not obstructed Controlling hot work with permit etc. Proper storage of flammable liquids Segregation of incompatible chemicals Security to prevent arson Regular inspection and supervision
  168. 168. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN STORAGE OF FLAMMABLE GASES AND LIQUIDS Minimum quantities (50liters maximum in workroom) Suitable fixed storage tanks Keep up right in well ventilated storage area Clear marking of containers Clearly marked storage area Spillage controls Adequate ventilation Suitable fire fighting equipment Trained competent staff Adequate warning signs
  169. 169. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SAFE MEANS OF ESCAPE If necessary 2 routes in opposite directions Fire resistant walls & ceilings Adequate size relative to numbers of persons Within travel distance guidelines Clearly marked/direction arrows Emergency lighting Exit route free from obstructions Final exit door s opening outwards Fire/smoke doors on route self closing Fixed stairs to upper floors Exit to safe place/assembly point
  170. 170. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN REGULAR FIRE DRILLS SHOULD BE UNDERTAKEN TO: Satisfying a legal requirement, or one specified in a fire certification. Checking that the alarm can be heard in all parts of the premises Testing the effectiveness of the evacuation procedures Familiarizing employees (particularly those new to the undertaking, escape routes & assembly points so that, in that, in the case of a real emergency, they would know the actions to be taken Providing an opportunity for fire wardens & others with specific functions to practice their designated roles
  172. 172. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CONTROL MEASURES FOR BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS Cleaning and disinfecting Water treatment Vermin control Containment of the biological agent Avoidance of sharp implements Proper disposal of contaminated waste Immunization Personal hygiene PPE
  173. 173. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CLASSICFICTION OF HAZARDS SUBSTANCES IRRITANT: Non-corrosive substance which may cause skin or lung inflammation through reputed contact. Example of irritant substances are – detergent, bleaches, glue and petrol. CORROSIVIE: corrosive substances may cause burning of living tissue on contact. Examples of corrosive substances are – caustic soda and ammonia. HARMFUL: Harmful is a term used to label a substance which if inhaled, consumed or penetrated the skin may cause limited risk to health. The risks associated with harmful ubstances can usually be minimized by following instructions provided on manufacture’s labels or using personal protective equipment.
  174. 174. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CLASSICFICTION OF HAZARDS SUBSTANCES TOXIC: A poisonous substance which attacks one or more of the body organs such as liver, lungs and heart. The effects on the health can be death, acute or chornic damage. Examples of poisonous substances are – lead, mercury and pesiticides. CARCINOGENIC: carcinogenic substance effect the body cells to become cancerous. Examples of carcinogenic substances are – asbestos, hard wood dust, and some mineral oils. MUTAGENIC: mutagenic substance may cause genetic defects that can be heritable, from generation.
  175. 175. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN ROUTES OF ENTRY IN THE BODY Inhalation Ingestion Absorption Direct entry Injection
  176. 176. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN ACUTE EFFECTS: Adverse health effects resulting from single or short term exposure which is usually reversible
  177. 177. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CHRONIC EFFECTS: Adverse health term effects resulting from prolonged or repeated exposure leading to a gradual often irreversible effects e.g. liver disease caused by alcohol
  178. 178. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN BODY’S DEFENCES AGAINTS DUST The air and wetness to the nose The change of direction of the larynx Sneezing and coughing The hair cells in the respiratory tract Tears and blinking of the eyes
  179. 179. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN INDICATION OF DUST PROBLEM Visual signs of dust Complaints by employees Monitoring Health problems Equipment problems Blocked filters Health surveillance
  180. 180. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CONTROL MEASURES FOR DUST Eliminate source e.g. outsourcing Substation e.g. pellets instead of powers Change process Use liquid process as opposed to dry/damping down Enclosure of the process Local exhaust ventilation Vacuuming instead of sweeping Limiting time of exposure Limiting numbers exposed Respiratory protective equipment Ensuring suitable maintenance
  181. 181. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN INFORMATION ON MANUFACTURERS SAFETY DATA SHEETS Identification of substances/preparation The manufacturer/supplier Composition/information on ingredients Hazards identification on ingredients Hazards identification Health effects First aid measures Fire fighting measures Accidental release measures Handling and storage
  182. 182. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN INFORMATION ON MANUFACTURERS SAFETY DATA SHEETS Exposure controls Personal protective equipment Environmental/disposal considerations Physical and chemical properties Stability and reactivity Toxicological information Ecological information Disposal consideration Transport information Regulatory information
  183. 183. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CONTROL OF HEALTH HAZARDS Eliminate Reduce by substitution Isolate Total enclosure Segregate Control Engineering Control (LEV) Maintenance of controls Change the work pattern or method Hygiene and housekeeping PPE/discipline
  184. 184. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN EMERGENCY PROCEDURES First aid facilities Relevant safety drills and warning devices Suitable training for staff Availability of personal protective equipment Provision of emergency showers and eye was facilities Spillage and leakage procedure Evacuation procedure Warning to other people
  185. 185. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WASTE STORAGE Storage area of a sufficient size Storage area suitable located away from drains etc. Storage area clearly labeled Individual containers clearly labeled Different types of waste stored separately Incompatible waste never stored together Appropriate containers for type of waste Storage of wastes kept to a minimum Protect waste from the elements if necessary If necessary protect storage area with bunds etc. Do not dispose of hazards waste in general waste skips Ensure storage area is secure
  187. 187. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN NOISE CONTROL SOURCE Tighten loose guards and panel Maintenance with regular lubrication for both oil and grease Eliminate unnecessary compressed air and steam leaks Machinery properly adjusted Use damped or rubber lined containers for catching components Switch off plant not in use, especially fans Use rubber or plastic bushes in linkages, use plasticgears.
  188. 188. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PATH Moving the source away from the noise sensitive area. Enclosure Silencers Absorption Damping Use of rubber/cork, spring etc in noise path Isolation Sound proof rooms Lagging Screens
  189. 189. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRACTICAL MEASURES TO REDUCE EXPOURE TO EXECSSIVE NOISE Lubrication and maintenance Change the process Reduce energy Isolation Silencing Enclosure Insulation Absorption Damping PPE Reduce time of exposure
  190. 190. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN RADIATION NON-IONISING Type use in industry Infrared Heating and brazing Lasers Cutting, bar code readers Microwaves Food preparation, transmission Ultra-violet Welding signal
  191. 191. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HEALTH EFFECTS Burns Reddening of the skin Cataracts Arc eye Temporary sterility's
  192. 192. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN IONISING RADATION Type Use in Industry Alpha Smoke detectors Beta Thickness testing Gamma non-destructing testing X-ray medical Neutron by-product nuclear fission
  193. 193. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN IONISING RADATION Acute effects from high dose chronic effects Reddening of the skin Radiation sickness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Hair loss cancers sterility hereditary defects Death effects on unborn children Death
  195. 195. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN Others PPE Environmental and personal monitoring Correct disposal of radiation materials Good hygiene practices Training and supervision
  196. 196. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HEALTH EFFECTS OF POOR LIGHTING Eye strain/headaches Poor posture Tripping over unseen objects Increased likelihood of human error Increased time to vacate work area
  197. 197. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN ASSESSING ADEQACY OF LIGHTING The task being undertaken The size and layout of the work area The equipment used Availability of natural light Shifts times/work patterns Suitable number of artificial lights Contrast levels Glare Areas in shadow Need for localized lighting Maintenance of lighting Adequate emergency lighting
  198. 198. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WORK IN A HOT ENVIRONMENT Health effects Skin burns Cataracts Dehydration Heat cramps Headaches Fainting Precautions Medical pre-selection Acclimatization Limit time of exposure Cold drinks PPE
  199. 199. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WORK IN COLD ENVIRONMENT Health effects Hypothermia Loss of concentration Shivering Frost bite Precautions Medical pre-selection Acclimatization Limit time of exposure Hot drinks Insulated clothing
  200. 200. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN HEALTH EFFECTS OF BEING SEATED FOR LONG TIME Vertebral and muscular damage High blood pressure Circulation problems
  201. 201. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN SUITABLE SEAT FOR SEDENTARY WORKERS Good lumbar support Good width and depth Ability to adjust seat back and height Stable base Ability to swivel Provision of arm rests
  202. 202. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WELFARE Sufficient toilets Washing facilities Eating and changing facilities Clothing storage Seating Rest areas Arrangements for non-smokers
  203. 203. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN FACTORS CAUSING WORK STRESS Inadequate lighting Cramped/dirty working conditions Untidy working conditions Poor layout leading to lack of privacy or security Problems of glare Extremes of temperature/humidity Inadequate ventilation/stale air Noise Vibration Inadequate welfare facilities Inclement weather conditions
  204. 204. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN STRESS Physical effects psychological effects Headaches increased anxiety Dizziness reduced concentration Aching neck and shoulders irritability Skin rashes sudden mood changes Prone to infections inability to cope Panic attacks reduced work output Raised heart rate increased use of alcohol, etc poor sleep patterns Increased blood pressure Heart disease Stomach ulcers
  205. 205. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CAUSES OF STRESS Culture Demands Control Relationship Change Role Individual Environment
  206. 206. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CONTROL MEASURES FOR STRESS Selecting suitable employees Training Clearly defined roles Clear work objectives Comfortable working environment Good lines of communication Realistic work schedules Employee involvement Grievance procedure Impartial investigation of stress Management support
  207. 207. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN DISPLAY SCREENS EQUIPMENT (DSEs) Health effects Upper limb pains and discomfort Eye and eyesight effects Epilepsy Radiation effects on pregnant women Fatigue and stress
  208. 208. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN WORKSTATION REQUIREMENTS Good lighting Adequate contracts, no glare or distracting reflection Distraction noise minimize glare Leg room and clearance to allow postural changes Window covering if necessary to minimized glare Suitable software appropriate to the task Screen: stable image, adjustable, readable and glare free Keyboard: usable, adjustable, detachable and legible Work surface: space for flexible arrangement/documents Chair: stable and adjustable Footrest user need one Suitable environment e.g. temperature
  210. 210. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN LADDERS MAIN HAZARDS IN USE Overreaching from ladder Unsecured, unstable ladder Ladder at wrong angle Ladder not extended above step off point Using damaged, worn ladder Metal ladder in contact with overhead power lines Vehicle collision with base Manual handling-carrying and erecting
  211. 211. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRECUATIONS WHEN USING LADDERS Ladders rested on firm level base Use of stabilization devices Secured ladder by correct angle 75% or 1:4 ratio. Tied off at top or footed at base on level ground Extend suitable distance above step off point (1.05meters min) Top of ladder against a solid surface Use wooden ladders near overhead cables/erect ‘goal posts’ and signs
  212. 212. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN PRECUATIONS WHEN USING LADDERS Provide equipment to raise materials/tools Provide holsters to carry tools Only one person at a time on the ladder Rungs clear of grease etc. Barrier off base and display warning signs Use of ladder by trained users Assistance when moving/erecting ladder Inspection and maintenance of ladders/ladder register
  213. 213. STAREGISTER PAKISTAN CONSTRCTION HEALTH HAZARDS Noise Vibration Dusts Asbestos Lead Silica Sawdust Cement Solvents and cleaners Biological hazards