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  1. 1. Autism SpectrumDisorderByAijaz Abdullah
  2. 2. Autism Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction andcommunication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. These signs allbegin before a child is three years old
  3. 3. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)1. ASD stands for Autism Spectrum Disorder and can sometimes be referred to as Autistic Spectrum Disorder. ASDs are any developmental disabilities that have been caused by a brain abnormality. A person with an ASD typically has difficulty with social and communication skills.
  4. 4. Autism is a wide-spectrum disorder Autism (or ASD) is a wide-spectrum disorder.This means that no two people with autism will have exactly the same symptoms. As well as experiencing varying combinations of symptoms, some people will have mild symptoms while others will have severe ones.
  5. 5. Pervasive Developmental Disorders• The term pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) refers to a group of developmental conditions that involve delayed or impaired communication and social skills, behaviors, and cognitive skills (learning).
  6. 6. HISTORY • It was Dr. Leo Kanner, a psychiatrist at John Hopkins University, who applied this term “AUTISM” for the first time in 1943
  7. 7. Characteristics of Autism:-• People with Autism fail to Develop Interpersonal relationships• They show gross impairment in communication ability. Approximately 50% of such children do not develop meaningful verbal language• They exhibit strange/bizarre responses to various environmental stimuli like Light, Sound, Touch And Pain Cont
  8. 8. Cont.• They indulge in stereotypical, self stimulatory, repetitive behaviors, like body rocking, hand flapping and meaningless vocalizations• They have abnormal play patters.• Show unusual attachments to objects• Shows a lack of empathy• Prefers to spend time alone, rather than with others
  9. 9. Cont.• May not respond to eye contact or smiles, or may avoid eye contact• May treat others as if they are objects• "Acts up" with intense tantrums• Shows aggression to others or self
  10. 10. CAUSES• Autism is a physical condition linked to abnormal biology and chemistry in the brain. The exact causes of these abnormalities remain unknown, but this is a very active area of research. There are probably a combination of factors that lead to autism.
  11. 11. Probable Factors• Genetic factors seem to be important. For example, identical twins are much more likely than fraternal twins or siblings to both have autism. Similarly, language abnormalities are more common in relatives of autistic children. Chromosomal abnormalities and other nervous system (neurological) problems are also more common in families with autism. Cont
  12. 12. Cont.• A number of other possible causes have been suspected, but not proven. They involve:• Diet• Digestive tract changes• Mercury poisoning• The bodys inability to properly use vitamins and minerals
  13. 13. PREVELANCE• The exact number of children with autism is not known. A report released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests that autism and related disorders are more common than previously thought. It is unclear whether this is due to an increasing rate of the illness or an increased ability to diagnose the illness.
  14. 14. Other pervasive developmentaldisordersAsperger syndrome (like autism, but with normal language development)Rett syndrome (very different from autism, and only occurs in females)Childhood disintegrative disorder (rare condition where a child learns skills, then loses them by age 10)
  15. 15. Signs and Tests• All children should have routine developmental exams done by their pediatrician. Further testing may be needed if the doctor or parents are concerned.
  16. 16. This is particularly true if a childfails to meet any of the followinglanguage milestones:• Babbling by 12 months• Gesturing (pointing, waving bye-bye) by 12 months• Saying single words by 16 months• Saying two-word spontaneous phrases by 24 months (not just echoing)• Losing any language or social skills at any age
  17. 17. TESTS• Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R)• Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)• Childhood Autism rating Scale (CARS)• Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test - Stage 3
  18. 18. Treatment• An early, intensive, appropriate treatment program will greatly improve the outlook for most young children with autism. Most programs will build on the interests of the child in a highly structured schedule of constructive activities. Visual aids are often helpful.
  19. 19. Therapies• Treatment is most successful when it is geared toward the childs particular needs. An experienced specialist or team should design the program for the individual child. A variety of therapies are available, including:• Applied behavior analysis (ABA)• Medications• Occupational therapy• Physical therapy• Speech-language therapy