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This is our group's assignment regarding 'Cholera' under the epidemiology subject for this sem.1 '14/15_Biomedic3rdYr

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  1. 1. BY: Nurul Ain Bt. Rosli Nur Azimah Bt. Azman Raja Nur Rahifah Inani Bt. Raja Abdul Rahman
  2. 2. DEFINITION.. • An acute diarrheal illness • Caused by infection of the intestine • By bacteria Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) • Through ingestion of food or water contaminated with V. cholerae • Can be endemic, epidemic, pandemic
  3. 3. Infectious agent : Vibrio cholerae • A gram-negative bacteria • Comma-shaped • 1-3 mm (length), 0.5-0.8 mm (diameter) • Non-spore forming • Single, polar flagellum • Oxidase positive • Multiply freely in water • Has 2 major biotypes: – Classical – El Tor
  4. 4. EPIDEMIOLOGY: WORLDWIDE • 7 cholera pandemics since 1817. • The first 6 (from 1817-1923) - caused by V.cholerae. • Originated in Asia with subsequent spread to other continents. • The 7th pandemic: – Began in Indonesia (1961) – Affected more countries and continents – Caused by V.cholerae El Tor • October 1992: – Cholera epidemic emerged from Madras, India – Caused by a new serogroup 0139 (Bengal) • Then, spread throughout Bangladesh, India, and the neighboring countries in Asia. • In United States and other developed countries, cholera is not a major threat (rare).
  5. 5. Epidemiology: Malaysia • 11th May 1996: – First case of cholera was confirmed – Caused by Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor • Since then, total of 607 cases have been confirmed in the whole country, 476 of them were in Penang
  7. 7. Pathophysiology Of Cholera Disease
  8. 8. TRANSMISSIONS Drinking contaminated water Eating raw oysters
  9. 9. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS Isolation and identification of Vibrio cholerae • Dark field or phase contrast microscopy. • Culture of stool specimen on selective thiosulfate-citrate- bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar plate. • Yellow colonies is formed.
  10. 10. PCR- detect genetic material of cholera Rapid immunochromatograph ic dipstick testing- areas where cholera is endemic
  11. 11. TREATMENTS Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) • To replace the fluid loss in the body • Rehydration Intravenous Fluid • For severe cases. Antibiotics • Doxycycline • Azithromycin
  12. 12. CONTROLS • Set up treatment centers for rapid treatment. • Food safety and animal health measures.
  13. 13. PREVENTIONS • Drink only safe water! • Avoid raw meat. Eg : sushi. • Eat food that's completely cooked and hot. • Wash hands with soap and water frequently. • Stick to fruits and vegetables that you can peel yourself. • Be wary of dairy foods, including ice cream. • Go get vaccine!
  14. 14. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES “For Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep pure and clean” (Al-Baqarah 2:222) Prophet Muhammad PBUH said “purification is half of faith” (Hadith Muslim)