Nurul Ain Bt. Rosli
Nur Azimah Bt. Azman
Raja Nur Rahifah Inani Bt. Raja Abdul Rahman
• An acute diarrheal illness
• Caused by infection of the intestine
• By bacteria Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae)
• Through ingestion of food or water
contaminated with V. cholerae
• Can be endemic, epidemic, pandemic
Infectious agent : Vibrio cholerae
• A gram-negative bacteria
• 1-3 mm (length), 0.5-0.8 mm
• Non-spore forming
• Single, polar flagellum
• Oxidase positive
• Multiply freely in water
• Has 2 major biotypes:
– El Tor
• 7 cholera pandemics since 1817.
• The first 6 (from 1817-1923) - caused by V.cholerae.
• Originated in Asia with subsequent spread to other continents.
• The 7th pandemic:
– Began in Indonesia (1961)
– Affected more countries and continents
– Caused by V.cholerae El Tor
• October 1992:
– Cholera epidemic emerged from Madras, India
– Caused by a new serogroup 0139 (Bengal)
• Then, spread throughout Bangladesh, India, and the neighboring countries
• In United States and other developed countries, cholera is not a major
• 11th May 1996:
– First case of cholera was confirmed
– Caused by Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor
• Since then, total of 607 cases have been
confirmed in the whole country, 476 of them
were in Penang
Isolation and identification
of Vibrio cholerae
• Dark field or phase
• Culture of stool specimen
on selective thiosulfate-citrate-
(TCBS) agar plate.
• Yellow colonies is formed.
ic dipstick testing- areas
where cholera is
Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS)
• To replace the fluid loss in the body
• For severe cases.
• Set up treatment
centers for rapid
• Food safety and
• Drink only safe water!
• Avoid raw meat. Eg : sushi.
• Eat food that's completely cooked and hot.
• Wash hands with soap and water frequently.
• Stick to fruits and vegetables that you can peel
• Be wary of dairy foods, including ice cream.
• Go get vaccine!
“For Allah loves those who turn to Him
constantly and He loves those who
keep pure and clean”
Prophet Muhammad PBUH said
“purification is half of faith”