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Epidemiology_Cholera

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This is our group's assignment regarding 'Cholera' under the epidemiology subject for this sem.1 '14/15_Biomedic3rdYr

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Epidemiology_Cholera

  1. 1. BY: Nurul Ain Bt. Rosli Nur Azimah Bt. Azman Raja Nur Rahifah Inani Bt. Raja Abdul Rahman
  2. 2. DEFINITION.. • An acute diarrheal illness • Caused by infection of the intestine • By bacteria Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) • Through ingestion of food or water contaminated with V. cholerae • Can be endemic, epidemic, pandemic
  3. 3. Infectious agent : Vibrio cholerae • A gram-negative bacteria • Comma-shaped • 1-3 mm (length), 0.5-0.8 mm (diameter) • Non-spore forming • Single, polar flagellum • Oxidase positive • Multiply freely in water • Has 2 major biotypes: – Classical – El Tor
  4. 4. EPIDEMIOLOGY: WORLDWIDE • 7 cholera pandemics since 1817. • The first 6 (from 1817-1923) - caused by V.cholerae. • Originated in Asia with subsequent spread to other continents. • The 7th pandemic: – Began in Indonesia (1961) – Affected more countries and continents – Caused by V.cholerae El Tor • October 1992: – Cholera epidemic emerged from Madras, India – Caused by a new serogroup 0139 (Bengal) • Then, spread throughout Bangladesh, India, and the neighboring countries in Asia. • In United States and other developed countries, cholera is not a major threat (rare).
  5. 5. Epidemiology: Malaysia • 11th May 1996: – First case of cholera was confirmed – Caused by Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor • Since then, total of 607 cases have been confirmed in the whole country, 476 of them were in Penang
  6. 6. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  7. 7. Pathophysiology Of Cholera Disease
  8. 8. TRANSMISSIONS Drinking contaminated water Eating raw oysters
  9. 9. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS Isolation and identification of Vibrio cholerae • Dark field or phase contrast microscopy. • Culture of stool specimen on selective thiosulfate-citrate- bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar plate. • Yellow colonies is formed.
  10. 10. PCR- detect genetic material of cholera Rapid immunochromatograph ic dipstick testing- areas where cholera is endemic
  11. 11. TREATMENTS Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) • To replace the fluid loss in the body • Rehydration Intravenous Fluid • For severe cases. Antibiotics • Doxycycline • Azithromycin
  12. 12. CONTROLS • Set up treatment centers for rapid treatment. • Food safety and animal health measures.
  13. 13. PREVENTIONS • Drink only safe water! • Avoid raw meat. Eg : sushi. • Eat food that's completely cooked and hot. • Wash hands with soap and water frequently. • Stick to fruits and vegetables that you can peel yourself. • Be wary of dairy foods, including ice cream. • Go get vaccine!
  14. 14. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES “For Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep pure and clean” (Al-Baqarah 2:222) Prophet Muhammad PBUH said “purification is half of faith” (Hadith Muslim)

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