The African Peer Review Mechanisms Process


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Provides information about the process of reviewing the indicators with specific reference to AIDS indicators.

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The African Peer Review Mechanisms Process

  2. 2. Outline of presentation       Introduction, Types of Reviews, Four Themes of APRM Process, Indicators of Aids as provided for in APRM Themes, APRM process of reviewing its members, Way forward. 2
  3. 3. Introduction:     The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) is a selfmonitoring instrument voluntarily acceded to by member states of the African Union. It is a mechanism initiated by African Heads of State to help African States create conducive environment for the implementation of an African Union development programme the New Partnership for Africa (NEPAD). Its primary purpose is to foster the adoption of policies, standards and practices that lead to political stability, high economic growth, sustainable development and accelerated sub-regional and continental economic integration. Has core principles of being credible, technically competent, participatory and free from political manipulation. 3
  4. 4. Introduction.….Continued     Participation in the process is open to all member States of the African Union. APRM Members accede to APRM with a view of assisting one another in sharing good practices and correcting governance weaknesses to enhance conducive environment for sustainable development. The process entails an undertaking to submit to peer reviews, as well as to facilitate such reviews, and to ensure that the policies and practices of participating states conform to the agreed political, economic and corporate governance values, codes and standards contained in the Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance. The process carries out reviews on four governance thematic areas. 4
  5. 5. Types of APRM Reviews     Base Review – This is the first review undertaken by a country after accession to APRM. It is accompanied by National Programme of Action (NPOA) to achieve the agreed standards and goals. The Base Review is supposed to be undertaken within 18 months after a country becomes a member of the APRM. Periodic Review is conducted every two to four years; Ad-hoc Review - that may be requested specially by an APRM Member State; and, Special Review – that may be initiated at any moment when early warning signs suggest an impending political, economic or social crisis in an APRM Member State. This type of review would be conducted in the spirit of assistance between African States, and would be commissioned by the Heads of State and Government Participating in the APRM (APR Forum), in solidarity with the Government concerned. 5
  6. 6. Four Themes of the APRM Process   With an assistance of APRM Questionnaire, APRM Countries are assessed on Four Thematic areas:  Democracy and Political Governance,  Economic Governance and management,  Corporate Governance and  Socio-Economic Development. Democracy and Political Governance has objectives of addressing conflicts; constitutional democracy; civil and Political rights; effective public service; separation of powers; rights of women, children and other vulnerable groups. 6
  7. 7. Four Themes of the APRM Process    Economic Management and Governance deals with promotion of macro-economic policies, transparency, sound public finance management, fighting corruption, and promoting regional integration and economic growth. Corporate Governance aims at ensuring enabling environment for business, adoption of codes, ethics and good corporate citizenry as well as social responsibility. Socio-economic Development aims at self-reliance and sustaining development, strengthening policies, delivery of social services and combating HIV/Aids, accessibility to services such as water, electricity, markets, ICT as well as promotion of gender equality. 7
  8. 8. Indicators of AIDS as provided for in APRM themes.     The indicators of HIV/Aids are provided for in the APRM themes of Democracy and Political Governance, Corporate Governance as well as in Socio-Economic Development. These indicators serve to highlight aspects of the objective, standard or code that are generally recognised as measures of performance and results. Indicators assist the APRM Review Teams to find out whether member countries have acceded/ratified , domesticated and even implemented the regional and International standards. These indicators therefore give actual evidence whether or not APRM member country is committed to adhering to standards and codes. 8
  9. 9. Indicators of AIDS as provided for in APRM themes.    In Democracy and Political Governance, the indicators are catered under Rights of Women, Rights of the Children, and Rights of vulnerable groups. In particular, Question Seven on Rights of the Children seeks to find out what concrete measures have been taken to promote and protect rights of the children. It further examines the legislation and policy initiatives to promoting their right to health education. Indicators include provision of heath care, political and institutional measures to combat Aids among these groups (women, children and vulnerable groups) so that they can enjoy the right to health. 9
  10. 10. Indicators of AIDS as provided for in APRM themes.     In Corporate Governance, Objective Five ensures that Organisations act as good Corporate Citizens. How do Corporates partner with and network with the society? Do Corporates partner with society around them to reduce the impact of Aids. One of the indicators for this objective is the impact of the Corporates in the reduction of poverty, unemployment and diseases such as AIDs. Aware that HIV/AIDs is a socio-economic problem facing countries, the APRM Questionnaire has also provided for this disease in the SocioEconomic Development (SED). The SED indicators are the legal, political and institutional measures taken to accelerate broad based sustainable socio-economic Development, including fighting HIV/Aids. 10
  11. 11. Indicators of AIDS as provided for in APRM themes.    Objective One of SED, Question One looks at policies and strategies formulated by a country to promote and accelerate broad-based sustainable socio-economic development. Further more, this SED Objective One indicates results obtained in terms of satisfaction, simplification of administrative formalities on request, cost reduction and access to resources and services, in particular with regards to access to potable water, sanitation, social protection, education, health (including the fight against HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases), information and communication technologies. Question Four of Objective Three of SED also examines the national programmes, policies and strategies set up by the Government to reduce child mortality, improve maternal health and combating HIV/AIDs, malaria and other diseases. 11
  12. 12. Indicators of AIDS as provided for in APRM themes.    Indicators to this Question Four include HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years and proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to anti-retroviral drugs. APRM countries are expected to conform to HIV/AIDs standards and put in place policies, aimed at preventing and combating AIDs. In this regards, APRM Countries are expected to provide evidence of commitment of funds and other logistics in fighting HIV/AIDs. 12
  13. 13. APRM process of reviewing its members.      Cognisant of the fact that the mission of the APRM is foster the adoption of standards and policies agreed by its members, APRM ensures that these standards and policies are adhered to. Each thematic area has a list of standards and codes, which the APRM Review Teams use to assess the country in question. Indeed, these lists are not exhaustive due to new developments and innovations taking place everyday. The APRM is always obliged to use all these standards and even incorporate new standards to assess the level of signature, ratification and enactment as well as reporting on obstacles limiting signature and ratification. Protection and promotion of the right to health including HIV/Aids, stand out in some major objectives of the APRM. 13
  14. 14. APRM process of reviewing its members….Cont’d      APRM Review team is guided by APRM Questionnaire, which has Objectives, leading questions, standards and Indicators therein. In addition, countries are asked to draw National Programme of Action (NPOA) for effecting progress towards achieving the agreed standards. Drawing up of the National Programme of Action (NPOA) is evidence to show the country’s commitment in implementing these standards and policies. This NPOA also helps for monitoring and evaluation purposes as well as showing the shortcomings and challenges faced by the reviewed country. So far, the APRM monitors the implementation of NPOA through the provision of the Countries’ periodic annual progress reports. 14
  15. 15. Way Forward      As mandated, the APRM will continue urging its member countries to sign and ratify UN and regional instruments, including those on HIV/AIDs and ensure implementation and compliance. Corporate companies in APRM member states will be urged to continue partnering with society to assist in the fight against the scourge of HIV/AIDs and its impact of Aids. As required in the NPOA, APRM member countries will endeavour to conform to HIV/AIDS standards and even indicate administrative and resources allocated to the reduction of HIV/AIDS. APRM will continue examining the national programmes, policies and strategies set up by its members to reduce child mortality, improve maternal health and combating HIV/AIDs, malaria and other diseases. The APRM will continue monitoring the performance on its thematic areas, especially those concerning HIV/Aids and ensuring periodic reporting on performance as required by the APRM Base document. 15
  16. 16. Thank you for your Attention. 16