Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Discussion and Analysis Research Writing WTUC March 2007
Discussion <ul><li>The objective here is to provide an interpretation of your results and support for all of your conclusi...
Writing a discussion <ul><li>Interpret your data in the discussion in appropriate depth.  </li></ul><ul><li>This means tha...
<ul><li>Research papers are not accepted if the work is incomplete.  </li></ul><ul><li>Draw what conclusions you can based...
<ul><li>One experiment/research project will not answer an overall question, so keeping the big picture in mind, where do ...
Style:  <ul><li>When you refer to information, distinguish data generated by your own studies from published information o...
<ul><li>The biggest mistake that students make in discussions is to present a superficial interpretation that more or less...
Elements to Include in the Discussion <ul><li>State the study’s major findings </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the meaning and i...
Things to Avoid in the Discussion <ul><li>Overpresentation of the results </li></ul><ul><li>Unwarranted speculation </li><...
State the Major Findings of the Study <ul><li>The discussion should begin with a statement of the major findings of the st...
<ul><li>“ Our results confirm that …” This clearly states the most important finding of that study.  </li></ul><ul><li>“ O...
Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why the Findings Are Important <ul><li>No one has thought as long and as hard abou...
Relate the Findings to Those of Similar Studies <ul><li>No study is so novel and with such a restricted focus that it has ...
<ul><li>It is also important to point out how your study differs from other similar studies. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Make Suggestions for Further Research </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the Study’s Limitations </li></ul>
Sample 1 <ul><li>ARE THEY WATCHING? TEST-TAKER VIEWING BEHAVIOR DURING AN L2 VIDEO LISTENING TEST http://llt.msu.edu/vol11...
Sample 2 <ul><li>USING DIGITAL STORIES TO IMPROVE LISTENING COMPREHENSION WITH SPANISH YOUNG LEARNERS OF ENGLISH   </li></...
Sample 3 <ul><li>LANGUAGE LEARNING AND THE INTERNET: STUDENT STRATEGIES IN VOCABULARY ACQUISITION </li></ul><ul><li>http:/...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Writing the 'Discussion and Analysis'

99,958 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Login to see the comments

Writing the 'Discussion and Analysis'

  1. 1. Discussion and Analysis Research Writing WTUC March 2007
  2. 2. Discussion <ul><li>The objective here is to provide an interpretation of your results and support for all of your conclusions, using evidence from your experiment and generally accepted knowledge, if appropriate. The significance of findings should be clearly described. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Writing a discussion <ul><li>Interpret your data in the discussion in appropriate depth. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that when you explain a phenomenon you must describe mechanisms that may account for the observation. </li></ul><ul><li>If your results differ from your expectations, explain why that may have happened. </li></ul><ul><li>If your results agree, then describe the theory that the evidence supported. </li></ul><ul><li>It is never appropriate to simply state that the data agreed with expectations, and let it drop at that. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Research papers are not accepted if the work is incomplete. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw what conclusions you can based upon the results that you have, and treat the study as a finished work </li></ul><ul><li>You may suggest future directions, such as how the experiment might be modified to accomplish another objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain all of your observations as much as possible, focusing on mechanisms. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>One experiment/research project will not answer an overall question, so keeping the big picture in mind, where do you go next? The best studies open up new avenues of research. What questions remain? </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations for specific papers will provide additional suggestions. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Style: <ul><li>When you refer to information, distinguish data generated by your own studies from published information or from information obtained from other students (verb tense is an important tool for accomplishing that purpose). </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to work done by specific individuals (including yourself) in past tense. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to generally accepted facts and principles in present tense. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The biggest mistake that students make in discussions is to present a superficial interpretation that more or less re-states the results. It is necessary to suggest why results came out as they did. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Elements to Include in the Discussion <ul><li>State the study’s major findings </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the meaning and importance of the findings </li></ul><ul><li>Relate the findings to those of similar studies </li></ul><ul><li>Consider alternative explanations of the findings </li></ul><ul><li>State the clinical relevance of the findings </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the study’s limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Make suggestions for further research </li></ul>
  9. 9. Things to Avoid in the Discussion <ul><li>Overpresentation of the results </li></ul><ul><li>Unwarranted speculation </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation of the importance of the findings </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions that are not supported by the data </li></ul>
  10. 10. State the Major Findings of the Study <ul><li>The discussion should begin with a statement of the major findings of the study. This should be the very first paragraph in the discussion. It should be a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it should not include data or reference to the study design. Several examples illustrate the point. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>“ Our results confirm that …” This clearly states the most important finding of that study. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Our findings suggest that …” That is a good example of a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why the Findings Are Important <ul><li>No one has thought as long and as hard about your study as you have. As the person who conceived, designed, and conducted the study, the meaning of the results and their importance seem obvious to you. However, they might not be so clear for the person reading your paper for the first time. One of the purposes of the discussion is to explain the meaning of the findings and why they are important, without appearing arrogant, condescending, or patronizing. </li></ul><ul><li>Even if your study findings are provocative, you do not want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it means; most readers will not go to that effort and your findings will be overlooked, disregarded, and forgotten. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Relate the Findings to Those of Similar Studies <ul><li>No study is so novel and with such a restricted focus that it has no relation to other previously published papers. </li></ul><ul><li>The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies. Questions raised by previous studies may have served as the motivation for your study. </li></ul><ul><li>The findings of other studies may support your findings, which strengthens the importance of your study results. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>It is also important to point out how your study differs from other similar studies. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Make Suggestions for Further Research </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the Study’s Limitations </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sample 1 <ul><li>ARE THEY WATCHING? TEST-TAKER VIEWING BEHAVIOR DURING AN L2 VIDEO LISTENING TEST http://llt.msu.edu/vol11num1/wagner/default.html </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sample 2 <ul><li>USING DIGITAL STORIES TO IMPROVE LISTENING COMPREHENSION WITH SPANISH YOUNG LEARNERS OF ENGLISH </li></ul><ul><li>http://llt.msu.edu/vol11num1/ramirez/default.html </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sample 3 <ul><li>LANGUAGE LEARNING AND THE INTERNET: STUDENT STRATEGIES IN VOCABULARY ACQUISITION </li></ul><ul><li>http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/networks/tr25/TR25-3.pdf </li></ul>

×