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Retrofitting Suburbia


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Retrofitting Suburbia

  1. 1. All illustrations are for educational purposes. Copyright not received or given.
  2. 2. AIA Houston is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
  3. 3. Course Description In October 2010, the AIA/CES system was updated with the new CES Discovery system, in that time we have transferred more than one million records. This new update has made it necessary to remind us of the AIA/CES policies and procedures, to introduce the “new” provider ethics, and to reintroduce the AIA/CES audits/quality assurance program. This presentation covers those areas giving providers the opportunity to give feedback and input. SAMPLE SLIDE
  4. 4. Learning Objectives At the end of this program, participants will be able to: 1. Distinguish the three major urban design strategies in suburban redevelopment and their appropriateness to different locations and market conditions 2. Instruct communities and clients on the impact of changing suburban demographics on development patterns and markets 3. Differentiate the environmental health and public health advantages of walkable, mixed-use, and compact places versus automobile-dependent spaces 4. Cite a variety of precedents for retrofitting different suburban property types into more sustainable places
  5. 5. This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Course Ellen Dunham-Jones Georgia Institute of Technology
  6. 6. 1100 malls: 150+ dead, 300 sick 60,000+ strip malls, 11% vacancy rate 350,000+ big box stores, 300 mil vacant sf Retail square footage/capita in shopping centers: U.S.A. 23sf (up from 15 in 1986) Canada 13sf Australia 11sf Sweden 3sf (largest in Europe) Discretionary shopping as % of GLA: 1971: 25.7% , up to 31.9% in 2010 Source: Co-Star, Michael Nimira, ICSC
  7. 7. On average, urban dwellers in the U.S. have 1/3 the carbon footprint of suburban dwellers. Interpolation from various studies imperative : climate change
  8. 8. The shift from the industrial to the post-industrail economy has shifted the public health focus from infectious disease to chronic disease. Suburban development patterns have been linked with sedentary lifestyles, dramatic increases in obesity and consequent higher risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Centers for Disease Control, Healthy Communities Initiative imperative : health: obesity
  9. 9. imperative : poverty Since 2005, more Americans in poverty have been living in suburbs than in cities – and their numbers are growing at a faster rate. The Brookings Institution. Between 2000 and 2008, large suburbs saw the fastest growing low- income populations across community types. The Brookings Institution. El Paso and McAllen metros lead the nation w/ 35-36% suburban poverty ScrapteTV. com Center for American Progress
  10. 10. imperative : affordability Average U.S. household spending on transportation is 19% of income. -9-12% in “walkable urbanism” -25% in “drivable suburbanism” -30% for those in the lower income 1/2 of U.S. households Center for Neighborhood Technology( 2005)
  11. 11. ABOGO and the Housing + Transportation Affordability Index Center for Neighborhood Technologies, A household at 500 McKinney St spends approx $663/month on transportation ($3.39/gallon) The Houston regional average is $1166/month
  12. 12. Housing + Transportation Affordability Index Center for Neighborhood Technologies, 13% of Houston Metro households live in areas with walkable blocks 80% of Houston households contribute more than 6.5 tonnes of GHG emissions/year, 55% are at o r a b o v e t h e 8 . 6 t o n n e s / y e a r ( t h e h i g h e s t n u m b e r c a l c u l a t e d )
  13. 13. market driver headlines : demographic shifts suburbia simply isn’t “family-focused” anymore. 2/3 of suburban hh’s don’t have kids, 85% of new hh’s won’t through 2025 . Millennials are looking for nightlife and value wifi and connectedness more than cars. the new centers as metros have expanded, first ring suburbs and commercial corridors now have central locations, often meriting densification and urbanization of their “underperforming asphalt”.
  14. 14. • 43 regionally-significant walkable urban places • 75% price premium for office rents 71% price premium for multi-family residential rents/sales • Retail lags –only 13% in walk-ups in 2009 cycle, despite $6.71/sf premium for each tier ranking • 77% have or are considering rail transit • Walk UPS = 11% of metro area, but 33% of metro real estate income strategy: DC Walk UPS 2012 Findings GWU: Chris Leinberger, Mariela Alfonso
  15. 15. • 22 Regionally-significant walkable urban places • 7 regionally-significant emerging walkable urban places • 16% price premium for office rents • 120% price premium for multi-family residential rents/sales • 116% price premium for retail rents strategy: ATL Walk UPS 2013 preliminary findings GWU: Chris Leinberger, Mason Austin ARC: Jared Lombard, Dan Reuter GT: Ellen Dunham-Jones
  16. 16. relocalization of people, place, and landscape diversification of incomes and activities tactical urbanism, crowdsourcing, and collaborative consumption cheap space for community- serving uses “third places” strategy : Re-inhabitation
  17. 17. Source unverified Build a Better Block Oak Cliff, Texas Jason Roberts and Team Build a Better Block
  18. 18. Congress for the New Urbanism: Next Gen short-term projects for long-term gains pavement to plaza depave parklet yarnbombing Walk posters guerrilla grafting
  19. 19. From Wal-Mart to Public Library McAllen Public Library, McAllen TX; Boultinghouse Simpson Gates Architects, Meyer Scherer Rockcastle Architects Lara Swimmer
  20. 20. Meds & Eds: From dying mall to revived mall and university medical center One Hundred Oaks, Nashville, TN: ATR & Assoc., Gresham Smith and Partners Architects Source unverified
  21. 21. From Mies van der Rohe gas station to Sr and Youth Center “Le Station”, Nun‟s Island, Quebec, Arrondisement of Verdun, Eric Gauthier -FABG Architects, 2011 Geothermal heating allowed removal of the HVAC system to cleanly expose the roof and ceiling systems
  22. 22. Updating the “L” strip mall as a “third place” with portals to the neighborhood Lake Grove Shopping Center, Lake Oswego, OR: Eric Shoemaker Beam Development From “back” to a new front to the neighborhood
  23. 23. From strip to job and town center Willingboro Town Center Willingboro, NJ Croxton Collaborative Architects 1960 1. Boscov‟s Furniture 2. Sears 3. Woolworths 4. Power plant 2009 1. Mail-service pharmacy 2. Office building 3. Public library w/ retail 4. Community College 5. Town Commons 6. Townhouses 7. Planted swales Courtesty Croxton Collaborative Architects MTC Aerial Photography
  24. 24. New Leaf Center Affordable Equity Partners Habitat for Humanity townhomes Social services, incu- Lease to Purchase NSP-funded bator kitchen, restau- Low-income tax credits rant, classrooms, mtg 32 cottages space, with apts abv. 5 funding sources: NPS3, CBDG, SPLOST, FHLB- AFB, Newton Federal Bank From zombie subdivision to mixed-income neighborhood: City as Master Developer Walkers Bend, Covington, GA: Covington Redevelopment Authority
  25. 25. urbanize – organize buildings to create connected outdoor rooms and walkable street networks densify and diversify: reward the pedestrian eye green the infrastructure strategy: Redevelopment
  26. 26. from 69 houses to TOD with 2,250 d.u., 300k sf office, 190k sf retail (2006) MetroWest, Vienna, VA: Pulte Homes, Lessard Arch Group, EDAW.
  27. 27. From grocery anchored strip mall to village center The A&P Lofts, Old Cloverdale, Montgomery AL City Loft Corporation, McAlpine Tankersley Architecture, The Colonial Company
  28. 28. 1985 2005 2025 Source: Dunham-Jones, Williamson 2009 from strip center to “attachable urbanism” Mashpee Commons, Cape Cod, MA 1988-present Cornish Assoc. Ltd / Duany Plater-Zyberk & Co / Imai, Keller Moore
  29. 29. from strip center to “attachable urbanism” Mashpee Commons, Cape Cod, MA 1988-present Cornish Assoc. Ltd / Duany Plater-Zyberk & Co / Imai, Keller Moore “skinny” liner stores screen parking lots and provide incubator retail space for local shops -highest grossing $/s.f. on the site
  30. 30. From strip mall to Main Street with high-end shop, live, stay and now, office Santana Row, San Jose, CA: Federal Realty Trust, Street Works, SB Archts, BAR Archts In 10 years its grown from 35 to 100 merchants, 622 res‟l units (w/ 20% premium) and has contributed more than $40 mil in property tax and $24mil in sales tax in 2011.
  31. 31. From dead mall to upscale live-work-play – during a down market CityCentre, Houston, TX: Midway Cos.; Gensler; Kirksey Architects, James Burnett
  32. 32. From strip mall to PPP-funded town center Sugar Land Town Square, Sugarland, TX: Planned Community Developers Ltd.,
  33. 33. transit triggers infill of an office park University Town Center, Hyattsville, MD Prince George‟s Metro Center, Inc. Parker Rodriguez RTKL Associates WDG Architecture
  34. 34. University Town Center 1940 a large farm estate adjacent to the village of Hyattsville
  35. 35. Highway triggers a mall, the office park, and buffer buildings University Town Center 1980
  36. 36. transit triggers infilling with new Main St, plaza and parking deck University Town Center 2020
  37. 37. First retrofit triggers four more University Town Center 2020 (revised 6/10)
  38. 38. New Main StreetNnNEw
  39. 39. From a park-n-ride + mall to a civic centre w/ geothermal district heatingSurr Surrey Central City, Surrey, BC; Simon Frasier University, Bing Thom Architects, Inc source: Dunham-Jones, Williamson, 2009 Library Classrooms above shopping mall Phase 1: college classrooms built above mall, + new high rise
  40. 40. From dead mall to green downtown Belmar, Lakewood,CO Continuum Partners Elkus Manfredi Architects, Civitas Inc. Van Meter Williams Pollack Architects Before
  41. 41. before - Villa Italia mall •140 subtenant leases •PPP with City of Lakewood, Lakewood Reinvestment Authority, Continuum Partners •Infrastructure delivered by Developer, paid back out of sales tax collected on site
  42. 42. Belmar 1975
  43. 43. Belmar 1995
  44. 44. Belmar 2015
  45. 45. •2002-8 fiscal and economic impact on Lakewood of $207.2 million ($49.5 million in 2008 alone), including a fiscal impact of $10.6 million •9 acres of public space and parks including a 2.1 acre park, 1.1 acre plaza •8 bus lines come through the new downtown •2/3 complete in „09: 1.1 mil sf retail, .9mil sf office, 1300 residential units
  46. 46. 8 of 13 regional malls in the Denver Metro area have been retrofitted or announced plans to be. Retrofitting does NOT imply the wholesale redevelopment of existing neighborhoods. Rather it provides existing neighborhoods with urban nodes on targeted underperforming sites- raising the question, how to connect the dots? Source: Dunham-Jones, Williamson, 2009
  47. 47. Transportation innovations: The Schweeb and the Straddle Bus
  48. 48. Recapturing traffic islands for redevelopment while making walkable intersections Fort Totten MetroRail stop, Washington DC Planning Department, WAMATA Source: Washington DC Planning Dept website
  49. 49. Intersection retrofit and public placemaking as catalyst Normal Illinois Roundabout, Normal Illinois: Doug Farr Associates, Hoerr Schauer Landscape
  50. 50. Photoz; G. Komar From 5-lane arterial to 2-lane Main Street with multi-use parking Ramblas & solar Lancaster, CA: CT/KDF Community Development Partners, Moule & Polyzoides Since revitalization started in 2009: $106mil in New Markets Tax Credits for redevelopment for local entrepreneurs; 50 new businesses; 10% increase in downtown property values; 50% cut in traffic collisions
  51. 51. from commercial strip to multi-way boulevard and new downtown Palm Canyon Drive, Cathedral City, CA; Freedman, Tung & Bottomley source: Dunham-Jones, Williamson, 2009
  52. 52. Retrofitting the strip corridor with transit-served nodes Columbia Pike, Arlington County, VA, Ferrell Madden Associates, Dover Kohl & Partners
  53. 53. From edge city sprawl to 430-acre BRT-extended TOD centered on boulevard White Flint, MD: White Flint Partnership, Montgomery County, Glatting Jackson, var designers -new high-rise downtown over 20 years, $6-7 bil tax revenue, 10k residents – 25% affordable
  54. 54. Connecting the Dots: Retrofitting the airport, mall, chemical plant and corridor Airport Boulevard, Austin TX: City of Austin, Gateway Planning Group
  55. 55. retrofitting land use, transportation and energy on a commercial corridor Cambie Corridor, Vancouver, BC, Vancouver City Planning Department
  56. 56. reconstruct local ecology, daylight culverted streams, and clean run- off add parks to increase adjacent property values food and energy production carbon sequestration strategy: Regreening
  57. 57. from shopping center to wetland w/ new lakefront property investment Phalen Village, Phalen MN,U.Minnesota CALA (Dowdell, Fraker, Nassauer) and City of St. Paul Before After
  58. 58. from mall parking lot to TOD with water treatment bioswale as park amenity Northgate Urban Center, North Seattle, WA: LEED-ND pilot program Thornton Place, Mithun Architects for Stellar Holdings & Lorig Associates •Added 530 units of housing at net 96 units/acre (another 1800 coming?) •Increased open space within the Northgate Urban Center by 50% •Provided pedestrian links that shortened walking distances by 50% from several adjacent neighborhoods Source: Dunham-Jones, Williamson 2011 2000 condos to replace 200 apts?
  59. 59. Thornton Creek Water Quality Channel: City of Seattle, SvR Design •Reduced impervious surface by 78% •Designed to remove an estimated 40-80% of suspended solids from 91% of the avg annual stormwater runoff from the 680-acre drainage basin •Created new habitat: native birds were observed within one month and native volunteer plants have gotten established with the 85% native species that were planted. Source: Kaid Benfield, Natural Resources Defence Council •Adds an estimated 30% increase in adjacent property values
  60. 60. From urban mall to park ringed with urban housing Columbus City Center Park, Columbus OH
  61. 61. From convention center parking lots to public/private park Discovery Green, Houston, TX: Brown and Kinder Foundations, Hargreaves Associates
  62. 62. Gentrification in the name of regreening? Dunwoody Glen, Dunwoody GA
  63. 63. Amateur photographers protesting for the right to public space on the Astroturf green at Downtown Silver Spring, MD, July 4, 2007
  64. 64. HYBRID PLACES “PUBLIC” spaces under PRIVATE management/ownership URBAN streetscapes with SUBURBAN parking ratios URBAN qualities at SUBURBAN costs LOCAL placemaking with NATIONAL retail/design/funding Populations that are MORE DIVERSE than typical suburbs, but LESS DIVERSE than typical cities INSTANT URBANISM
  65. 65. challenge: New Tools Planning grants: Federal and Metro The ITE street design manual Community/Business Improvement Districts Real estate transaction fees Anticipatory retrofitting and contingent zoning Design competitions Retrofittability analysis & performance metrics Street art
  66. 66. Partnering to Remove Obstacles to Urbanism by Reforming Standards and Practices Past Initiatives: HOPE VI Mixed- Income Communities LEED-ND CNU/ITE Manual on Walkable Urban Thoroughfares Emerging Initiatives: Tactical Urbanism, Urban Agricutlure, Code Reform, New Urbanism in China