6chapter11

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6chapter11

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics By Miguel Mejia and Seena Nadimi
  2. 2. 11-1 The Work of Gregor Mendel <ul><li>Mendel was a Austrian monk who taught high school. He understood biological inheritance, and studied this in a garden with pea plants for 14 years. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Dominance and Segregation <ul><li>Traits are specific characteristic, such as individual height, eye color, or hair color. </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids are a cross between parents with unrelated traits. </li></ul><ul><li>The principle of dominance says some alleles are recessive(rr) and are dominant(Rr) </li></ul><ul><li>Recessive alleles do not disappear in the breeding process. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 11-2 Probability and Punnet Square <ul><li>Probability: The likelihood that an event will occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Punnet Squares show the probability of a genotype.11-2 Probability and Punnet Square </li></ul><ul><li>Probability: The likelihood that an event will occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Punnet Squares show the probability of a genotype. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 11-3 Exploring Mendelian Genetics <ul><li>The Two-Factor Cross:F1 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mendel's Principles <ul><li>Inheritance of characteristics are determined by genes that are passed on my previous generations </li></ul><ul><li>Genes can be dominant or recessive </li></ul><ul><li>Genes from separate organisms are segregated when gametes are formed </li></ul><ul><li>The alleles from separate genes are normal segregated independently of each other </li></ul>
  7. 7. Applying his Principles <ul><li>Mendel's principles apply to all organisms that reproduce sexually. </li></ul>And
  8. 8. Meiosis <ul><li>Meiosis consist of 8 phases Interphase1, Prophase1, Metaphase, Anaphase, Prophase2, Metaphase2, anaphase2, Telophase2 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mitosis vs. Meiosis <ul><li>Mitosis results in the production of two identical diploids, while Meiosis produces four different haploid cells. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gene Maps <ul><li>Gene maps show the location of a colorful assortment of gene on given chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: If you find two genes on the same chromosome, does it mean that the genes are linked to the chromosome forever? </li></ul><ul><li>A:No, in the process of Meiosis it sometimes separates the genes on the chromosomes </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>FIN </li></ul>

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