3chapter12

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3chapter12

  1. 1. Chapter 12: DNA and RNA with Steve and Joe
  2. 2. Griffith and Transformation <ul><li>Injected mice with disease causing bacteria and mice developed pneumonia and died. </li></ul><ul><li>Wondered if bacteria produced poison. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat killed bacteria and mice survived. </li></ul><ul><li>Injected mice with heat killed disease-causing bacteria mixed with living harmless bacteria and mice developed pneumonia. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered that lungs were filled with disease causing bacteria. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hershey and Chase and the structure of DNA <ul><li>Two American Scientist, who studied viruses and non-living particles. </li></ul><ul><li>BACTERIOPHAGE, is a virus that infects and kills bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is along molecule made up of units called nucleotides. </li></ul><ul><li>A NUCLEOTIDE is made up of deoxyribose,phosphate group and nitrogenous base. </li></ul><ul><li>Watson and cricks model of DNA was a double helix. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chromosomes and DNA Replication <ul><li>Prokaryotic cells lack a nuclei and their DNA is found in the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic cells contain nearly all of cells genetic information. </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic DNA is packed tightly </li></ul><ul><li>DNA that is tightly coiled around proteins are called HISTONES. </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic chromosomes that contain DNA/Proteins, packed around a substance called Chromatin </li></ul><ul><li>Before cells divide, it duplicates DNA in process known as replication. </li></ul>
  5. 5. RNA <ul><li>Similar to DNA, RNA consists of a long chain of nucleotides. </li></ul><ul><li>Three main differences between RNA and DNA </li></ul><ul><li>The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>RNA is generally single-stranded </li></ul><ul><li>RNA contains uracil in place of thymine </li></ul><ul><li>There are three different types of RNA: messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Transcription <ul><li>The process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA. </li></ul><ul><li>During transcription, RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands. </li></ul>
  7. 7. RNA Editing <ul><li>Introns, intervening sequences, are removed from RNA molecules transcribed from many eukaryotics before they become functional. </li></ul><ul><li>The remaining portions, called exons, or expressed sequences, are then spliced back together to form the final mRNA. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Genetic Code and Translation <ul><li>“ language” of mRNA instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>A codon consist of three consecutive nucleotides that specify a single amino acid to be added to a polypeptide. </li></ul><ul><li>The three bases on the tRNA molecule are called anticodon. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation is the decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mutation <ul><li>Changes in the DNA sequence that affect genetic information </li></ul><ul><li>Gene mutations result from changes in a single gene. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gene Regulation <ul><li>It refers to the control of the timing of changes to the appearance of the functional product of a gene. </li></ul><ul><li>A functional gene product may be an RNA or protein. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of known mechanisms regulate protein coding genes. </li></ul>

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