2chapter12

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2chapter12

  1. 1. Chapter 12: DNA and RNA Elana Jacobs-Pontecorvo
  2. 2. Discoveries about DNA <ul><li>Avery (and other scientists): </li></ul><ul><li>experimented with destroying different parts of heat killed bacteria, and found out that: </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is a nucleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>DNA store genetic information </li></ul><ul><li>DNA transmits genetic information to the next generation </li></ul>Elana Jacobs-Pontecorvo
  3. 3. <ul><li>Hershey and Chase: </li></ul><ul><li>Experimented with bacteriophages. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriophages are viruses that inject their genetic material into the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>They found that the genetic material was DNA </li></ul>Elana Jacobs-Pontecorvo
  4. 4. <ul><li>Watson and Crick: </li></ul><ul><li>made a model of DNA which was a double helix, like this picture: </li></ul>Elana Jacobs-Pontecorvo
  5. 5. DNA replication <ul><li>The DNA molecule unzips into two strands </li></ul><ul><li>Each strand produces a new strand </li></ul><ul><li>The enzyme used is called DNA polymerase </li></ul>Elana Jacobs-Pontecorvo
  6. 6. Types of RNA <ul><li>Messenger RNA: sends messages from DNA to rest of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomal RNA: Makes up ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer RNA: Help construct proteins. </li></ul>Olenka Alvarado
  7. 7. Transcription <ul><li>1. The enzyme, RNA polymerase, separates the DNA strands. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nucleotides are made into a strand of RNA, by using a strand of DNA as a model. </li></ul>Olenka Alavarado
  8. 8. Translation: process of cell making proteins <ul><li>mRNA enters cytoplasm and attaches to ribosome, starts translation. </li></ul><ul><li>tRNA with an amino acid on top attaches to the mRNA strand with the anticodon that matches its codon. </li></ul><ul><li>ribosomes form peptide bond between the amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>tRNA leaves and the cell is left with a protein chain </li></ul>Olenka Alvarado
  9. 9. Mutations <ul><li>A) Gene Mutations: change in a single gene </li></ul><ul><li>-Point Mutations: affect one nucleotide </li></ul><ul><li>-Frameshift Mutations: affects all amino acids after the change (insertion or deletion of nucleotide) </li></ul><ul><li>B)Chromosomal Mutations: changes in structure or number of chromosomes </li></ul>Olenka Alvarado
  10. 10. Gene Regulation <ul><li>Lac genes: turned off by repressors and on by lactose </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Genes: individually controlled. </li></ul>Olenka Alvarado

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