2 Chapter40


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2 Chapter40

  1. 1. Chapter 40 The Immune System and Disease By: Lisa Lee & Thanh Huynh
  2. 2. Infectious Disease by: Lisa <ul><li>A disease is a change in the body that isn’t an injury and causes the body to not function correctly. </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases can be inherited, caused by materials in the environment, and can be caused by bacteria viruses and fungi. </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases can be spread by coughing, sneezing, or physical contact. </li></ul><ul><li>It can also be spread through contaminated water or food and infected animals. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fighting Infectious Diseases by: Thanh <ul><li>You can fight infectious diseases by antibiotics. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a compound that kills the bacteria without hurting the cells of a human or animal. </li></ul><ul><li>They work by interfering with the cellular processes of microorganisms. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Immune System by: Lisa <ul><li>The most important nonspecific defense is the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>With the skin, very few pathogens can enter the body, and the oils and sweat glands kills a lot of bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>The inflammatory response is also a nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage from an injury or infection. </li></ul><ul><li>If pathogens enter the body, the inflammatory response may have you experience a fever. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Humoral Immunity by: Thanh <ul><li>Humoral Immunity is an immunity that are against pathogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies is a protein that ruins pathogens. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the basic functional unit of the humoral immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>When the body is exposed to a pathogen millions of B and T cells make antibodies to the pathogens. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Immune System Disorders by: Lisa <ul><li>Overreactions of the immune system are allergies. </li></ul><ul><li>They happen when antigens from allergens bind to mast cells. </li></ul><ul><li>When the body makes a mistake in the immune system, it bothers its own cells and makes an autoimmune disease. </li></ul>
  7. 7. AIDS by: Thanh <ul><li>Aids stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>Once it enters the body, it attaches to receptors in the T cells. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV then replicates within the cells so it is most likely to bind to antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV then kills most of the helper T cells. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cancer by: Lisa <ul><li>Starts when something goes wrong with controls of the normal cell growth and division. </li></ul><ul><li>A single cell called a tumor can grow and divide uncontrollably. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all tumors are cancerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Malignant cancerous tumors invade and ruin the surrounding healthy tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer cells spread and absorb nutrients from other cells, block nerve connections, and stop organs they invade from functioning properly. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Causes of Cancer by: Thanh <ul><li>Caused by defects in the genes that controls cell growth and division. </li></ul><ul><li>Inherited by viruses in the body, or can have mutations in the DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Some cancers can enter cells and interrupt the normal process of mitosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation like sunlight, x-rays, and nuclear radiation can cause cancer by mutations in the DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinogens are chemical compounds that trigger mutation in the DNA of normal cells. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fighting Cancer by: Lisa <ul><li>Best way to fight cancer is to prevent it. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, you can reduce the risk of lung cancer by not smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>If cancer is detected, the chances of treating it can be as high as 90% </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments are surgery, radiation therapy, and drug therapy. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cancer