MOST CONVENIENT DOSAGE FORM
concentrated aqueous preparations of 85% of sugar or sugar substitute with or without flavoring
agents and medicinal substances.
In medical terminology, medicinal syrups are nearly saturated solutions of 85% of sugar in water
in which medicinal substances or drugs are dissolved.
Due to the inability of some children and elderly people to swallow solid dosage forms, it is fairly
common today for a pharmacist to be asked to prepare an oral liquid dosage form of a medication
available in the pharmacy.
WHAT IS SYRUP
Aromatic or adjuvant syrups
They are mostly used to improve the taste of salty, bitter, or otherwise unpleasant mixtures.
They are of two types:
Made from extractive drugs: Here, the fluid extract of the respective medicines is mixed with the
Made from chemicals: This can be either by simple solution or by chemical reaction and solution.
Here the taste of the medicinal agents is greatly modified.
TYPES OF SYRUP
› Appropriate for any patient, whatever the age is
› The most natural and easiest route of administration
› Economical and safe to the patient
› No nursing is required, which means the patient can take it with no help
› The liquid dosage form is expected for certain types of products like cough medicines
ADVANTAGES OF SYRUP
› Delayed onset of action because absorption takes time
› Not suitable in emergency and for unconscious patients
› Not convenient for a patient with a gastrointestinal disorder such as diarrhea,
constipation, ulceration, and hyperacidity in stomach
› Can’t avoid first pass metabolism
DISADVANTAGES OF SYRUP
Most syrups contain the following components in addition to the purified water and any medicinal
(a)Sweetening Agent- the sugar, usually sucrose, or sugar substitute used to provide sweetness and
(b) Antimicrobial Preservatives
(c) Viscosity Modifier
many types of syrups, especially those prepared commercially, contain special solvents, solubilizing
agents, thickeners, or stabilizers.
COMPONENTS OF SYRUP
Pharmaceutical syrups are produced by mixing purified water, sweeteners, active ingredients
(API), aromas, flavours and other ingredients (thickeners) etc.
PREPARATION OF SYRUP
There are four methods. Based on the physical and chemical properties on the ingredients,
the choice of the method is selected-
I. Solution with heat
II. Agitation without heat
III. Addition of sucrose to liquid medicament
IV. Percolation method
1. Solution with heat-
temperature of purified water is increased to 80 to 85 C
taken off from the heat source
Then add sucrose and shake it thoroughly
Those substances that are heat sensitive and volatile agents are added after the solution attain the room temperature
during heating, the sucrose gets hydrolysed, results in the formation of dextrose and fructose
these two sugars together called as invert sugar and the process is known as inversion
The inversion leads to darkening of the solution
2.Agitation without heat-
vessel is taken generally made up of stainless steel or glass
The vessel should be larger than the desired volume of syrup required
Then the ingredients according to the formulation are added to water and mixed
It is better to dissolve solid ingredients in the water first and then to add them to syrup
This results in easy mixing as sugar solution generally retards mixing
3. Addition of sucrose to liquid medicament-
This method is generally used for fluid extracts.
But those substances which are soluble in alcohol will precipitate out as soon as the addition of water
An alternation is to first dissolve all the ingredients in water
Now after sometime all the precipitates formed are filtered out
Now add sucrose
But this method is of no use if the precipitates formed has active ingredients
4. Percolation method-
the principle of percolation is used
A sucrose bed is prepared and then water or vehicle containing therapeutic agent is passed
Here the sucrose bed should be coarse and shape of percolator must be cylindrical or cone shapped
The manufacturing process must achieve the following factors:
• Dissolving of the sugars to form a syrup
• Hydration of powdered ingredients
• Blending ingredients of widely different viscosity
• Suspension or dissolving of active ingredients
• The end product must be smooth, agglomerate-free and homogeneous.
• Equipment should conform to GMP standards
FACTORS TO BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION
Using conventional mixers and agitators for this process leads
to several potential problems:
• Conventional agitators cannot dissolve high concentrations of sugars at ambient temperature.
• Heating of the mixture will be required to aid solution. This is
• The cooling process after this further adds to costs and
• Crystallization of the syrup can occur during heating/cooling.
• Active ingredients can be damaged by heat.
• Thickening ingredients will form agglomerates which
conventional equipment cannot disperse
These problems can be overcome by using a Silverson High Shear mixer.
• A Silverson high shear mixer can produce 66% sucrose syrup at ambient temperature.
• The heat of dissolution is imparted in the form of shear
• Consistent product quality and repeatability is obtained.
• An agglomerate free mixture is produced
Syrup, as a pharmaceutical product requires safe, secure and tamper-proof handling while packaging.
Packaging of syrups needs to ensure complete protection from contamination and microbial growth. Our
inevitable packaging support assures the safe and secure packaging of syrups so as to ensure their extended
The general process:
› Coding & labeling
Packaging of Syrup
Process Involved in Syrup Packaging –
Empty Bottles are rinsed though Air-jet cleaning
› After complete cleaning, bottles are tested & transferred ahead for filling
› Filling machines with their automatic piston fills the bottles with accurate volume of syrup
› Capping is done on bottle through capping machines
› Plastic or aluminum capsules are bound over the neck of the bottle for secure sealing
› Important details regarding packaging date & expiry date are printed on bottles
Flow chart for Oral liquid packaging
Bottle washing Filling Cap sealing Inspection Turn table
Outer labeling Inkjet print Checking Cap printing Labeling
Checking & Stacking
With our advancements in the Packaging Machines, the pharmaceutical industry is gaining
immense benefits in terms of:
› Safe & secure process handling
› Excellent packaging while preserving the quality of syrup
› Tight sealing protecting syrup from contaminants
› Reduced over-head
All the products dispense extemporaneously require some form of additional storage
instructions to be detailed on the label. This information can be the addition of just a
product expiry date through to a number of important additional label
Every pharmaceutical preparation requires a label to be produced before the product can be
dispensed or sold to patient. The accuracy of the label is of paramount importance as it
conveys essential information to the patient on the use of preparation.
Brand Name Company Active Ingredient Therapeutic Class Use Dose and Dosages
Ambrox Square Pharmaceutical Ltd. Ambroxol Hydrochloride Cough & Cold Remedies Productive cough, Acute and chronic inflammatory disorders
of upper and lower respiratory tracts associated with viscid
mucus including acute and chronic bronchitis
2 -5 years old - 2.5 ml, 2-3 times a
day, 5 - 10 years old - 5 ml, 2-3
times a day, 10 years old and adults
- 10 ml, 3 times a day.
Brofex Square Pharmaceutical Ltd. Dextromethorphan Cough & Cold Remedies Chronic dry cough/unproductive cough & acute dry cough
which is interfering with normal function or sleep.
Adults and Children over 12: 15 to
30 mg 3-4.Childrenbetween 6-12: 5-
15 mg up to 4 times per day.
Children between 2 to 6: 2.5-5 mg
up to 4 times per day.
Tusca Square Pharmaceutical Ltd. Guaiphenesin+
Cough & Cold Remedies Symptomatic relief of upper respiratory tract disorders
accompanied by productive cough.
Adults: 2 teaspoonful Children: Over
12 years: 2 teaspoonful 3. 6-12
years: 1 teaspoonful. 2-6 years: 1/2
teaspoonful 3 times a day.
DuolaxTM Square Pharmaceutical Ltd. Magnesium Hydroxide &
Laxative Constipation, Hyperacidity with constipation, Anorectal
Adults and over12 5-30 ml daily,
Children over 7 7.5 ml - 15 ml daily,
Children over 3-7 5-10 ml
Unilin® Opsonin Pharma Ltd. Theophylline sodium glycinate Antiasthmatics Theophylline is used in reversible airflow obstruction
associated with chronic asthma.
Adult- 1/2 -1, 6-12 years- 1-11/2
teaspoonful, >12 years- 2-4 every 6
hours after meal.
Purilin® Opsonin Pharma Ltd. Levosalbutamol Sulphate Antiasthmatics Levosalbutamol is indicated for the treatment and
prevention of bronchospasm in adults, adolescents.
Children aged 6-11 years:
Adults and Above 12 yrs 10 ml three
XINC Eskayef Bangladesh Ltd. Zinc sulfate monohydrate Vitamins & Minerals Oral zinc therapy is indicated in zinc deficiency and/or zinc
Child under 10 kg: 22.5 mg
Child between 10-30 kg:22.5 mg 1-3
Adults and child over 30 kg: 45 mg
1-3 times daily.
SOLVITONE Eskayef Bangladesh Ltd Vitamin B-complex Vitamins & Minerals Prevention and treatment of vitamin B-complex deficiency
states. It may be used in pregnancy, Lactation and in other
conditions where B-vitamin supplementation is useful.
Adults & Children: 1-2 teaspoonfuls
Infants: 1 teaspoonful daily or as
recommended by the physician.
Kofen Opsonin Pharma Ltd. Ketotifen Fumarate Antiasthmatics It is effective in prophylaxis of bronchial asthma, allergic
rhinitis and conjunctivitis.
Adult: 1-2 mg two times daily with
food. Child: Over 2 years of age, 1
mg two times daily with food.
Pulmolin Opsonin Pharma Ltd. Salbutamol Sulphate Antiasthmatics Acute and chronic bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis,
bronchospasm, reversible airways obstruction.
Adults: 5 ml 3-4 times daily;
maximum single dose 8 ml.
Some SYRUPS PRESENT IN MARKET