Lactation and neonatal immunization

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Lactation and neonatal immunization

  1. 1. LACTATION AND NEONATAL IMMUNIZATION DR. NAHEED BANO Assistant Professor, Obs/Gynae Unit I Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi.
  2. 2. WHO recommends exclusive breast feeding till 4 months of age.
  3. 3. COMPARISON BETWEEN HUMAN & COW’S MILK Human breast Milk Cow’s Milk Energy (Kcal/ml) 75 66 Lactose (g/100ml) 6.8 4.9 Protein (g/100ml) 1.1 3.5 Fat (g/100ml) 4.5 3.7 Sodium (m mol/L) 7 22 Water (mL/100ml) 87.1 87.3
  4. 4. COLOSTRUM: Yellowish fluid secreted by the breast that can be expressed as early as 16 week of pregnancy and is replaced by milk during the second postpartum day.
  5. 5. ADVANTAGES OF BREAST FEEDING • Tailor made for human baby (Temperature & Nutrition) • Ig A, small amounts of Ig M and Ig G, lactoferrin, macrophages, complement, lysozymes. • Better absorption of iron in mother’s milk than that in cow’s milk. • Contains all vitamins except vit. K • Βonding • Easy availability and cost effective
  6. 6. • ↓ infant mortality and morbidity from respiratory, gastro-intestinal, urinary tract and middle ear infection. • ↓ incidence of allergies • ↓ incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer and premenopausal breast cancer in mother. • ↓ fertility
  7. 7. MECHANISM * Prolactin * Oxytocin * Milk ejection or let down reflex * Rooting reflex
  8. 8. PROBLEMS • Inadequate milk production • Sore and cracked nipples • Mastitis * Delayed initiation of feed * Infrequent feed * Time limited feed * Supplementary feed • Breast abscess
  9. 9. NEONATAL IMMUNIZATION NEONATAL IMMUNIZATION At birth OPV + BCG 6 weeks Pentavalent I + OPV I 10 weeks Pentavalent II + OPV II 14 weeks Pentavalent III + OPV III 01 yr Measles I 1½ yrs Measles II Pentavalent: Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus (DPT) + Hepatitis B + Haemophilis influenzae

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