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  1. 1. CLIMATE DEFINITION: “The sum total of all the meteorological conditions in reaction to animal and plant life” In other words Climate is the average condition of the atmosphere• WHEATHER : denotes a single event in a series of conditions, which make up the climate
  2. 2. Climate is composed of VARIABLE FACTORS:1. Freshness of air2. Freedom from dust and smoke3. Movement of the air4. Rain fall5. Humidity6. Sunlight7. Cloudiness8. Fog9. Temperature10. Barometric Pressure11. Wind velocity
  3. 3. Climatic Zones The world has been divided into different climatic zones Each zone has its advantage and disadvantages but the people of that zone get acclimatized to overcome the difficulties Factors Favouring development of insects:1. High temperature2. Humidity3. Rainfall
  4. 4. Climate and Disease Dry Deserts favour the growth of :1. Rodents e.g. Rats2. Flea3. Ticks Responsible for diseases like Plague and Tick fever etc.• Cold climates………Typhus• Heat & moisture favours growth of insects leading to Sand Fly fever, Malaria, Filariasis, Dengue fever
  5. 5. Contnd…… MALNUTRITION: specially Vit. B. deficiency in Tropics SEASONS & DISEASES :• Pollination in spring….Hay Fever, Asthma• Malaria………………..Rainy season• Cerebro-spinal fever…..Winter( due to close contact)
  6. 6. Effects of Climate on Health TEMPERATURE :1. Direct heat leads to……..Sun stroke2. Indirect heat my lead to… Syncope Anxiety Liver disorders Bowl disorders Changes in Metabolism
  7. 7. Contnd…… HOT & MOIST CLIMATE Leads to……• Debilitating & enervating effects• Mental strain• Humidity & moisture…..the sense of freshness depends upon air movement• Moist Climates are less healthy than dry ones• Heat & moisture leads to growth of micro- organisms responsible for diseases like, (a). Cholera (b). Plague (c). Pulmonary T.B.• Dry air leads to Eruptive lesions
  8. 8. Atmospheric Pressure THE HIGHEST ALTITUDE : at which man can live and work is between 17000 to 18000 ft. Un-acclimatized man can survive only for a few minutes at 25000 ft. But there is a record of living for 19 days at this height by the members of expeditions 300 ft. under water man can work only for a small period
  9. 9. Contnd…… All air crafts maintain the cabin pressure to sea level At sea level : 760 mm. / Hg. or 15 lbs. / sq. Inch At higher altitude it falls Under water rise of 760 mm. / Hg. For each 33 ft.
  10. 10. Effects on Human Body Body tissues Composed chiefly of water Non compressible Transmission of pressure to internal tissue is tolerable• If there is a pressure difference such as the cavities containing air e.g. middle ear During ascent ----------------------------Barotrauma During descent-------in mine workers, Congestion, Oedema & hemorrhage in lungs
  11. 11. Effects of Low Pressure An ascent of 1800 ft…..Pressure falls by 1 lbs. / sq. inch An ascent of 300 ft…….Temp. falls by 1 F MOUNTAIN SICKNESS OR AVIATORS SICKNESS : The condition is due to low pressure, low Oxygen concentration Sudden exposure to 13000 ft….Mountain sickness
  12. 12. Contnd…… There could be two types of presentations:A. Acute mountain sickness : Fatigue Irritability Headache Insomnia Bleeding nose Ringing ears vomiting
  13. 13. Contnd……B. High altitude Pulmonary oedema : Symptoms appear at the third day Cough C / S Breathing Coma leading to death But if the changes are slow the body adapts even at 15,000-20,000 ft. Compensatory Polycythemia is there due to raised Hb.%
  14. 14. Effects of High Pressure Isfaced by (workers): Divers Compressed air shafts Mines Caissons Under water construction
  15. 15. Contnd….. CAISSONS DISEASE : In the Caissons the pressure is rarely 30-35 lbs. The divers go as low as 20 Fathoms where the pressure is 53 lbs. Due to the high pressure, the blood present in the lungs get saturated with air During decompression the blood gives up Nitrogen to the alveolar air Oxygen is retained in the tissues & Nitrogen is liberated causing bubbles………Air Emboli
  16. 16. Contnd…… When the pressure is > 3 atmospheres : Working should not be > 1 hour Sudden decompression (Bends & Screws) Workers or divers should come up slowly (Haldane’s Method of gradual decompression) to avoid “Air Embolism” Symptoms of exposure to high pressure: Euphoria, Sensation of heat, Deep & fast respiration, Bradycardia, Disturbance of hearing, Hemorrhages-----of mouth, lungs and tympanic cavity