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Classification of anemia

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Classification of anemia

  1. 1. CLASSIFICATION OF ANAEMIA
  2. 2. DEFINITION OF ANAEMIA “Anaemia is present when the haemoglobin level in the blood is below the lower extreme of the normal range for the age and sex of the individual.”
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF ANAEMIAA. BLOOD LOSS ANAEMIA 1. OVERT BLOOD LOSS  SURGERY  ACCIDENT  EPISTAXIS  RECTAL BLEEDING  MENORRHAGIA  RECURRENT BLEEDING FROM ANY OTHER SITE 2. OCCULT BLOOD LOSS  GI BLEEDING  GENTI-URINARY BLEEDING
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF ANAEMIAB. IMPAIRED RED CELL PRODUCTION 1. INADEQUATE SUPPLY OF NUTRIENTS ESSENTIAL FOR ERYTHROPOIESIS.  IRON DEFECIENCY  VITAMIN B-12 DEFECIENCY  FOLIC ACID DEFECIENCY  PROTEIN-CALORI MALNUTRITION  OTHER LESS COMMON DEFECIENCIES
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF ANAEMIA 2. DEPRESSION OF ERYTHROPOEITIC ACTIVITY 3. ANAEMIAS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC DISORDERS.  INFECTION  CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORERS  INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS  DISSEMINATED MALIGNANCY  RENAL DISEASE 4. APLASTIC ANAEMIA
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF ANAEMIA 5. ANAEMIA DUE TO REPLACEMENT OF THE BONE MARROW BY  LEUKEMIA  LYMPHOMA  MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDER  POLYCYTHEMIA  ESSENTIAL THROMBOCYTHEMIA  CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA  MYELOFIBROSIS  MYELOMA  MYELODYSPLASTIC DISORDERS 6. ANAEMIA DUE TO INHERITED DISORDERS  THALASSAEMIA
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF ANAEMIAC. EXESSIVE RED CELL DESTRUCTION (HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA) I. DUE TO INTRINSIC DEFECTS IN RBCS a. CONGENITAL 1. MEMBRANE DEFECTS i. HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS ii. HEREDITARY ELLIPTOCYTOSIS iii. HEREDITARY XEROCYTOSIS iv. HEREDITARY HYDROCYTOSIS 2. HAEMOGLOBIN DEFECTS i. HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES ◊ SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA ◊ OTHER HOMOZYGOUS DISORDERS ◊ Hb D HbC HbE ◊ UNSTABLE HAEMOGLOBIN DISEASE
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION OF ANAEMIA ii. THALASAEMIA ◊ α THALASAEMIA ◊ β THALASAEMIA iii. DOUBLE HETEROZYGOUS DISORDER ◊ SICKLE CELL β THALASAEMIA 3. ENZYME DEFECTS i. NON SPHEROCYTIC CONGENITAL HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA ◊ PYRUVATE KINASE DEFECIENCY OR OTHER ENZYMES OF EMBDEN MAYER HOF PATHWAY ◊ DUE TO DEFECIENCY OF G6PD OR OTHER ENZYMES OF PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY ii. DRUG INDUCED HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA
  9. 9. CLASSIFICATION OF ANAEMIA b. ACQUIRED 1. PAROXYSMAL NOCTURNAL HAEMOGLOBINURIA I. DUE TO EXTRINSIC DEFECTS a. ACQUIRED 1. IMMUNE MECHANISMS i. AUTOIMMUNE ACQURIED HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA ◊ WARM ANTIBODY ◊ COLD ANTIBODY ii. HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEW BORN iii. DRUG INDUCED HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION OF ANAEMIA 2. NON IMMUNE MECHANISMS MECHANICAL HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA i. CARDIAC HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA ii. MICROANGIOPATHIC HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA iii. MARCH HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA 3. MISCELLANEOUS i. HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA DUE TO DIRECT ACTIONS OF CHEMICAL AND DRUGS ii. HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA DUE TO INFECTION iii. HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA DUE TO BURNS iv. LEAD POISINING
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