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environmental control of poultry farms PLC based project report

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environmental control of poultry farms PLC based project report

  1. 1. Study Development And Implementation of Environmental Control System for Poultry Farms Muhammad Ahsan Naeem Rao Khurram shahzad Muhammad Asjad Muhammad Shehryar December 2012 Department of Electrical Engineering COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY WAH CANTT – PAKISTAN
  2. 2. NUMBER PROJECT OF ID MEM BERS TITLE Study and implementation of Environmental control of poultry farms SUPERVISOR NAME Sir zahoor ud din MEMBER NAME REG. NO. EMAIL ADDRESS Muhammad ahsan Fa08-bs(ce)-142 Ahsannaeem_ch@yahoo.com naeem Rao khurram Fa08-bs(ce)-186 R_ks88@yahoo.com shahzad Muhammad asjad Fa08-bs(ce)-074 Engineer.asjad@yahoo.com Muhammad Fa08-bs(ce)-142 Ask_ciit@yahoo.com shehryar CHECKLIST: Number of pages attached with this form I/We have attached a complete Project Timeline YES / NO using the form CE-DP-35A I/We have enclosed the soft-copy of this document along- YES / NO with the codes and scripts created by myself/ourselves My/Our supervisor has attested the attached document YES / NO I/We confirm to state that this project is free from any type YES / NO of plagiarism and misuse of copyrighted material MEMBERS’ SIGNATURES Supervisor’s SignatureNote 1: This paper must be signed by your supervisorNote 2: The soft-copies of your project report, source codes, schematics, and executables should be delivered in a CDNote 3: Submit the report and software to the Degree Projects Coordinator, Electrical Engineering Department 6
  3. 3. Declaration“No portion of the work referred to in the dissertation has been submitted in support of an application for another degree or qualification of this or any other university/institute or other institution of learning”. MEMBERS’ SIGNATURES _______________________________ 7
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS“Glory to Allah Most High full of grace and mercy He created all including Human”We thank to Almighty ALLAH for His Blessing and Guidance in working for this project.We would like to admit the great and unconditional academic support and encouragement from our family. This success is all because of their prayers and help in our university career.We would also like to specially thank our highly regarded teachers and specially supervisor of project Mr. ZAHOOR-UD-DIN for his utmost help and invaluable guidance and expert advices during execution of the project.We are also thankful to lab assistants who were always present when we needed them.We are extremely obliged to our other class fellows who helped us in some way or the other in completing this project. Regards, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem Rao Khurram Shahzad Muhammad Asjad Muhammad Shehryar 8
  5. 5. ABSTRACTThe main idea / theme of this project is to design such a system that would sense and controlthree parameters i.e. temperature, water level and humidity in the poultry farms .We wouldset some required parameters (or particular units) of temperature, water level and humidity(necessary for the healthy growth of chickens in this case) and if these parameters rise aboveor fall below our required conditions, then those parameters would be sensed by therelated/concerned sensors and corrected according to our needs/required conditions .Due towhich we will have a complete understanding of the environmental conditions in poultryfarms and we would thus be able to control these conditions. 9
  6. 6. Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 15 1.1 REASON FOR CHOOSING THIS PROJECT........................................................................... 15 1.2 BACKGROUND ......................................................................................................................... 16 1.3 BENEFITS OF POULTRY FARMING IN CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT ...................... 16Literature review ................................................................................................................................... 19 2.1 programmable logic controller (PLC) ......................................................................................... 19 2.1.1 Conceptual Design of PLC ................................................................................................... 19 2.1.2 History of Programmable Logic Controllers ........................................................................ 20 2.1.3 Today’s Programmable Controllers...................................................................................... 20 2.1.4 Programmable Controllers and the Future............................................................................ 22 2.1.5 Principles of Operation ......................................................................................................... 22 2.1.6 Typical Area of PLC Applications ....................................................................................... 23 2.1.7 PLC Product Application Ranges ......................................................................................... 25 2.2 programming of PLC .................................................................................................................. 25 2.2.1 Statement list programming.................................................................................................. 25 2.2.2 Functional block diagram programming .............................................................................. 26 2.2.3 Ladder diagram programming .............................................................................................. 26 2.3 Temperature sensor ..................................................................................................................... 27 2.3.1 Contact Temperature Sensor Types ...................................................................................... 27 2.3.2 Non-contact Temperature Sensor Types .............................................................................. 27 2.3.3 The Thermostat ..................................................................................................................... 27 2.3.4 The Thermistor ..................................................................................................................... 28 2.3.5 Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTD) .............................................................................. 28 2.3.6 The Thermocouple ................................................................................................................ 28 2.4 Humidity...................................................................................................................................... 28 2.5 Humidity sensors ......................................................................................................................... 29 10
  7. 7. 2.5.1 Humidity Sensor Types ........................................................................................................ 29 2.5.2 Capacitive Sensors ................................................................................................................ 29 2.5.3 Resistive Sensors .................................................................................................................. 29 2.5.4 Thermal Conductivity Sensors ............................................................................................. 29 2.6 Air Pressure ................................................................................................................................. 29 2.7 Air pressure sensor ...................................................................................................................... 29 2.7.1 Types of pressure measurements .......................................................................................... 30 2.7.2 Absolute pressure sensors ..................................................................................................... 30 2.7.3 Differential pressure sensors. ............................................................................................... 30 2.7.4 Gauge pressure sensors ......................................................................................................... 30 2.8 GSM Modem ............................................................................................................................... 30 2.8.1 GSM interface....................................................................................................................... 30 2.8.2 Mobile Phone as GSM modem ............................................................................................. 31 2.9 Water level sensor ....................................................................................................................... 31Project Design ....................................................................................................................................... 33 3.1 circuit Design .............................................................................................................................. 33 3.2 HOW IT WORKS ....................................................................................................................... 34Selection of equipment ......................................................................................................................... 36 4.1 PLC (T100MD-2424).................................................................................................................. 36 4.1.1 Physical Mounting & Wiring ............................................................................................... 37 4.1.2 Analog I/O Ports ................................................................................................................... 37 4.1.3 Digital I/O Ports.................................................................................................................... 37 4.1.4 Power Supply........................................................................................................................ 38 4.2 Nano-10 PLC............................................................................................................................... 38 4.2.1 Physical Mounting & Wiring ............................................................................................... 39 4.3 PT100 .......................................................................................................................................... 39 4.3.1 TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................................ 40 4.3.2 General CHARACTERISTICS ........................................................................................ 40 11
  8. 8. 4.3.3 Pt100 interface with PLC ..................................................................................................... 40 4.5 SENSIRION - SDP1000-L05...................................................................................................... 41 4.5.1 Features ................................................................................................................................. 41 4.5.2 Applications .......................................................................................................................... 42 4.6 HIH 4000 ..................................................................................................................................... 42 4.6.1 Features ................................................................................................................................. 42 4.6.2 APPLICATIONS: ................................................................................................................. 43 4.6.3 RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS: ............................................................. 43 4.6.4 GRAPHS: ............................................................................................................................. 44 4.7 Point-level mechanism ................................................................................................................ 44 4.8 GSM Modem ............................................................................................................................... 45 4.8.1 GSM modem specifications.................................................................................................. 45Experiments and Development ............................................................................................................. 47 EXPERIMENT No. 1 ........................................................................................................................ 47 5.1 TEMPERATURE DETECTION BY CONNECTING PLC (F2424) WITH PT 100 ................ 47 5.1.1 DETAIL ................................................................................................................................ 47 EXPERIMENT No. 2 ........................................................................................................................ 47 5.2 HUMIDITY DETECTION BY CONNECTING PLC (F2424) WITH HIH 4000 .................... 47 5.2.1 DETAIL ................................................................................................................................ 47 EXPERIMENT No. 3 ........................................................................................................................ 48 5.3 AIR PRESSURE DETECTION BY CONNECTING PLC (F2424) WITH SDP 1000-L05 ..... 48 5.3.1 DETAIL ................................................................................................................................ 48 EXPERIMENT No. 4 ........................................................................................................................ 48 5.4 WATER LEVEL CONTROL BY USING PLC (F2424) AND POINT LEVEL MECHANISM ..................................................................................................................................................... 48 5.4.1 DETAIL ................................................................................................................................ 48Implementation and Testing ................................................................................................................. 50 6.1 Implementation............................................................................................................................ 50Conclusion and Future Work ................................................................................................................ 53 12
  9. 9. 7.1Conclusion.................................................................................................................................... 53 7.2 Future Work ................................................................................................................................ 53References ............................................................................................................................................. 54 13
  10. 10. Chapter 01:14
  11. 11. INTRODUCTIONWe are to develop a control system for poultry farms. In this project we will try to control fourenvironmental parameters which are temperature water level and humidity and air pressure. Wewill control these four parameters by using different sensors for each of them.We will set required values of the above mentioned parameters in PLC programming. Whenevereven a small fluctuation occur to our required or needed values of temperature, water level, airpressure and humidity a message will be sent by a sensor to the client PLC from there it will besent to server PLC from where a message will be sent to the user mobile through GSM modem.We will use PLC’s as main controlling circuit.1.1 REASON FOR CHOOSING THIS PROJECTPoultry is one of the most important agricultural industries in Pakistan, employing nearly20, 000people. The chicken is the cheapest animal protein source to promote growth of 5 percent to 9.84 15
  12. 12. percent growth in agriculture and livestock. This is a growing demand for meat in the market andexport prospects, particularly in Muslim countries.But our poultry industry is facing many problems due to changes in parameters such astemperature, humidity and water, by controlling these parameters, we can get what we want toachieve.So in this project we develop a control system for poultry farms. We use three types of sensors forcontrolling the parameters like temperature, pressure and water level to our required range; in thisway we try to maintain proper conditions in the poultry house.This project would be helpful in preventing the chickens from diseases (in the sense that it wouldmaintain a healthy atmosphere in the poultry farms) and so we would be able to provide ourpeople with healthy chickens.1.2 BACKGROUNDChicken is the cheapest source of animal protein in the country. Poultry is a provider ofemployment of 1.5 million people of Pakistan; it is the most important department in livestock.There is a Gradual increase the consumption of white meat in Pakistan in recent years due to theconsciousness of people growing health.Although this industry is a source of food and employment for millions of people, but faces bigobstacles in their progress in the form of heat stress. Pakistan is a tropical country, and in summerthe temperature reaches 40 ° C. The average temperature remains on the upper side thermalneutral zone for most of the year, which still must be committed to the poor performance of theherd in food intake, growth rate, and weight gain.Heat stress is a major problem in poultry. In tropical countries, the temperature rises above 40 ℃,and thus poultry is not appropriate in summers. Conditions of hot, humid climate cause themortality of chickens and reducing growth.1.3 BENEFITS OF POULTRY FARMING IN CONTROLLEDENVIRONMENT The temperature can be brought down by 10°C to 15°C in controlled environment farm as compared to the conventional farm and makes environment more comfortable for birds. In conventional farming the broiler production in summer is almost stopped and only four flocks could be taken whereas in controlled environment farming 6-7 flocks could be raised. 16
  13. 13.  Being controlled environment the incidence of diseases could be minimized and cut down the cost of vaccine and medication of Rs. 2-3 per bird as compared to conventional farming. Mortality can be decreased to 2 to 3 percent in controlled environment farm as compared to 10 percent in conventional farm. In controlled environment farm only one person at daytime and one at night time are sufficient to look after a flock of 35,000 birds. Whereas conventional farm nearly 6-8 persons are required to manage such a flock. In controlled environment farm a broiler flock is ready for market in 37 days as compared to 45 days in conventional farm. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) can be improved by 1.8% in controlled environment farm 17
  14. 14. Chapter 02:18
  15. 15. Literature reviewThis Chapter discusses definitions, background and some important concepts relating toProgrammable Logic Controllers, Ladder Diagram Programming.2.1 programmable logic controller (PLC)Programmable logic controllers (PLC) also called programmable controllers or PLCs are solid-state members of the computer family, using integrated Circuits instead of electromechanicaldevices to implement control functions,They are capable of storing instructions, such as sequencing, timing, Counting, arithmetic, datamanipulation, and communication, to control Industrial machines and processes. Figure 2.1 showsa general purpose PLC diagram. Figure2.1: PLC diagram2.1.1 Conceptual Design of PLCThe first programmable controllers were more or less just relay replaces. Their primary functionwas to perform the sequential operations that were previously implemented with relays. Theseoperations included ON/OFF control of machines and processes that required repetitive 19
  16. 16. operations, such as transfer lines and grinding and boring machines. However, theseprogrammable controllers were a vast improvement over relays.Programmable controllers can be considered newcomers when they are compared to their elderpredecessors in traditional control equipment technology, such as old hardwired relay systems,analog instrumentation, and other types of early solid-state logic. Although PLC functions, suchas speed of operation, types of interfaces, and data-processing capabilities, have improvedthroughout the years, their specifications still hold to the designer’s original intentions. Figure2.2: conceptual application diagram2.1.2 History of Programmable Logic ControllersControl engineering has evolved over time. In the past humans were the main method forcontrolling a system. More recently electricity has been used for control and early electricalcontrol was based on relays. These relays allow power to be switched on and off without amechanical switch. It is common to use relays to make simple logical control decisions. Thedevelopment of low cost computer has brought the most recent revolution, the ProgrammableLogic Controller (PLC). The advent of the PLC began in the 1970s, and has become the mostcommon choice for manufacturing controls.2.1.3 Today’s Programmable ControllersMany technological advances in the programmable controller industry continue today. Theseadvances not only affect programmable controller design, but also the philosophical approach tocontrol system architecture.Changes include both hardware (physical components) and software (control Program) upgrades.The following list describes some recent PLC hardware enhancements: 20
  17. 17. Faster scan times are being achieved using new, advanced microprocessor and electronictechnology.Small, low-cost PLCs (see Figure 2.3) which can replace four to ten relays now have more powerthan their predecessor, the simple relay replacer.Figure 2.3: Small PLC with built-in I/O and detachable programming unitHigh density input/output (I/O) systems (see Figure 2.4) provide space-efficient interfaces at lowcost.Mechanical design improvements have included rugged input/output enclosures and input/outputsystems that have made the terminal an integral unit.Special interfaces have allowed certain devices to be connected directly to the controller. Typicalinterfaces include thermocouples, strain gauges, and fast-response inputs.Peripheral equipment has improved operator interface techniques, and system documentation isnow a standard part of the system.Figure 2.4: PLC system with High-density I/O (64-point modules)Like hardware advances, software advances, such as the ones listed below, have led to morepowerful PLCs:PLCs have incorporated object-oriented programming tools and multiple languages based on theIEC 1131-3 standard.Small PLCs have been provided with powerful instructions, which extend the area of applicationfor these small controllers. 21
  18. 18. Advanced functional block instructions have been implemented for ladder diagram instruction setsto provide enhanced software capability using simple programming commands.Data handling and manipulation instructions have been improved and simplified to accommodatecomplex control and data acquisition applications that involve storage, tracking and retrieval oflarge amounts of data.Programmable controllers are now mature control systems offering many more capabilities thanwere ever anticipated. They are capable of communicating withOther control systems, providing production reports, scheduling production, and diagnosing theirown failures and those of the machine or process. These enhancements have made programmablecontrollers important contributors in meeting today’s demands for higher quality and productivity.Despite the fact that programmable controller have become much more sophisticated, they stillretain the simplicity and ease of operation that was intended in their original design.2.1.4 Programmable Controllers and the FutureThe future of programmable controllers relies not only on the continuation of new productdevelopments, but also on the integration of PLCs with other control and factory managementequipment. PLCs are being incorporation, through networks, into computer-integratedmanufacturing (CIM) systems, combining their power and resources with numerical controlsrobots, CAD/CAM systems, personal computers, management information systems, andhierarchical computer-based system. There is no doubt that programmable controllers will play asubstantial role in the factory of the future.New advances in PLC technology include features such as better operator interfaces, graphic userinterfaces (GUIs) and more human-oriented man/machine interfaces (such as voice modules).They also include the development interfaces that allow communication with equipment,hardware, and software that supports artificial intelligence, such as fuzzy logic I/O systems.Software advances provide better connections between different types of equipment, usingcommunication standards through widely used networks. Knowledge-based and process learning-type instructions may be introduced to enhance the capabilities of a system. Control strategies willbe distributed with “intelligence” instead of being centralized. Super PLCs will be used inapplications requiring complex calculations, network communication, and supervision of smallerPLCs and machine controllers.2.1.5 Principles of OperationA programmable controller, as illustrated in Figure 2.4, consists of two basic Sections:The central processing unitThe input/output interface system 22
  19. 19. Figure 2.5: Programmable controller block diagramThe central processing unit (CPU) governs all PLC activities. The following Three components,shown in Figure 2.5, form the CPU:The ProcessorThe Memory SystemThe Power SupplyFigure 2.6: Block diagram of major CPU components2.1.6 Typical Area of PLC ApplicationsSince its inception, the PLC has been successfully applied in virtually every segment of industry,including steel mills, paper plants, food-processing plants, chemical plants and power plants,PLCs perform a great variety of control tasks, from repetitive On/OFF control of simple machinesto sophisticate manufacturing and process control. Table 1 lists a few of the major industries thatuse programmable controllers, as well as some of their typical applications. 23
  20. 20. Table 1: working areas of PLC applications 24
  21. 21. 2.1.7 PLC Product Application RangesFigure 2.6 graphically illustrates programmable controller product ranges.This chart is not definitive, but for practical purposes, it is valid. The PLC Market can besegmented into five groups:1. Micro PLCs2. Small PLCs3. Medium PLCs4. Large PLCs5. Very Large PLCs Figure 2.7: PLC product rangesMicro PLCs are used in applications controlling up to 32 input and output devices, 20 or less / IObeing the norm. The micros are followed by the small PLC category, which controls 32 to 128I/O. The medium (64 to 1024 I/O), large (512 to 4096), and very large (2048 to 8192 I/O) PLCscomplete the segmentation. The A, B and C overlapping areas in Figure 2.7 reflect enhancements,by adding options, of the standard features of the PLCs within a particular segment.2.2 programming of PLCThere are more than one ways to program PLC. The most common and widely used technique isladder logic programming. The programming languages of PLC are:Statement list programmingFunctional block diagram programmingLadder diagram programming2.2.1 Statement list programmingThis is more like low level languages BASIC, C etc.in this language statements are written toprogram the PLC like AND statement and OR statement. 25
  22. 22. 2.2.2 Functional block diagram programmingFunctional block diagram programming uses functional blocks of AND gates and OR gates etc. toprogram the PLC.2.2.3 Ladder diagram programmingOne of the PLC programming methods that are very commonly used programming using PLCladder diagram. The method is practical and easy to understand. The programmer in charge ofwriting a program should describe an electronic switch circuit. It can be designed to perform theconversion of electronic circuits that already exist, and then replace the switch function accordingto the functions available to software programmers.Ladder Diagram Programming is widely used in all over the world. Ladder logic programs mimicthe electrical circuit diagrams used for wiring control system in the electrical industry.The actual logic of the control system is established inside the PLC by means of a computerprogram. This program dictates which output gets energized under which input conditions. Theprogram itself appears to be a ladder logic diagram, with switch and relay symbol. The ladderlogic programming is used to program PLC. There are no actual switch contacts or relay coiloperating inside the PLC to create the logical relationships between input and output. These areimaginary contacts and coils. The program is entered and viewed via personal computerconnected to the PLC’s programming port. 26
  23. 23. 2.3 Temperature sensorTemperature Sensors measure the amount of heat energy or even coldness that is generated byobject or system, and can "sense" or detect any physical change to that temperature producingEither an analogue or digital output. There are many different types of Temperature Sensoravailable and all have different Characteristics depending upon their actual application.2.3.1 Contact Temperature Sensor TypesThese types of temperature sensor are required to be in physical contact with the object beingsensed and use conduction to monitor changes in temperature. They can be used to detect solids,liquids or gases over a wide range of temperatures.2.3.2 Non-contact Temperature Sensor TypesThese types of temperature sensor use convection and radiation to monitor changes intemperature. They can be used to detect liquids and gases that emit radiant energy as heat risesand cold settles to the bottom in convection currents or detect the radiant energy being transmittedfrom an object in the form of infra-red radiation (the sun).2.3.3 The ThermostatThe Thermostat is a contact type electro-mechanical temperature sensor or switch, that basicallyconsists of two different metals such as nickel, copper, tungsten or aluminum etc., that are bondedtogether to form a Bi-metallic strip. The different linear expansion rates of the two dissimilarmetals produce a mechanical bending movement when the strip is subjected to heat. The bi-metallic strip is used as a switch in the thermostat and is used extensively to control hot waterheating elements in boilers, furnaces, hot water storage tanks as well as in vehicle radiator coolingsystems.Figure 2.12: working principle of thermostat 27
  24. 24. 2.3.4 The ThermistorThe Thermistor is another type of temperature sensor, whose name is a combination of the wordsTHERM-ally sensitive res-ISTOR. A thermistor is a type of resistor which changes its physicalresistance with changes in temperature.Thermistors are generally made from ceramic type semiconductor materials such as oxides ofnickel, manganese or cobalt coated in glass which makes them easily damaged. Most types ofthermistors have a Negative Temperature Coefficient of resistance or (NTC), that is theirresistance value goes DOWN with an increase in the temperature but some with a PositiveTemperature Coefficient, (PTC), their resistance value goes UP with an increase in temperatureare also available. Their main advantage is their speed of response to any changes in temperature,accuracy and repeatability.2.3.5 Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTD)Another type of electrical resistance temperature sensor is the Resistance Temperature Detector orRTD. RTDs are precision temperature sensors made from high-purity conducting metals such asplatinum, copper or nickel wound into a coil and whose electrical resistance changes as a functionof temperature, similar to that of the thermistor.Resistive temperature detectors have positive temperature coefficients (PTC) but unlike thethermistor their output is extremely linear producing very accurate measurements of temperature.2.3.6 The ThermocoupleThe Thermocouple is by far the most commonly used type of all the temperature sensing devicesdue to its simplicity, ease of use and their speed of response to changes in temperature, due mainlyto their small size. Thermocouples also have the widest temperature range of all the temperaturesensors from below -200oC to well over 2000oC.Thermocouples are thermoelectric sensors that basically consist of two junctions of dissimilarmetals, such as copper and constantan that are welded or crimped together. One junction is kept ata constant temperature called the reference (Cold) junction, while the other the measuring (Hot)junction. When the two junctions are at different temperatures, a voltage is developed across thejunction which is used to measure the temperature sensor.2.4 HumidityHumidity is the presence of water in air. The amount of water vapor in air can affect humancomfort as well as many manufacturing processes in industries. The presence of water vapor alsoinfluences various physical, chemical, and biological processes. Hence, humidity sensing is veryimportant, especially in the control systems for industrial processes and human comfort. 28
  25. 25. 2.5 Humidity sensorshumidity sensors work somewhat differently, in that they measure the difference in electricalconductivity or temperature between moist and dry air.2.5.1 Humidity Sensor TypesThere are different types of humidity sensors2.5.2 Capacitive SensorsSensors that measure relative humidity comprise a thin film of polymer or metal oxide, depositedon a glass or ceramic substrate between two electrodes. The relative humidity is proportional tochanges in the capacitance of this film, measured as the dielectric constant.2.5.3 Resistive SensorsWhen a substance gets wet, its electrical resistance changes. This is the concept behind resistivehumidity sensors, which measure the change in impedance of a specific medium---such as a salt orconductive polymer---in response to changes in humidity.2.5.4 Thermal Conductivity SensorsThermal conductivity sensors are based on the fact that a dry mix of gases conducts heat moreefficiently than gas that is saturated with water vapor.2.6 Air PressureThe air in the atmosphere is made up of a number of gases. These gases press down on the Earth’ssurface, exerting a force that we call atmospheric pressure or air pressure.2.7 Air pressure sensorAir pressure sensor measures pressure, typically of gases. A pressure sensor usually acts as atransducer; it generates a signal as a function of the pressure imposed. For the purposes of thisarticle, such a signal is electrical. 29
  26. 26. 2.7.1 Types of pressure measurementsThere are three main types of air pressure sensors:2.7.2 Absolute pressure sensorsThese have an internal vacuum reference and an output voltage proportional to absolute pressure.There is only one inlet which allows air pressure to be applied to one side of the diaphragm.2.7.3 Differential pressure sensors.These allow application of pressure to either side of the diaphragm and can be used for differentialpressure measurements. They have two inlets, each leading to opposite sides of the diaphragm.The output voltage of the device is proportional to the pressure difference across the diaphragm.2.7.4 Gauge pressure sensorsThese measure pressure compared to ambient pressure. They function in a similar way to thedifferential pressure sensors but without a nipple or other attachment for the ambient port.2.8 GSM ModemA GSM modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card, and operates over asubscription to a mobile operator, just like a mobile phone. From the mobile operator perspective,a GSM modem looks just like a mobile phone.When a GSM modem is connected to a relevant, this allows the device to use the GSM modem tocommunicate over the mobile network. While these GSM modems are most frequently used toprovide mobile internet connectivity, many of them can also be used for sending and receivingSMS and MMS messages.2.8.1 GSM interfaceGSM modems can be a quick and efficient way to get started with SMS, because a specialsubscription to an SMS service provider is not required. A GSM modem can be a dedicated 30
  27. 27. modem device with a serial, USB or Bluetooth connection to begin, insert a GSM SIM card intothe modem and connect it to an available USB/serial port on your device.2.8.2 Mobile Phone as GSM modemA GSM modem could also be a standard GSM mobile phone with the appropriate cable andsoftware driver to connect to a serial port or USB port on your computer. Any phone that supportsthe “extended AT command set” for sending/receiving SMS messages, can be supported by theNow SMS & MMS Gateway. Note that not all mobile phones support this modem interface.Due to some compatibility issues that can exist with mobile phones, using a dedicated GSMmodem is usually preferable .2.9 Water level sensorWater Level mechanism detects the level of water. The amount of such water automaticallystores in water tank and water pump automatically work and maintain that amount of water. 31
  28. 28. Chapter 03:32
  29. 29. Project Design3.1 circuit Design Fig 3.1: circuit Diagram of Control system 33
  30. 30. 3.2 HOW IT WORKSWe are going to develop a control system for poultry farms. In this project we will try to controlfour environmental parameters which are temperature water level and humidity and air pressure.We will control these three parameters by using different sensors for each of them.We will set required values of the above mentioned parameters in PLC programming. Whenevereven a small fluctuation will occur to our required or needed values of temperature, water level,air pressure and humidity a message will be sent by a sensor to the client PLC from there it will besent to server PLC from where a message will be sent to the user mobile through GSM module.We will use PLC’s as main controlling circuit. 34
  31. 31. Chapter 04:35
  32. 32. Selection of equipment4.1 PLC (T100MD-2424) The PLC we are using in this project is T100MD-2424. The features of this PLC are: Figure: 2.8 24 digital Inputs and 24 digital outputs with LED Indicators 8 analog I/Os Two of digital outputs are PWM outputs expandable up to a total of 96 digital inputs and 96 digital outputs It has an RS232 and an RS485 communication ports Operating Voltage: Input 12 or 24V DC I/O Scan time = 2ms Program Scan time = 10us per step 512 Int Relays / 64 Timers 36
  33. 33.  Built-in 16 channels PID Computation Engine (Proportional, Integral, Derivative digitalcontrol) 1 LCD IDC 14-pin connector terminal 6016 words EEPROM program memory 1770 words of programmable EEPROM for user data 4000 words in volatile RAM Operating 0 to 70 deg C (32 to 158 deg F)4.1.1 Physical Mounting & WiringThe compactly designed T100MD 2424 PLC can be easily installed in many kinds ofPlastic or metal enclosures.4.1.2 Analog I/O PortsThe 8 channels of analog I/Os are available via a DB15 Connector. The T100MD 2424 PLC alsoSupplies a +5V analog reference-voltage output and the analog ground on the Female DB15connector, as shown in the following pin-out diagram: Figure: 2.9 db15 connector and pin configuration4.1.3 Digital I/O Ports Detachable screw terminals are provided for quick connection to all digital inputs, outputs andpower supply wires. Each block of screw terminals can easily be detached from the controllerbody, enabling easy replacement of the controller board when necessary. 37
  34. 34. Figure 2.10: Removing Screw Terminal block4.1.4 Power SupplyThe T100MD 2424 PLC requires a single regulated, 12 to 24V (+/- 5% ripple) DCPower supply for both the CPU and the I/Os. To use the T100MD 2424 PLCAt 12VDC you should place a jumper block on the two-pin header marked “J1-12V”Near the power supply terminals. You must remember to remove the jumper it is a good idea toconnect a 470mF to 1000mF, 50V electrolytic capacitor near the power supply connector tosuppress any undesirable voltage glitches from conducting into the PLC. When operating the PLCabove 18V, otherwise the voltage regulator may overheat. Figure 2.11: recommend power supply configuration4.2 Nano-10 PLCSecond PLC we are using in this project is Nano-10.it is also manufactured by TRI.some keyfeatures of Nano-10 plc are: 38
  35. 35.  4 digital Inputs and 4 digital outputs with LED Indicators 2 analog I/Os Two of digital outputs are PWM outputs It has an Ethernet and an RS485 communication ports Operating Voltage: Input 24V DC I/O Scan time = .5ms Program Scan time = 4us per step 512 Int Relays / 64 Timers Built-in 16 channels PID Computation Engine (Proportional, Integral, Derivative digitalcontrol) 8k words EEPROM program memory 1k words of programmable EEPROM for user data Operating 0 to 70 deg C (32 to 158 deg F)4.2.1 Physical Mounting & WiringThe compactly designed T100MD 2424 PLC can be easily installed in many kinds ofPlastic or metal enclosures.4.3 PT100In this project we are using PT100 if we split the word: PT and 100. PT is the chemical symbolfor Platinum, 100 is the resistance in Ohm of the Pt100 at 0 °C. The resistanceChanges (fairly linear) with temperature. So, by measuring the resistance we can calculatethe temperature. A Pt100 is also called a RTD element, meaning Resistance TemperatureDetector. 39
  36. 36. Figure 2.13: pt100 ( RTD)4.3.1 TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICSPt100 elements are specified over a temperature range of -200°C to 850°C however the actualoperating temperature is determined by the construction of the probe into which they areincorporated. Typical low cost probes are made by soldering the Pt100 to PVC or silicon insulatedcopper wires. Obviously these are limited by the maximum temperature of the insulation. Forhigher temperature work the Pt100 is silver soldered or crimped onto mineral insulated wires.4.3.2 General CHARACTERISTICS Operating range -200 to 850 0C Fairly inexpensive Excellent accuracy Good linearity Excellent stability4.3.3 Pt100 interface with PLCWe can interface pt100 with PLC in different ways if we are using pt100 in normal conditionswhere accuracy is not paramount important then we will use the configuration as in figure 40
  37. 37. Figure 2.14: pt100 interface with PLCIf accuracy is important,we will need to use use temperature-compensated differential amplifiers to amplify asmaller voltage drop (to avoid the effect of self-heating) across the PT100 sensor.4.5 SENSIRION - SDP1000-L05The SDP1000 family of low differential pressure sensors provides precise differential pressuremeasurement with an analog 0 to 4 voltage output. The SDP1000 series is an ideal choice fordemanding applications, for example medical and industrial systems.4.5.1 Features Accuracy of 0.1% full-scale near zero Amplified, analog voltage output: 0 to 4 Vdc No offset, zero drift, hysteresis free High dynamic range thanks to flow measurementprinciple 41
  38. 38.  Fully calibrated and temperature compensated Not sensitive to the mounting orientation4.5.2 Applications Medical Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning (HVAC) Industrial Automotive4.6 HIH 4000We use the HIH 4000 humidity sensor because the HIH-4000 humidity sensor is designedspecifically for high volume OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) users. Direct input to acontroller or other device is made possible by the production of linear voltage sensor. With acurrent circulation of only 200 uA typical, the HIH-4000 is ideal for casting low-frequency,battery operated systems. The HIH-4000 offers instrumentation quality RH (Relative Humidity)sensing performance in a competitive price. The multilayer construction of the sensor elementprovides excellent resistance to most applications dangers, such as wetting, dust, dirt, oils andcommon environmental chemicals.Fig 2.9.1:4.6.1 FeaturesSome basic features are: Molded thermoset plastic housing Linear voltage output Low power design High accuracy 42
  39. 39.  Fast response time Stable, low drift performance Chemically resistant4.6.2 APPLICATIONS: Refrigeration equipment HVAC equipment Medical equipment Drying Metrology4.6.3 RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS:Fig 2.9.1: Diagram of Recommended operating zoneFig 2.9.3: Storage zone of HIH 4000 43
  40. 40. 4.6.4 GRAPHS:Fig 2.9.4: Typical best fit straight line4.7 Point-level mechanismWe used three wires for three points in water tank i-e top, middle and lowest. When water levelgoes to the lowest point the circuit completes and water pump turns ON, second point is located atthe middle of the tank, when water level reaches at middle point, water pump remains ON, whenwater level reaches at the top point the water pump turns OFF. Whereas when water level remainsat the top the water pump remains OFF, when water level reaches middle point the pump stillremains OFF and when water level reaches at the lowest point the pump turns ON. 44
  41. 41. 4.8 GSM ModemWe used here a gsm modem that supports 900/1800 Mhz and has option for RS232 interface . inthis modem we use GSm sim card and interface it with PLC using RS232.4.8.1 GSM modem specificationsGSM compatibility GSM900 and GSM1800Data rate 9600 baud, 14400 baudServices supported GSM data transmission, SMS, Fax group 3Voltage 3VDetection SIM card detection supportedImpedance 50 OhmsOperating temperature range - 20 to +70 C, for the GSM operationHumidity RH up to 95% non-condensing 45
  42. 42. Chapter 05:46
  43. 43. Experiments and DevelopmentBefore implementing this whole project we did some experiments to check the behavior andcompatibility of different sensors and PLC.there detail is as underEXPERIMENT No. 15.1 TEMPERATURE DETECTION BY CONNECTING PLC(F2424) WITH PT 100Attach temperature detector with PLC and burn program in PLC to determine the temperature.Monitor temperature.5.1.1 DETAILWe attached temperature sensor with thermistor and connect it to the input of ADC 1 ofPLC(tm100-2424), when temperature fluctuates the resistance of the temperature sensor varies.With this variation of resistance input at ADC also changes. Readings taken from ADC wereconverted using standard formula for temperature(given below) and as a result we observed realtime temperature on our virtual LCD.DM[2]=(((T*10)-3722)*10)/130EXPERIMENT No. 25.2 HUMIDITY DETECTION BY CONNECTING PLC (F2424)WITH HIH 4000Attached humidity sensor with PLC and burn program in PLC to determine the humidity andMonitor humidity.5.2.1 DETAILWe attached humidity sensor with operational amplifier (LM 234) and connect it to the input ofADC 2, when humidity changes the output of the sensor varies. This variation of output becomesinput at ADC that also changes. Readings taken from ADC were converted using standardformula for humidity and as a result we observed humidity on our virtual LCD.DM[1]=(((H-785)*10)/25) 47
  44. 44. EXPERIMENT No. 35.3 AIR PRESSURE DETECTION BY CONNECTING PLC (F2424)WITH SDP 1000-L05Attach air pressure sensor with PLC and burn program in PLC to determine the air pressure andmonitored air pressure.5.3.1 DETAILWe attached air pressure sensor with ADC 3 of PLC, when air pressure changes the output of thesensor varies. This variation of output becomes input at ADC that also changes. Readings takenfrom ADC were converted using standard formula for air pressure and as a result we observed airpressure on our virtual LCD.EXPERIMENT No. 45.4 WATER LEVEL CONTROL BY USING PLC (F2424) ANDPOINT LEVEL MECHANISMIn this control system when water level goes down to the lowest point the water pump switchedON and when the water level goes to top the water pump turns OFF.5.4.1 DETAILWe used three wires for three points in water tank i-e top, middle and lowest. When water levelwent to the lowest point the circuit completes and water pump turned ON, second point waslocated at the middle of the tank, when water level reached at middle point, water pump remainedON, when water level reached at the top point the water pump turned OFF. Whereas when waterlevel remained at the top the water pump remained OFF, when water level reached at middle pointthe pump still remained OFF and when water level reached at the lowest point the pump turnedON. We used LED for indication of the water pump. 48
  45. 45. Chapter 06:49
  46. 46. Implementation and TestingWe tried to develop a control system for poultry farms. In this project we will tried to control fourenvironmental parameters which are temperature water level and humidity and air pressure. Wecontrolled these four parameters by using different sensors for each of them which we havediscussed above.We will set required values of the above mentioned parameters in PLC programming. Whenevereven a small fluctuation occurred to our required or needed values of temperature, water level, airpressure and humidity a message was sent by a sensor to the client PLC from there it was sent toserver PLC from where a message sent to the user mobile through GSM modem.We used PLC’s as main controlling circuit.6.1 ImplementationFirst of all we took client PLC (T-100MD 2424) connect humidity sensor ( HIH4000),Temperature sensor ( PT 100) Air pressure sensor (SDP-1000 L05) and Water level Mechanism.Burn program for the sensor in client PLC , and observed output .Then we set the limit of temperature and Water level in code .Then we connect fans andindication LED for water pump and observe its behavior . When temperature increases fromcertain level fans turn ON , When temperature decreases from certain level , Fans turn OFF.Withthis mechacnism we can maintain the temperature of poultry house .Like this we took a jar and set three levels points, and three wires for three points in water tank i-etop, middle and lowest. When water level went to the lowest point , the circuit completes andwater pump turned ON, second point was located at the middle of the tank, when water levelreached at middle point, water pump remained ON, when water level reached at the top point thewater pump turned OFF. Whereas when water level remained at the top the water pump remainedOFF, when water level reached at middle point the pump still remained OFF and when water levelreached at the lowest point the pump turned ON. We used LED for indication of the waterpump.Then we connected LCD to observe outputs and took our reading on LCD . LCD wasconnected with four pins builten interface of client PLC (T-100MD2424) . Then we connected the client PLC (T-100MD 2424) with server PLC ( NANO-10) by using(RS485) interface.Then we observe outputs from server PLC (NANO-10).Then we deattached thefan and water level mechanism from client PLC and connect them to server PLC to control theseparameter from control room .Now we connected , and configure the server PLC with GSMmodem . we burn the program of GSM modem in server PLC . 50
  47. 47. When ever parameters violated our given limits server PLC send SMS notification to the usermobile phon through GSM modem . 51
  48. 48. Chapter 07:52
  49. 49. Conclusion and Future Work7.1ConclusionTo our research and analysis we can simply predict that by the end of this project Environmentalcontrol of poultry farm was successfully design and implemented using PLCs and generalpurpose sensors it also meet our objective.7.2 Future WorkAs we have discusd earlier about our project in which we have used PLC and GSM modem tomanage environmental control of poultry farm .Now we will discuss out future work and our ideas for this project which will make it highlyreliable , efficient and compatible to meet professional demands .Idea 1We will use scada for real time observations with our server PLC to monitor and control ourparameter from control room .Idea 2We can make database system to keep record to analyze of environmental parameters in differenttimes with this analysis we can improve environmental conditions in out poultry houses.Idea 3In this project we are just observing the parameters of environmental control through GSM infuture we will enhance its ability that we can control our parameters through GSM by using ourphon . 53
  50. 50. References1. PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS THEORY AND IMPLEMENTATION , SECOND EDITION BY L.A. BRYAN AND E.A. BRYAN2. AUTOMATING M ANUFACTURING SYSTEMS WITH PLCS BY HUGH J ACK3. INTRODUCTION TO PLC CONTROLLERS ON -LINE, BY NEBOJSA MATIC4. http://www.getpedia.com/showarticles.php?cat=2295. BASICS OF PLC S BY SIEMENS6. http://pakpoultry.blogspot.com/search/label/Poultry%20Farming7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poultry_farming8. www.nbp.com.pk/Agriculture/PrFeasibilityReport.pdf9. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PLC-BASED MONITORING CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS FED BY PWM INVERTER BY YASAR BIRBIR 54

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