Digestive system


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Digestive system

  1. 1. Digestive System (2) The accessory organs are the liver – the gallbladder – the pancreas: 1-Food does not pass through them 2-Produce some materials to help in food digestion 1) Pancreas → It has the shape of a banana / feather - Located behind the stomach → Remove the stomach in order to see it. - Has a wide and a narrow end. This long end is found along with long duodenum “Which comes from the stomach” -Has 3 parts (Head-Body-Tail) [spleen is at the tail] - It is a gland that secretes solution called pancreatic juice → help in digestion of food. It goes from all part of the pancreas to one main duct. -Accessory duct: additional one “not everyone has it” Pencreatic duct and bile duct called “Hepatopancreatic ampulla” - Hepatopancreatic ampulla opens in an opening in the duodenal papilla - where all the juices from the pancreas along with many things mix together and go to the duodenum to help in the digestion of food.
  2. 2. Secretion organ Exacrine glands or secretaion "secretion goes to the duct then the blood" Helps in digestion -Produces pencreatic juice (for digestion), it will go through canals and then to the pancreatic duct till it reachs the duodenom -the juice contains enzymes that will break diff. kind of food particles. -The breakdown of carbohydrates starts in the mouth (by amylase) thats why when we eat a bread we feel its sugery taste. Islets of Langerhans endocine gland functional "secretion goes directly to the blood" Does not help in digestion, it produces hormones which goes to the blood. The most importnt hormone is Insoline (does not do anything with digestion) -Pencreatic amylase help in the brek down of protiens, lipid, nuclic acid Check out the video in the attachments (What do my pancreas do?) 
  3. 3. 2) Liver -The major accessory -The largest organ on our body about 1.5 kg -Located beneath the diaphragm (the diaphragm is covering above the liver) -It is covered by the peritoneum -Divided into 2 main lobes: Left lobe and right lobe (larger) -The 2 lobes are separated by part of the peritoneum, part of the connective tissue, called falciforn ligament -The falciforn ligament splits the liver into 2 regions -When we look at the liver from the posterior (back) view, there is other 2 small lobes: 1) Caudate lobe 2) Quadrate lobe – because of the gallbladder which is hanging from the liver (beneath the liver) Note that: THE MAIN LOBES ARE RIGHT AND LEFT, AND FROM BEHIND THERE ARE 2 others -Blood supply of the liver: A) Get blood from The Hepatic Portal Vein: This vein comes from the intestine
  4. 4. In the intestine there are arteries, which passes through it. The food is digested there the absorbed; the absorbed food will collect and go out of the intestine through the portal vein, the portal vein will go to the liver [it is important for this food, before being distributed all over the body , to go to the liver because many modification happens inside the liver. (Briefly, the food came from the intestine and won’t go directly to the different parts of the body. They will gather through the hepatic portal vein and enter the kidney)[the digested food will go through the hepatic portal vein to the liver. B) The Hepatic Artery Take oxygenated blood so that liver can survive There are 2 ways in which the blood enters the liver, then bllod leaves through the hepatic vein . -The liver produces something called "bile". Bile flow through small canaliculi called "bile canaliculi". These bil canaliculi will join eachother, like a tree, into" small bile ducts". All small bile ducts make "right and left hepatic duct" - 2 main ductsm. The will join togather into one duct called" common hepatic duct" then it goes to the "common bile duct". The common bile duct goes inside the pencreas and join the pencriatic duct and form small duct called "hepato pancreatic ampulla". The hepatopancriatic ampulla empties the soulution (enzyme/ juice) in the "duodenal papilla". Function of the liver Digestive: bile salts Excretory: get rid of bilirubin very important for digestive of fat = emulsification (like the way soap clean and break down fat droplets) a substance that is produced in the body during the break down of RBC – the accumulation of it is dangerous because it can effect the brain etc. (babies sometimes look yellow in color because their liver isn't mature enough and can't get rid of bilirubin. Excrete bilirubin through the bile go to the duodenum then to the stool. Check out the video in the attachments (The liver and pancreas).  What is inside the liver? *Sinusoids and bile canaliculi → small space between hepatocytes (liver calls) cords. Cells take the food and convert it to useful things and it then return it back to the blood.
  5. 5. Important that blood passes through all these cells. *Kupffer’s cells → immune calls present everywhere that catch any abnormal things " bacteria". -Hepatic triad (like triangle) locate between lobules a. Most of blood comes from it/ it is the source of the blood b. Contains hepatic vein + hepatic artery + bile ducts. Other functions of the liver: 1-production of proteins: clotting proteins → help in stopping bleeding when getting an injury - the liver produces it and the send it to the blood. 2-metabolism of nutrients: e.g. when we eat a lot of fat, liver convert it to cholesterol. (it is needed in normal amounts but the excess of cholesterol is bad for us). 3-Detoxifications: Removal of toxics materials e.g. alcohol toxic will be filtered by the liver. That’s why people who drink have liver problems. #And if a substance cannot be detoxified, it will be captured and kept in the liver. 4-Storage of nutrients especially sugar (later use) when we are not hungry. When we are hungry, sugar will be released to the blood. It is stored in the form of glycogen. 5-Immunity, as a filter through the kupffer’s cells. 6-Activation of vitamin D: Vitamin D is important for the bones and calcium metabolism. We need the sun to get Vitamin D. Our liver do some modifications and then the sun continues its job. 3) Gallblader (storage of bile) Location: hanging below the liver (we must look at the liver from behind to see it) Function of the bile : Bile, which collected from the liver, go through cystic duct and accumulate in the gallbladder. And it is deconcentrated in the gallbladder because the bile absorb water and make it more concentrated up to 10 times. When we need it and we eat, the food will go to the duodenum and the gallbladder will squeeze and empties the bile and it will go down and combine with the pancreatic duct then go to the duodenum to do their function in the metabolism of fat. Check the video in the attachments (Liver vedio) 