They Are All So Different… Children come to us in a variety of shapes, sizes, intellectual abilities, creative abilities, inter/intra personal skills, and a myriad more characteristics that makes each child we deal with unique and special. Carol Ann Tomlinson
Diversity in students can include: Ability (aptitude) differences Achievement differences Differences in affect Enthusiasm level and personality Differences in effort Effort vs. Ability
Diversity in students can include: Academic background differences Potentially poor preparation Limited exposure Cultural differences Second language acquisition Interaction style differences Differences in self-regulation and study skills
Characteristics: Seeing¡ Unusual alertness¡ Joy in learning¡ Keen observation¡ Sees “Big Picture”¡ Makes connections¡ Intense focus¡ Curious
Characteristics: Speed¡ Early and rapid learning¡ Rapid language development¡ Metacognitively efficient
Characteristics: Differences¡ Superior language ¡ Verbal fluency ¡ Large vocabulary¡ Superior analytical and reasoning ability¡ High-capacity memory¡ Goes beyond what is sought¡ Abstract, complex, and insightful thinking
Joseph Renzulli:3 Ring Conception of Giftedness
Classroom Practices Study Teachers reported that they never had any training in meeting the needs of gifted students. 61% public school teachers 54% private school teachersArchambault, F. X., Jr., Westberg, K. L., Brown, S. W., Hallmark, B. W., Emmons, C. L., & Zhang, W. (1993). Regular classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers (Research Monograph 93102). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
Classroom Practices Observational Study Students experienced no instructional or curricular differentiation in 84% of the activities in which they participated: Reading Language Arts Mathematics Social Studies ScienceWestberg, K. L., Archambault, F. X., Jr., Dobyns, S. M., & Salvin, T. J. (1993). An observational study of instructional and curricular practices used with gifted and talented students in regular classroom (Research Monograph 93104). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
Types of Differentiation in Which Target Gifted Students Were Involved 100 80 Reading Language Arts Mathematics 60Percent Science 40 Social Studies All Subject Areas 20 0 No Differentiation Advanced Content Advanced Process Advanced Product Indep. Study w/ Assigned Topic Indep. Study w/ Self-selected Topic Other Differentiation No Differentiation Advanced Content Advanced Process Advanced Product Indep. Study w/Assigned Indep. Study w/Self-selected OtherDifferentiation
Ways to Differentiate Content• Varied Texts• Accelerated Coverage of Material• Varied Supplementary Materials• Independent Projects• Tiered Lessons• Interest Development Centers• Compacting
Approximately 40-50% of traditional classroom material could be eliminated for targeted students.Reis, S. M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J.B., & Smist,J.M. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (ResearchMonograph 93106). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
Compacting" Assesses what a student knows and what content is not yet mastered" Content not yet mastered becomes part of learning goals" Previously mastered content is not required thereby “freeing up” time for enriched, accelerated, or interest driven activities Renzulli & Reis (1997) Tomlinson (1995)
When teachers eliminated as much as 50% of the curriculum, no differences were found between treatment and control groups in most content areas. In fact, students whose curriculum was compacted scored higher than control group students in some areas.Reis, S. M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J.B., & Smist,J.M. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (ResearchMonograph 93106). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
What is Curriculum Compacting?" Modifying or streamlining the regular curriculum" Eliminating the repetition of previously mastered material" Upgrading the challenge level of the regular curriculum
Student Behaviors Suggesting that Compacting May Be Necessary
• Finishes tasks quickly• Completes homework in class• Appears bored during instruction time• Brings in outside reading material• Creates puzzles, games, or diversions in class
• Tests scores consistently excellent• Asks questions that indicate advanced familiarity with material• Sought after by others for assistance• Daydreams
For Students, Compacting Eliminates boredom resulting from unnecessary drill and practice. Provides challenge leading to continuous growth.
How to CompactStep One: Identify the objectivesin a given unit and pre-test studentsto ascertain mastery level.
How to CompactStep Two: Eliminate orStreamline instruction for studentswho demonstrate mastery.
How to CompactStep Three: Keep records of theprocess and instructional optionsavailable to compacted students.
InconceivableShould every student have anIndividualized Education Plan?
The Question of Equity Equity, the quality of being fair, is not about offering the exact same thing to every student, it is providing individuals with suitable challenges and experiences that will enable them to be successful and grow beyond where they are now or where they have been before.
Personality Factors Inﬂuencing Gifted Behavior"" Charm/Charisma" " Perception of" Need for Self, Self-Efﬁcacy" Achievement" " Courage"" Ego Strength" " Character"" Energy" " Intuition"" Sense of Destiny" " Personal Attractiveness"
Environmental Factors Influencing Gifted Behavior» SES » Formal Education» Parental » Role Model Personalities Availability» Education of » Physical Illness Parents and/or Well» Stimulation of Being Childhood » Chance Factors Interests » Zeitgeist» Family Position
Asynchronous Development Uneven intellectual, physical, and emotional development.
Asynchronous Development§ Cognitively understand advanced concepts (like mortality) but lack emotional maturity to cope with knowledge§ Perceived as older due to cognitive ability, but lack behavioral maturity
Underachievers: Personality • Low self-‐esteem or Low self-‐eﬃcacy • Feelings of Pessimism • Anxious, impulsive, or inaIen%ve • Aggressive, hos%le • Depressed • Socially immature
Internal Mediators • Fear of failure • Fear of success • Nega%ve aMtude toward school • An%social, rebellious • Self-‐cri%cal or perfec%onis%c
Not all bad…• Demonstrate honesty and integrity when rejecting inappropriate school work• Intense outside interests• Creative
What about these characteristics?"" Inability to master certain academic skills"" Lack of motivation"" Disruptive classroom behavior"" Failure to complete assignments"" Lack of organizational skills"" Poor listening and concentration skills"" Unrealistic self-expectations"
Twice-Exceptional• Gifted with Learning Disability• May also demonstrate – Learned helplessness – Perfectionism – Supersensitivity – Low self-esteem
Look For:• Advanced • Advanced problem- vocabulary use solving skills• Exceptional • Specific aptitude analytic abilities • Good• Divergent thinking memory• High levels of creativity• Spatial abilities