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Motivating High Ability Students

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Motivating High Ability Students

  1. 1. Motivating High Ability Students Watson School of Education Angela Housand, Ph.D. housanda@uncw.edu
  2. 2. angelahousand.com
  3. 3. Motivation To be motivated means to be moved to do something
  4. 4. Poor Student Motivation • Disinterest • Lack of engagement • Off-task behavior • Negative impact on achievement
  5. 5. Underachievement • Lack of motivation contributes to underachievement • 20-50% of gifted students underachieve • 38% of Black students underachieve
  6. 6. Reasons Students Expressed… • Uninteresting curriculum • Not personally meaningful • Not culturally relevant
  7. 7. Internalizing Motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000) Amotivation Intrinsic Motivation
  8. 8. Internalizing Motivation: External Regulation ExternalRegulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance Introjection Act to gain approval Do not fully understand purpose Identifcation Behaviors become personally important Itegration Behaviors become central to identity (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000)
  9. 9. Internalizing Motivation: Introjection ExternalRegulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance Introjection Act to gain approval Unknown purpose Identifcation Behaviors become personally important Itegration Behaviors become central to identity (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000)
  10. 10. Internalizing Motivation: Identification ExternalRegulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance Introjection Act to gain approval Do not fully understand purpose Identification Behaviors become personally important Integration Behaviors become central to identity (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000)
  11. 11. Internalizing Motivation: Integration ExternalRegulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance Introjection Act to gain approval Do not fully understand purpose Identification Behaviors become personally important Integration Behaviors become central to self-identity (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000)
  12. 12. Internalizing Motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000) Amotivation Intrinsic Motivation ExternalRegulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance Introjection Act to gain approval Do not fully understand purpose Identification Behaviors become personally important Integration Behaviors become central to self-identity
  13. 13. Interests
  14. 14. • Tied to Student’s Identity • Personally Interesting • Integral to the Student’s Vision of the future • Viewed as Useful (Eccles & Wigfield)
  15. 15. “From the standpoint of the child…he is unable to apply in daily life what he is learning at school. That is the isolation of the school - its isolation from life.” John Dewey
  16. 16. • Student-centered • Increases active engagement • Authentic inquiry • Requires connections to prior knowledge Interest-Based Learning
  17. 17. How does one engage students authentically? Present students with real- world challenges that require them to apply their relevant skills and knowledge.
  18. 18. How does one engage students authentically? Have students engage problems in the same ways that professionals in the associated fields do.
  19. 19. Facilitating Authentic Investigation 1. Assess, Find, or Create Student Interests 2. Conduct Interviews to Determine Interest Strengths 3. Problem Finding and Focusing
  20. 20. Interest-A-Lyzer
  21. 21. Sample Items… Imagine that you can spend a week job shadowing any person in your community to investigate a career you might like to have in the future. List the occupations of the persons you would select. 1st choice ______________________ 2nd choice______________________ 3rd choice ______________________
  22. 22. Sample Items (Secondary Interest-A-Lyzer)… If you could conduct an interview with a man or woman you admire, past or present, who would it be? What 3 questions would you ask him or her? 1. ____________________________________ 2. ____________________________________ 3. ____________________________________
  23. 23. Facilitating Authentic Investigation 4. Formulate a Written Plan 5. Work with Students to Locate Resources 6. Provide Methodological Assistance (Like the Pros)
  24. 24. Project Description: What do you hope to find out or learn? Timeline: •Start Date •Completion Date •Progress Report Dates
  25. 25. Intended Project(s): •In what ways will you share your work? •How, when, and where will you share and communicate the results of your project with other people? What Format Will Your Project Take? What will your product be?
  26. 26. Facilitating Authentic Investigation 7. Help Students Choose a Question 8. Offer Managerial Expertise 9. Identify Final Products and Audiences
  27. 27. Facilitating Authentic Investigation 10. Offer Encouragement, Praise, and Constructive Criticism 11.Escalate the Process 12.Evaluate
  28. 28. Research Tells Us… When the learning environment provides: Complex tasks that extend over time, allow for variation in expression style, and integrate multiple processes, both cognitive and procedural Students Engage in Learning
  29. 29. Complex Tasks Give students a purpose for the task During the process For completion Require student reflection Progress Process
  30. 30. -Thomas Edison The first requisite of success is the ability to apply your physical and mental energies to one problem without growing weary.
  31. 31. Independent Projects • Ask the question: – Will you be able to stay interested in this topic for an extended period of time? – If you start to loose interest, how might you make the topic interesting again?
  32. 32. Autonomy
  33. 33. Autonomy The more autonomous (self-determined) a person believes their behavior to be the greater the personal satisfaction and enjoyment from engaging in that behavior.
  34. 34. Competence… The state or quality of being adequately or well qualified. The ability to be successful.
  35. 35. Self-Efficacy An individual’s personal judgment of his or her own ability to succeed.
  36. 36. Self-efficacy influences:  What activities we select  How much effort we put forth  How persistent we are in the face of difficulties  The difficulty of the goals we set
  37. 37. Increasing Self-efficacy  Past performance  Vicarious experiences (observing others perform)  Verbal persuasion  Physiological cues
  38. 38. Control
  39. 39. Research Tells Us… When the learning environment provides: Choice and volitional control over processes, timing, challenge level, and outcome or product of learning tasks Students Engage in Learning
  40. 40. Volitional Control Provide structures that support autonomy Goals set in advance Set clear expectations Classroom structures that provide access to materials
  41. 41. Blocks to Feeling in Control • Motivated self-deception – Denying a state exists to reduce anxiety – “Oh, that is not due until next week.” – A month long project • Inaccurate verbalization – Convinced they feel something the do not – “I hate school!”
  42. 42. Blocks to Feeling in Control • Accessibility difficulties – More processing required to form an attitude, more apt to lose track of what the attitude is – “I used to be good at math, but the teacher is giving me a bad grade so I obviously am not good at math.”
  43. 43. Student Ownership • Require students to own their feelings – “I feel angry” vs. “You made me mad” • Verbs instead of adjectives to describe feelings – “I am successful because I am smart.” vs. “I am successful because I work hard.”
  44. 44. Influence On a clean sheet of paper, list the past five years vertically (2010, 2009, 2008…). Next to each year, list the most important event that occurred in your life during that year. Estimate the percentage of control or influence you had over each event.
  45. 45. Significant Influence When you reflect on your experience, do you find that you had more control than you thought? Students may feel that external forces control their lives. Modify the exercise: Last five months Last five weeks
  46. 46. Research Tells Us… When the learning environment provides: Opportunities for students to participate in the processes of goal-setting, tracking progress, and evaluating their own work Students Engage in Learning
  47. 47. Goal Setting Challenges students to give their efforts a preplanned direction Take responsibility for the key events that give form to their experience Provides opportunity for reflection
  48. 48. Unrealistic Goals  Goals set by other people  May be in conflict with student values, beliefs, or desires  Insufficient Information  Need realistic understanding of what is being attempted  Always Expecting Best  Focus on raising student’s average performance and increasing consistency
  49. 49. Insufficient Goals  Fear of Failure  Fear prevents risk taking  Failure is a positive: shows where room for improvement exists  Taking it “too easy”  Will not achieve anything of worth
  50. 50. Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Time-bound
  51. 51. What Kind of Goal?  Attitudinal  Academic  Behavioral  Educational  Artistic  Family  Physical  Social
  52. 52. Goal Attainment is not luck, it is work and it takes time.
  53. 53. Attainment  Measure and take pride in the achievement of goals  Demonstrates forward progress  Celebrate and enjoy the satisfaction of achievement  Set a new goal
  54. 54. Goalforit.com
  55. 55. Self-Reflection  Did I accomplish what I planned to do?  Was I able to stay interested and focused for the duration of the project? If not, what did I do to motivate myself?  Did I plan enough time or did it take longer than I thought?  In which situation did I accomplish the most work?
  56. 56. Student keeping a record Student tracking progress Student assessment of goal attainment Higher order thinking & metacognitive strategy use
  57. 57. Student reflection on reading Student participation in assessment and review Explicit strategy instruction Purpose for reading and goal setting Efficacy building via specific feedback
  58. 58. Individualized Attention
  59. 59. The Question of Equity Equity, the quality of being fair, is not about offering the exact same thing to every student, it is providing individuals with suitable challenges and experiences that will enable them to be successful and grow beyond where they are now or where they have been before.
  60. 60. • Intrinsically motivated • Keen sense of interest • Highly motivated • Task committed Gifted Student Characteristics
  61. 61. Extinguishing Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Amotivation
  62. 62. Avoid Rewards !
  63. 63. What is your personal definition of success?
  64. 64. Equal Opportunity Be systematic Encourage shy/quiet students Provide opportunities for written responses or idea generation Provide different kinds of leadership roles
  65. 65. Honor Diversity of Style Help students find ways of working that fits their “style” Encourage them to develop their own systems Allow trial and error: Have patience to give system ideas a fair chance
  66. 66. Research Tells Us… When the learning environment provides: Opportunities for help-seeking from resources, peers, and teacher (e.g. small group instruction and differentiation) Students Engage in Learning
  67. 67. Teachers Make the Difference!
  68. 68. Even highly motivated students…
  69. 69. Even highly motivated students… …need support!
  70. 70. Environment
  71. 71. Person Environment Fit • Person / Environment fit is the degree to which a person or their personality is compatible with their environment
  72. 72. Good Environmental Fit Occurs When: A person adjusts to their surroundings AND Adapts the environment to fit their needs
  73. 73. Infrastructure
  74. 74. Infrastructure
  75. 75. One Laptop per Child
  76. 76. Infrastructure
  77. 77. Infrastructure
  78. 78. Infrastructure
  79. 79. (Eduventures)
  80. 80. Enable NOT Disable Technology Should...
  81. 81. Teachers Parents Students Administrators Varied Experiences
  82. 82. EMPOWER STUDENTS
  83. 83. Questions?
  84. 84. Thank You!
  85. 85. Individualized Education
  86. 86. School of One
  87. 87. School of One
  88. 88. School of One

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