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Helping Students Self-Regulate for Success - Teachers

Helping Students Self-Regulate for Success - Teachers

  1. 1. Helping StudentsSet Goals, Get Organized, &Self-Regulate Behavior for Academic Success<br />Angela M. Housand<br />University of North Carolina, Wilmington<br /><br />
  2. 2.<br />
  3. 3. Parent Email<br />My son is so bright that he doesn’t really have to work at understanding his lessons in class, etc., therefore he is very casual about any number of other matters in his life such as being responsible and accountable for his actions. Now after several years of this, he thinks he should get things without the slightest effort on his part.<br />
  4. 4. Parent Email<br />Although my daughter is in a gifted program, what she is doing doesn’t begin to challenge her. She seems so disinterested in everything. Is there a way to identify the problem? Is she bored, lazy, rebelling, unorganized?<br />
  5. 5. Do you know this student?<br />
  6. 6. How can we, as educators, help students take personal initiative in the process of learning?<br />
  7. 7. How can we help students to be responsible for their learning?<br />
  8. 8. How can we give students the power to achieve their potential?<br />
  9. 9. Active engagement in the learning process produces increases in academic performance.<br />(Ablard & Lipschultz, 1998; Ames, 1984; Corno, 1986, 1989; Dweck, 1986; Schunk & Rice; 1985, 1987, 1991; Zimmerman, 1989; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990)<br />
  10. 10. Self-Regulated Learning<br /> Students are self-regulated when they are, “metacognatively, motivationally, and behaviorally active participants in their own learning process.”<br />(Zimmerman 1989, p. 329)<br />
  11. 11. Self-Regulated Learners<br />Compared with low achieving students, high achievers more frequently: <br />Set specific learning goals<br />Use a variety of learning strategies<br />Self-monitor<br />Adapt their efforts systematically<br /><br />
  12. 12. IndividualFactors<br />Personal Effort<br />Intrinsic Motivation<br />Goal Orientation<br />Self-efficacy<br />Age<br />Gender<br />(Blair & Razza, 2007; McWhaw & Abrami, 2001; Miles & Stine-Morrow, 2004; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986, 1988, 1990)<br />
  13. 13. Gifted students tend to be more self-regulated than their average performing peers.<br />Self-Regulated Learners<br />(Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990)<br />
  14. 14. Self-Regulated Learners<br />There still exists a large degree of variation among gifted students in their use of strategies associated with self-regulated learning.<br />(Ablard & Lipschultz, 1998; Risemberg & Zimmerman, 1992; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990)<br />
  15. 15. Self-Regulated Learners<br /> This variation may explain why some gifted students become highly productive, contributing members of society and others are in danger of underachievement. <br />
  16. 16. How can we, as educators, help students take personal initiative in the process of learning?<br />
  17. 17. Motivation<br />To be motivated means to be moved to do something<br />
  18. 18. Internalizing Motivation<br />Amotivation<br />Intrinsic Motivation<br />(Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000)<br />
  19. 19. Internalizing Motivation<br />(Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000)<br />
  20. 20. Internalizing Motivation<br />Amotivation<br />Intrinsic Motivation<br />(Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000)<br />
  21. 21. PersonallyMeaningful<br />Tied to Student’s Identity<br />Personally Interesting<br />Integral to the Student’s Vision of the future<br />Viewed as Useful<br />(Eccles & Wigfield) <br />
  22. 22. AuthenticLearning<br />
  23. 23. “From the standpoint of the child…he is unable to apply in daily life what he is learning at school. That is the isolation of the school - its isolation from life.”<br />John Dewey<br />
  24. 24. Research Tells Us…<br />When the learning environment provides:<br /> Complex tasks that extend over time, allow for variation in expression style, and integrate multiple processes, both cognitive and procedural<br />Students Engage in Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors<br />
  25. 25. How does one engagestudents authentically?<br /> Present students with real-world challenges that require them to apply their relevant skills and knowledge.<br />
  26. 26. How does one engagestudents authentically?<br /> Have students engage problems in the same ways that professionals in the associated fields do.<br />
  27. 27. Facilitating Authentic Investigation<br />Assess, Find, or Create Student Interests<br />Conduct Interviews to Determine Interest Strengths<br />
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  29. 29.
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Facilitating Authentic Investigation<br />Problem Finding and Focusing <br />Formulate a Written Plan<br />
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  33. 33. Timeline:<br /><ul><li>Start Date
  34. 34. Completion Date
  35. 35. Progress Report Dates</li></ul>Project Description:<br />What do you hope to find out or learn?<br />
  36. 36. Intended Project(s):<br /><ul><li>In what ways will you share your work?
  37. 37. How, when, and where will you share and communicate the results of your project with other people?</li></ul>What Format Will Your Project Take? <br />What will your product be?<br />
  38. 38. Getting Started:<br />What skills, resources and materials will I need?<br />Who is the intended audience?<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Facilitating Authentic Investigation<br />Help Students Choose a Question<br />
  42. 42. There MUST be a question that needs answering!<br />
  43. 43. Facilitating Authentic Investigation<br />Work with Students to Locate Resources<br />Provide Methodological Assistance (Like the Pros)<br />
  44. 44. Resource<br />School & Public Libraries<br />Videos<br />References<br />How To Books<br />Online databases<br />Informational Materials<br />Computer and Internet Access<br />Media Specialists!<br />
  45. 45. Resource<br />The Internet<br />Videos<br />Wikipedia<br />Information Websites<br />Endless Information!<br />
  46. 46. Resource<br />The Community<br />Universities<br />Local Businesses<br />Parents in the School<br />Teachers with Expertise<br />
  47. 47. Teachers<br />Parents<br />Provide Various<br />Opportunity & Experience<br />Community Members<br />Administrators<br />
  48. 48. Facilitating Authentic Investigation<br />Offer Managerial Support <br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50. Learning Contracts<br />An agreement between teacher and student<br />An opportunity for a student to work somewhat independently<br />Increases student responsibility for their own learning<br />Provides some freedom for the student in acquiring skills and understandings<br />
  51. 51. Learning Contracts Include:<br />A skills component<br />A content component<br />A time line<br />Specification of expectations <br /><ul><li>Behavior
  52. 52. Criteria for successful completion and quality</li></ul>Signatures of agreement to terms (Student and Teacher)<br />ACSD (1997)<br />Tomlinson (1995)<br />
  53. 53. Consequences:<br />Learning contracts set positive consequences<br />Example: continued freedom<br />They also set negative consequences<br />Example: teacher sets work parameters<br />
  54. 54. Facilitating Authentic Investigation<br />Identify Final Products and Audiences <br />Offer Encouragement, Praise, and Constructive Criticism <br />
  55. 55.
  56. 56. Henegar 2005<br />
  57. 57. Facilitating Authentic Investigation<br />Escalate the Process<br /> Evaluate<br />
  58. 58. Cyclical and Ongoing<br />
  59. 59. What will I need to work on my project?<br />Where will I work?<br />Who will I work with?<br />What might hinder my process?<br />
  60. 60. Am I accomplishing what I planned?<br />Is this taking longer than I thought?<br />Am I on task or am I being distracted?<br />
  61. 61. Did I accomplish what I planned to do?<br />Was I distracted and how did I get back to work?<br />Did I plan enough time or did it take longer than I thought?<br />In which situation did I accomplish the most work?<br />
  62. 62.
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  64. 64.
  65. 65.
  66. 66.
  67. 67. You must do the thing you think you cannot do.<br />-Eleanor Roosevelt<br />
  68. 68. You Know its Working When…<br />Most students start to work without any reminders beyond the initial directions.<br />The activity choices offered include open-ended options and complexity to extend the challenge of previous phases.<br />
  69. 69. You Know its Working When…<br />The activity choices offered demonstrate responsiveness to specific student interests and varied expression styles in product development.<br />The teacher provides verbal guidance and/or environmental reminders of self-regulation strategies for activities.<br />
  70. 70. You Know its Working When…<br />Most students demonstrate visible enthusiasm and task commitment for activities of their own choosing.<br />The teacher enhances self-choice activities through existing physical organization and ease of student access to resources.<br />
  71. 71. How can we help students to be responsible for their learning?<br />
  72. 72. Organizational Strategies<br />Keep a “TO DO” List<br />Prioritize<br />Completion check box<br />Deadline driven<br />Revised regularly<br />Google Tasks<br />
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  74. 74.
  75. 75. Organizational Strategies<br />Notebooks – NO MORE<br />Loose Leaf Binders with dividers<br />Make a schedule for checking notebooks and stick with it<br />Provide time in class!<br />Allow students with complete notebooks to work on something they enjoy while others are given time to organize<br />
  76. 76. Organizational Strategies<br />Notebook in the Cloud<br />Diigo<br />Google Docs<br />Google Calendar<br />
  77. 77.
  78. 78.
  79. 79.
  80. 80.
  81. 81. Organizational Strategies<br />No Need for Modifications! <br /> Successful for Underachievers<br />A copy at home<br />Learning contracts with student/teacher/parent<br />No Need for Assignment Log<br />Instruction time is VALUABLE!<br />Less need for positive reinforcement – technology is integrated<br />
  82. 82. Honor Diversity of Style<br />Help students find an organizational system the fits their “style”<br />Encourage them to develop their own systems<br />Allow trial and error: Have patience to give system ideas a fair chance<br />
  83. 83. Infrastructure<br />
  84. 84. Infrastructure<br />
  85. 85. (Eduventures)<br />
  86. 86. Infrastructure<br />
  87. 87. Infrastructure<br />
  88. 88. Infrastructure<br />
  89. 89.
  90. 90. Give them time to manage their world…<br />
  91. 91. Research Tells Us…<br />When the learning environment provides:<br /> Choice and volitional control over processes, timing, challenge level, and outcome or product of learning tasks<br />Students Engage in Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors<br />
  92. 92. Volitional Control<br /><ul><li>Set clear expectations in advance
  93. 93. Provide reminders
  94. 94. Bring students attention to their behavior when they lose self-regulation</li></li></ul><li>Complex Tasks<br /><ul><li>Give students a purpose for the task
  95. 95. During the process
  96. 96. For completion
  97. 97. Require student reflection
  98. 98. Progress
  99. 99. Process</li></li></ul><li>Your Classroom<br /><ul><li>Keep it organized
  100. 100. Have students be responsible for cleaning up after themselves
  101. 101. Elect student for organizational management</li></li></ul><li>Model the Behaviors You Want to See<br />Organization<br />Metacogntive Awareness<br />Goal Setting<br />Self-Reflection<br />
  102. 102. Teachers Make the Difference!<br />
  103. 103. Student Ownership<br />Require students to own their feelings<br />“I feel angry” vs. “You made me mad”<br />Verbs instead of adjectives to describe feelings<br />“I am successful because I am smart.” vs. “I am successful because I work hard.”<br />
  104. 104. Being in the Moment<br />Can you change the past?<br />What are you doing now that is working? How can you do more of the same?<br />When you had a problem like this one before, what good solutions did you work out? Or Have you ever helped someone with a problem like this before?<br />
  105. 105. Influence<br />On a clean sheet of paper, list the past five years vertically (2009, 2010, 2011…).<br />Next to each year, list the most important event that occurred in your life during that year.<br />Estimate the percentage of control or influence you had over each event.<br />
  106. 106. Significant Influence<br />When you reflect on your experience, do you find that you had more control than you thought?<br />Students may feel that external forces control their lives.<br />Modify the exercise:<br />Last five months<br />Last five weeks<br />
  107. 107. How can we give students the power to achieve their potential?<br />
  108. 108. Research Tells Us…<br />When the learning environment provides:<br /> Opportunities for students to participate in the processes of goal-setting, tracking progress, and evaluating their own work<br />Students Engage in Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors<br />
  109. 109. Writing Prompt<br />I would like to improve…<br />Some people are unhappy with…<br />I want to learn more about…<br />An idea I would like to try…<br />Something I think would really make a difference is…<br />Something I would like to change is…<br />
  110. 110. Self-Regulation Strategies<br />Goal setting and planning<br />Sequencing, timing, and completing<br />Time management<br />Pacing<br />
  111. 111.
  112. 112.
  113. 113. Goal Setting<br />Challenges students to give their efforts a preplanned direction<br />Take responsibility for the key events that give form to their experience<br />Provides opportunity for reflection<br />
  114. 114. Specific<br />Measurable<br />Attainable<br />Realistic<br />Time-bound<br />
  115. 115. Set goals that are slightly out of your immediate grasp, but not so far that there is not hope of achieving them.<br />
  116. 116. Set goals that are slightly out of your immediate grasp, but not so far that there is not hope of achieving them.<br />Think:<br />Vygotsky & The Zone of Proximal Development<br />
  117. 117. Unrealistic Goals<br />Goals set by other people<br />May be in conflict with student values, beliefs, or desires<br />Insufficient Information<br />Need realistic understanding of what is being attempted<br />Always Expecting Best<br />Focus on raising student’s average performance and increasing consistency<br />
  118. 118. Insufficient Goals<br />Fear of Failure<br />Fear prevents risk taking<br />Failure is a positive: shows where room for improvement exists<br />Taking it “too easy”<br />Will not achieve anything of worth<br />
  119. 119. The greater danger for most of us <br />lies not in setting our aim too high <br />and falling short; <br />but in setting our aim too low, <br />and achieving our mark.<br />-Michelangelo<br />
  120. 120. What is your personal definition of success?<br />
  121. 121. PersonallyMeaningful<br />Tied to Student’s Identity<br />Personally Interesting<br />Integral to the Student’s Vision of the future<br />Viewed as Useful<br />(Eccles & Wigfield) <br />
  122. 122. What Kind of Goal?<br />Artistic<br />What do you want to create, invent, form, generate, or make?<br />Attitude<br />Is there any part of the way you behave that upsets you?<br />
  123. 123. What Kind of Goal?<br />Academic<br />What level do you want to reach in school?<br />What do you want to accomplish that you have not before?<br />Education<br />What information and skills will you need to achieve your current goal? Your future goals?<br />
  124. 124. What Kind of Goal?<br />Family<br />How do you want to be seen by your parents or by other members of your family?<br />Physical<br />Are there any athletic goals you want to achieve?<br />Do you want to create habits that lead to lifelong health?<br />
  125. 125. Staying the Course<br />Periodically review goals and modify to reflect changing priorities and experience<br />Involve others in the goal: Inform, discuss, and share<br />Engage with successful, motivated people who also set goals<br />Create a “Goals Collage”<br />
  126. 126. Goal Attainment is not luck, it is work and it takes time.<br />
  127. 127. "Happiness does not come from doing easy work but from the afterglow of satisfaction that comes after the achievement of a difficult task that demanded our best."<br />-Theodore Isaac Rubin<br />
  128. 128. Attainment<br />Measure and take pride in the achievement of goals<br />Demonstrates forward progress<br />Celebrate and enjoy the satisfaction of achievement<br />Set a new goal<br />
  129. 129. Goal Setting Plan(Based on Heacox, 1991)<br />1. What is one area of your class performance that you really want to improve? (This is your long term goal. It may take you several weeks, months, or even a whole school year to improve this goal.) <br />This goal is important to me because: <br />2. What is one thing that you can do NOW to help you reach your long-term goal? (This is your short-term goal. You should be able to accomplish this goal in 2-4 weeks.) <br />3. What steps do you need to reach your short-term goal? <br />4. What things or people might keep you from reaching your goal? These are your obstacles. <br />5. What can you do to get around your obstacles? These are your solutions. <br />7. What special materials or help do you need to reach your goal? These are your resources. <br />8. How will you reward yourself when you achieve your goal? These are your incentives. <br />9. How and when will you check on your progress toward your goal? Who will help you to check on your progress? <br />Checkpoint 1 Date: ____________________________________________________ <br />Checkpoint 2 Date: ____________________________________________________   <br />    I am committed to working toward achieving my short term goal.<br />Student's signature: Today's date: <br />Witness (Teacher's) signature:<br />
  130. 130. What school related goals would you like to work toward during the next grading period?<br />a. <br />b.<br />c.<br />During this school year?<br />a.<br />b.<br />After high school?<br />a.<br />b.<br />What personal goals would you like to achieve in the next six months?<br />a.<br />b.<br />c.<br />Within the next year or two?<br />a.<br />b.<br />How do you expect to achieve these goals?<br />a.<br />b.<br />c.<br />a.<br />b.<br />a.<br />b.<br />How do you hope to achieve these goals?<br />a.<br />b.<br />c.<br />a.<br />b.<br />Goal Setting or…<br />WHERE DO YOU WANT TO GO<br />AND<br />HOW DO YOU PLAN TO GET THERE?<br />From Motivating Achievers, Carolyn Coil, Pieces of Learning<br />
  131. 131.<br />
  132. 132. Planning and Self-Monitoring<br />What skills do I need to achieve this?<br />What help or assistance do I need?<br />What resources do I need?<br />What can block progress?<br />Am I on task or am I being distracted?<br />
  133. 133. Self-Regulation Strategies<br />Keeping records<br />Note-taking<br />Recording marks<br />Portfolio<br />Drafts of assignments<br />
  134. 134.
  135. 135. Self-Reflection<br /><ul><li>Did I accomplish what I planned to do?
  136. 136. Was I distracted and how did I get back to work?
  137. 137. Did I plan enough time or did it take longer than I thought?
  138. 138. In which situation did I accomplish the most work?</li></li></ul><li>Student keeping a record<br />Student tracking progress<br />Student assessment of goal attainment<br />Higher order thinking & metacognitive strategy use<br />
  139. 139. Student reflection on reading<br />Student participation in assessment and review<br />Explicit strategy instruction<br />Purpose for reading and goal setting<br />Efficacy building via specific feedback<br />
  140. 140. Self-Efficacy<br />An individual’s personal judgment of his or her own ability to succeed.<br />
  141. 141. Self-efficacy influences:<br />What activities we select<br />How much effort we put forth<br />How persistent we are in the face of difficulties<br />The difficulty of the goals we set<br />
  142. 142. Increasing Self-efficacy<br />Past performance<br />Vicarious experiences (observing others perform)<br />Verbal persuasion <br />Physiological cues<br />
  143. 143.
  144. 144. EMPOWER STUDENTS<br />
  145. 145. Moving Forward<br />
  146. 146. Encourage Risk Taking<br /> Resilience<br /> Perseverance<br />(Cox, 1926; Reis, 1995, 1998, 2005; Sternberg & Lubart 1993; Van-Tassel Baska 1989; Walberg et. al., 1981; Walberg & Paik, 2005)<br />
  147. 147. Failure is Part of the Learning Process<br />
  148. 148. P<br />Thomas Edison<br />
  149. 149. P<br />Thomas Edison<br />Teachers’ opinion: <br />“too stupid to learn.” <br />
  150. 150. P<br />Thomas Edison<br />Teachers’ opinion: <br />“too stupid to learn.” <br />Mistakes made for light bulb: 3,000<br />
  151. 151. P<br />Thomas Edison<br />Teachers’ opinion: <br />“too stupid to learn.” <br />Mistakes made for light bulb: 3,000<br />Total Lifetime Patents: <br />1,093<br />
  152. 152. All great achievements require time…<br />-Maya Angelou<br />
  153. 153. Achievement results from work realizing ambition.<br />-Adam Ant<br />
  154. 154. Results-<br />High levels of task engagement<br />Increased willingness to exert effort to attain desired outcomes<br />Process of learning becomes interesting and has value for the student<br />
  155. 155. Even highly <br />self-regulated students…<br />
  156. 156. Even highly <br />self-regulated students…<br />…need support!<br />
  157. 157. Questions?<br />
  158. 158. Thank You!<br />
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