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  1. 1. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>What Do Manager Do? </li></ul><ul><li>Managers Get Things Done </li></ul>
  2. 2. Human Resource System <ul><li>What Is An Organization? </li></ul><ul><li>Consciously Coordinated Social Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Functions On A Continuous Basis To Achieve A Common Goal </li></ul>
  3. 3. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>What Are Management Functions ? </li></ul><ul><li>Henri Foyal’s: </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Organize </li></ul><ul><li>Command </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate </li></ul>
  4. 4. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>In The 21 st Century: </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Leading </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul>
  5. 5. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>To Plan: </li></ul><ul><li>Organization Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Overall Strategy To Achieve These Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Developing A Comprehensive Set Of Plans To Integrate And Coordinate Activities </li></ul>
  6. 6. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>To Organize: </li></ul><ul><li>What Tasks To Be Done </li></ul><ul><li>Who Is To Do Them </li></ul><ul><li>How Tasks Are To Be Grouped </li></ul><ul><li>Who Reports To Whom </li></ul><ul><li>What Decisions Are To Be Made </li></ul>
  7. 7. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>To Lead: </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate </li></ul><ul><li>Direct The Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Select The Most Communicative Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve Conflicts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>To Control: </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor Organizational Performance </li></ul>
  9. 9. Human Resource Systems Why Do We Need Management <ul><li>Speed Of Change – Technological Developments To Competitive Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Forces That Affect Organizational Performances – Government Actions, Expectations Of Employees Are Complex. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Put Employees Into a room with only a table and two chairs. Leave them without any instruction and check back on them in two hours. If they have taken the table apart... ...assign them to engineering. </li></ul><ul><li>* If they are counting butts in the ashtray... ...put them in finance. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Human Resource Engineering <ul><li>If they are talking to the chairs... </li></ul><ul><li>...assign them to personnel* </li></ul><ul><li>If they are sleeping... </li></ul><ul><li>...they are management material. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>* If they do not notice when you walk in... </li></ul><ul><li> them in security. * </li></ul><ul><li>* If they Leave Early.. </li></ul><ul><li>Put them In Sales </li></ul>
  13. 13. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Ten Specific Managerial Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Grouped Under Three Primary Activity Centers – </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Informational </li></ul><ul><li>Decisional </li></ul>
  14. 14. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Interpersonal Role </li></ul>Figure Head Leader Liaison
  15. 15. <ul><li>Informational Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminator </li></ul><ul><li>Spokes Person </li></ul>
  16. 16. Human Resources Sysytems <ul><li>Decisional Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbance Handler </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Allocate </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiator </li></ul>
  17. 17. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Henri Fayol – Focus On Managers’ Job </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Functions Were Included </li></ul><ul><li>- Purchasing Planning </li></ul><ul><li>- Production Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>- Sales Directing </li></ul><ul><li>- Finance Coordinating </li></ul><ul><li>- Accounting Control </li></ul><ul><li>- Administration </li></ul>
  18. 18. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>20 th Century Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Federick Taylor pioneered “Scientific Management Movement – Observation of People Through Time And Motion Study, Importance To Task </li></ul><ul><li>Lillian Gilbreth – Analysis And Synthesis On The Basis Of Goal Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Henri Fayol – Administrative Principles – Elevation Of Management From Shop floor To The Entire Organization </li></ul>
  19. 19. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Max Weber’s – Bureaucracy Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Depression Led To Behavioral Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Studies At Western Electric </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic Psychology – Abraham Maslow, Douglas Mcgregor </li></ul>
  20. 20. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Mary Parker Follet – Administrative Behavior – Reciprocal Nature Of Power, Power As An Agent Of Change </li></ul><ul><li>The Contingency Perspective – “It All Depends Perspective”. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Social Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>- Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>- Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>- Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>- Political Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>- Anthropology </li></ul>
  22. 22. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Management Is The Practice Of Directing, Organizing, And Developing People, Technology, And Financial Resources In Task Oriented Systems That Provide Product And Services To Others. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Links With Organizational Strategy – How? </li></ul><ul><li>A Major Airline Implements The Purchase Decision Of Buying Four New Airbus A380s – 600 and 800 Seat Super Jumbo Aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>This Aircraft Is A Flying Palace Spacious Enough To Feature Sleeping Quarters, Shops, Exercise Rooms. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>What Are The Major HR Implications? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>The Most Experienced Captains With The Airline Will Need Training </li></ul><ul><li>Training Needs Through Out The Cockpit Ranks – First Officers, Flight Engineers… </li></ul><ul><li>Cabin Attendants Will Need To Undergo Training In Safety Features And Service </li></ul>
  26. 26. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Maintenance Mechanics Will Need Training In Routine And Special Servicing Of The Airplane </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing Agents – Different Parts And Supplies Will Need To Be Ordered </li></ul><ul><li>Construction Will Need To Be Undertaken To Alter Airport Gates </li></ul>
  27. 27. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Marketing Representatives Will Need To Know The Airplane’s Special Features To Promote Travel On It. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>All this…. </li></ul><ul><li>A Seemingly Straight Forward Decision To Purchase A New Aircraft, A Decision Based On Business Projections!!! </li></ul>
  29. 29. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Strategy – Several Businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Business Strategy – Competitive Positions </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Strategy - Departments </li></ul>
  30. 30. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Strategic Planning Process – SWOT </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Strategic Trends: </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse Work Force </li></ul><ul><li>Nature Of Work </li></ul>
  31. 31. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Managerial Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>Global Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Changes – Flat </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management </li></ul>
  32. 32. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Strategic Decisions Impact On HR </li></ul><ul><li>Add New Type Of Equipment Training </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition Selection (From Acquired Firm), Training, Compensation, Outplacement </li></ul>
  33. 33. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Strategic Decisions Impact On HR </li></ul><ul><li>Pursue Competitive Strategy Compensation, Labor Relations, Training </li></ul><ul><li>Expand Markets Selection, Training, Compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation Of Factory Transfer, Recruitment, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selection, Training </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>HR Strategic Role: </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring Competitive Advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Shift From Protector And Screener To Strategic Partner And Change Agent </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphosis From Personnel To Human Resource Management </li></ul>
  35. 35. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Role Of HR: </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Of Competitive Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Of Internal Strengths </li></ul>
  36. 36. Human Resource Strategy <ul><li>Future…. </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Reorganizations </li></ul><ul><li>- Loss Of Job, Pay, Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>- Job Changes </li></ul><ul><li>- Transfer To A New Geographic Location </li></ul><ul><li>- Changes In Career Growth </li></ul>
  37. 37. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Steps Before Making A HR Score Card: </li></ul><ul><li>Emerges From The Balance Score Card </li></ul><ul><li>- Attempts To Collate Measures From Four Areas – Financial, Internal Business Process, Customer, Learning And Growth </li></ul><ul><li>(Objectives, Measures, Targets, Initiatives) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>HR Score Card: </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding The Reason For Implementing The HR Score Card </li></ul>
  39. 39. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>HR Outcomes Measure The Focus On Business Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Operational HR Metrics That Focus On Efficiencies </li></ul>
  40. 40. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Understanding The Business Context Of HR – What Are The Value Drivers OF Business Units? </li></ul><ul><li>What Is HR Value Proposition To The Business </li></ul><ul><li>Where Is HR Contribution Recognized – By Senior Management, The Line, Employees, HR Itself, Investors? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>What Does The HR Function Currently Measure? </li></ul><ul><li>Are The Metrics Activity Driven Or Value Driven? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Defining HR Value: </li></ul><ul><li>The Value Of The HR Function As A Whole </li></ul><ul><li>The Value Of HR Processes As Practiced Throughout The Organization – Performance Management And The Fit With Culture, Structure And Strategy </li></ul>
  43. 43. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Defining HR Value: </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting The Relevant Measures And Metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining A HR Score Card Frame Work </li></ul>
  44. 44. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Now HR Score Card: </li></ul><ul><li>Business Context </li></ul><ul><li>Two Influences On HR Effectiveness: </li></ul><ul><li>- External Influences – The Company’s Current Operating Environment </li></ul><ul><li>- Internal Influences – How The Business Perceives HR Capability </li></ul>
  45. 45. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Current HR Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Resources, Performance Management, Training, And Development, Reward, Employee Relations – Areas Where Measurement Is Required </li></ul>
  46. 46. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Evolve Appropriate HR Metrics </li></ul>
  47. 47. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Score Card Design Frame Work: </li></ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Customer Focus </li></ul><ul><li>People/Human Capital Management </li></ul>
  48. 48. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Financial Value: </li></ul><ul><li>- HR Management Budget/Spend </li></ul><ul><li>- HR Development Budget/Spend </li></ul><ul><li>- Sales Per Employee </li></ul><ul><li>- Revenue Per Employee </li></ul>
  49. 49. Human Resource System <ul><li>Internal Customer: </li></ul><ul><li>- Training </li></ul><ul><li>- Self Learning </li></ul><ul><li>- Ration Of E –Learning Modules To Traditional Training Modules </li></ul>
  50. 50. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Human Capital Intervention (Focus And People) </li></ul><ul><li>- Training Days Delivered </li></ul><ul><li>- Training Needs/ Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- Performance Management </li></ul>
  51. 51. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Human Capital Management </li></ul><ul><li>- Absenteeism Ration </li></ul><ul><li>- Headcount </li></ul><ul><li>- Staff Turnover </li></ul><ul><li>- Employee Commitment </li></ul>
  52. 52. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>HR Planning: </li></ul><ul><li>What Positions To Fill </li></ul><ul><li>How To Fill Those Positions </li></ul>
  53. 53. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>HR Planning: </li></ul><ul><li>To Forecast: </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel Needs </li></ul><ul><li>The Supply Of Internal Candidates </li></ul><ul><li>The Supply Of External Candidates </li></ul>
  54. 54. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>How To Forecast Personnel Needs ? </li></ul><ul><li>Forecast Future Revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate The Size Of Staff To Achieve This Revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Projected Turnover Of Manpower </li></ul><ul><li>Quality And Skills Based On Changing Needs Of The Organization </li></ul>
  55. 55. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Strategic Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Resources Available </li></ul>
  56. 56. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>To Predict Employment Needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Trend Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>The Scatter Plot </li></ul>
  57. 57. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Job Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure To Determine </li></ul><ul><li>Duties Of Positions </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics Of People To Satisfy These Positions </li></ul><ul><li>- Job Descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>- Job Specifications </li></ul>
  58. 58. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Job Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Work Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Human Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Machine Tools, Equipments </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Job Context </li></ul><ul><li>Human Requirements </li></ul>
  59. 59. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Uses Of Job Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment And Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Discovering Unassigned Duties </li></ul>
  60. 60. Performance Appraisal <ul><li>Why Job Analysis? </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Flatter Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Reengineering </li></ul><ul><li>High Performance Insight </li></ul>
  61. 61. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Which Are The Types Of Jobs To Be Analyzed ? </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs Which Are Critical To The Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs Which Are Difficult To Learn And Perform </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Factors </li></ul>
  62. 62. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Types Of Job Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation Work Activities – (Basic ) Amount Of Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate Work Content – (Some Technological Content) – How Much Of Time Is Spent On Teaching People? </li></ul><ul><li>Area Work Activities – Technologically Oriented Specific To Work Activities </li></ul>
  63. 63. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Steps In Job Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>How Will The Information Be Used? </li></ul><ul><li>Review Relevant Background Information </li></ul><ul><li>Select Representative Positions </li></ul><ul><li>Actually Analyze The Job </li></ul><ul><li>Verify The Information </li></ul><ul><li>Develop A Job Description And Specification </li></ul>
  64. 64. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Information: </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul>
  65. 65. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Qualitative Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Interview – Individual, Supervisor, Group </li></ul>
  66. 66. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Interview Method – Typical Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What Is The Job Being Performed? </li></ul><ul><li>What Are The Major Duties? </li></ul><ul><li>What Exactly You Do? </li></ul><ul><li>What Physical Conditions Do You Work In? </li></ul><ul><li>In What Actives Do You Participate? </li></ul>
  67. 67. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Interview Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed Checklists </li></ul><ul><li>Interview Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Observation Method </li></ul><ul><li>Participant Diary/Logs </li></ul>
  68. 68. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>The Process Of Organizations Locate And Attract Individuals To Fill Job Vacancies </li></ul>
  69. 69. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Recruitment Process: </li></ul><ul><li>Vacant/New Position Occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Perform Job Analysis And Plan Recruiting Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Generate Applicant Pool – Internal/External </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Applicants </li></ul><ul><li>Impress Applicants </li></ul><ul><li>Make Offer </li></ul>
  70. 70. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Strategic Issues In Recruiting: </li></ul><ul><li>Match With Organizational Values </li></ul><ul><li>State Of External Labor Market </li></ul><ul><li>Firm’s Ability To Pay </li></ul><ul><li>Attract Talent </li></ul>
  71. 71. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Recruitment Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>To Attract Large Pool Of Applicants </li></ul><ul><li>Attract High Proportion Of Well Qualified Candidates Who Are Interested In Accepting Offers </li></ul><ul><li>Post Hiring Goals – Retention, Spill Over Effect </li></ul>
  72. 72. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Recruitment Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Whether Internal/External Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Merely Filling Up Vacancies/Hire For Long Term Careers </li></ul><ul><li>Depth Of Commitment To Hiring A Diverse Range Of Employees </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical Overtones </li></ul>
  73. 73. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>How To Attract Applicants: </li></ul><ul><li>By Changing Nature Of Inducements </li></ul><ul><li>Target Labor Pools </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Mergers And Acquisitions </li></ul><ul><li>Temps </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Leasing </li></ul>
  74. 74. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Internal Recruitment: </li></ul><ul><li>Job Posting And Bidding </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting Of Replacement Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Nominating Committees </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Succession Planning </li></ul>
  75. 75. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>External Recruiting: </li></ul><ul><li>About The Position To Be Filled </li></ul><ul><li>Job Specification Sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Recruiter Must Identify What Will Attract The Candidate </li></ul>
  76. 76. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Planning For External Recruiting: </li></ul><ul><li>Factors Which Are Time Consuming: </li></ul><ul><li>The Need For Confidential Search </li></ul><ul><li>A Technically Complex Position </li></ul><ul><li>Competition In The Market Place </li></ul><ul><li>A Poor Industry/Company/Division Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Low Pay </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear Job Description </li></ul><ul><li>An Undesirable Location </li></ul>
  77. 77. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>External Recruitment: </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Methods – Employee Referrals </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Methods - Advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Agencies </li></ul><ul><li>HR Consultants </li></ul>
  78. 78. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Recruiting Targeted Groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Search Firms </li></ul><ul><li>- Reasons For Failure – Unrealistically High Job Specifications, Poor Reputation, Internal Politics In Hiring Organisations, Insufficient Research Staff, Use Of Overly Specialized Search Firmly </li></ul>
  79. 79. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Campus Recruiting </li></ul><ul><li>Recruiting Older Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Recruiting Disabled Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative Action Recruiting – E.g.: SEZ </li></ul>
  80. 80. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>The Applicant’s Point Of View: </li></ul><ul><li>Job Search </li></ul><ul><li>Job Choice </li></ul>
  81. 81. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Job Choice: </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals Make Rational Choice - Pay, Benefits, Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Instinct </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced By Interviewer’s Skill/Politeness </li></ul>
  82. 82. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Why Selection Is Important? </li></ul>
  83. 83. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Selection: </li></ul><ul><li>Your Own Performance Depends On The Performance Of Your Colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>It Is Costly To Recruit </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Implications – Negligent Hiring </li></ul>
  84. 84. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Effective Selection Depends On Validity And Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Validity – A Sample Of A Person’s Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability – Consistency Of Scores </li></ul>
  85. 85. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Reliability : </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic Error Versus Random Error </li></ul>
  86. 86. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Methods Of Measuring Reliability: </li></ul><ul><li>Test – Retest – Consistency Of A Test Over Time </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-Rater </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Consistency </li></ul>
  87. 87. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Validity: </li></ul><ul><li>Whether The Test Is An Adequate Measure Of The Characteristic It Is Supposed To Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Whether The Inferences Based On The Score Are Appropriate </li></ul>
  88. 88. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Validity : </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion Validity – Behavioral Determinations </li></ul><ul><li>Content Validity – Representative Of Construct’s “Domain” </li></ul>
  89. 89. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>How To Validate A Test? </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Analyze The Job </li></ul><ul><li>- Predictors – Job Description And Specification </li></ul><ul><li>- Define Success On The Job </li></ul><ul><li>- Standards Of Success – Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
  90. 90. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Step 2: Choose The Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Administer The Test </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent Validation </li></ul><ul><li>Predictive Validation </li></ul>
  91. 91. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Concurrent Validation: 3 Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Select A Sample Of Employees </li></ul><ul><li>Give Each Employee A Proposed Selection Test </li></ul><ul><li>Compute The Correlation Between Test Scores And Criterion Scores </li></ul>
  92. 92. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Predictive Validation: </li></ul><ul><li>Present (Time 1) Versus Future (Time 2) </li></ul>
  93. 93. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Step 4: Relate Your Criteria (Test Scores) And Predictor ( Test Scores) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Cross Validate And Revalidate </li></ul>
  94. 94. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Special Concerns In Validation: </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Validity Generalization </li></ul>
  95. 95. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Types Of Tests For Selection: </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Motor And Physical Abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring Personalities And Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Management Assessment Centers – Simulation Exercises (In Basket, Leaderless GD, Games, Individual Presentations, Objective Tests, The Interview) </li></ul>
  96. 96. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Induction </li></ul>
  97. 97. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Induction: </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Induction </li></ul><ul><li>Should Feel Comfortable And At Ease </li></ul><ul><li>Understand The Organization's Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Policies And Procedures Of The Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations From The Employee </li></ul>
  98. 98. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Training And Development </li></ul>
  99. 99. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Training – 5 Step Process: </li></ul><ul><li>Needs Analysis Step – A.D.D.I.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Design </li></ul><ul><li>Validation Step </li></ul><ul><li>Implement </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation And Follow -Up </li></ul>
  100. 100. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Training And Learning: </li></ul><ul><li>Make Learning Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Make Skills Transfer Easy </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate The Learner </li></ul>
  101. 101. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Analyzing Training Needs </li></ul>
  102. 102. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Analyzing Training Needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Task Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementing Methods: - Management’s Request, Supervisor’s Report, Personnel Records, Questionnaire Survey </li></ul>
  103. 103. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Performance Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Difference Between “Can’t Do” And “Won’t Do” </li></ul>
  104. 104. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Traditional Training Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>On-The Job Training </li></ul><ul><li>Apprenticeship Training </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Job Instruction Training – Step-By-Step Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-Visual Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Simulated Training </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Based Training </li></ul>
  105. 105. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Managerial Development And Training: </li></ul><ul><li>Job Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching/Understudy </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional Analysis </li></ul>
  106. 106. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Off The Job Training And Development Techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>The Case Study Method </li></ul><ul><li>Management Games </li></ul><ul><li>Out Of Campus Seminars </li></ul><ul><li>University Related Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Role Play </li></ul>
  107. 107. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Behavior Modeling: </li></ul><ul><li>- Showing The Right Way Of Doing Things </li></ul><ul><li>- Practice The Right Way </li></ul><ul><li>- Feedback </li></ul>
  108. 108. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Evaluation Of Training Effort: </li></ul><ul><li>Designing The Study – Controlled Experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Training Effects To Measure: </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
  109. 109. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Development </li></ul>
  110. 110. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>What Is Career? </li></ul>
  111. 111. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Organization Career Development </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Career Development </li></ul>
  112. 112. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Career Development Vs. Personnel Development </li></ul><ul><li>- Ensures Needed Talent Is Available </li></ul><ul><li>- Improves Organizational Ability To Attract And Retain High Talent Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>- Ensuring Growth Opportunities For All Employees </li></ul><ul><li>- Reduces Employee Frustration </li></ul>
  113. 113. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>External Versus Internal Dimensions To A Career </li></ul>
  114. 114. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Career Stages: </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-Career </li></ul><ul><li>Late Career </li></ul><ul><li>Decline </li></ul>
  115. 115. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Effective Career Development: </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging Initial Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination Of Career Option Information </li></ul><ul><li>Job Postings </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment Centers </li></ul>
  116. 116. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Career Counseling – 4 Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Goals And Aspirations For The Next 5 Years </li></ul><ul><li>The Manager’s Views About Opportunities Available </li></ul><ul><li>Identification Of What The Employee Would Have To Do In The Way Of Self Development </li></ul><ul><li>Identification Of Actual Steps In The Form Of Plans For New Development Activities </li></ul>
  117. 117. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Methods For Growth: </li></ul><ul><li>Career Development Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing Education </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic Job Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Sabbaticals </li></ul>
  118. 118. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Suggestions For Individual’s Career Development: </li></ul><ul><li>3 Step Self Assessment Process: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify And Organize Your Skills, Interests, Work-Related Needs And Values </li></ul><ul><li>Convert These Inventories Into General Career Fields And Specific Job Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Test These Possibilities Against The Realities Of The Organization Or The Job Market </li></ul>
  119. 119. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Performance Appraisal </li></ul>
  120. 120. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Why Performance Appraisal? </li></ul><ul><li>An Objective Method To Decide On Compensation/Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Areas Where Development/Training Is Required </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion On Which Selection Programs Are Validated </li></ul>
  121. 121. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Other Uses Of Performance Appraisal: </li></ul><ul><li>Less Need to Micro Manage </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Employee Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Employee Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Increased ease and comfort around Performance Appraisals </li></ul><ul><li>Better Coordination Between Company, Department and Individual’s Performance </li></ul>
  122. 122. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Linkage Between : </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts And Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Performance And Rewards </li></ul>
  123. 123. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>What Is Performance In Performance Appraisal? </li></ul><ul><li>Means Doing The Job Effectively And Efficiently With A Minimum Related Employee Disruption </li></ul>
  124. 124. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Definition Of Performance Appraisal: </li></ul><ul><li>Is A Structured Formal Interaction Between A Subordinate And The Supervisor That Usually Takes A Form Of Periodic Interview In Which Work Performance Of The Subordinate Is Examined And Discussed With A View To Identify Weaknesses And Strengths, Opportunities For Skill Development </li></ul>
  125. 125. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>The Appraisal Process: </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment Of Performance Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Of Expectations To The Employee </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement Of Performance – How And What To Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Actual Performance Versus Expected Performance </li></ul>
  126. 126. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Who Should Do The Appraisal: </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate Supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul><ul><li>Self Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate Subordinates </li></ul>
  127. 127. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>When The Systems Of Performance Appraisal Is Not Clear : </li></ul><ul><li>3 Emotions Are Prevalent: </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicion </li></ul>
  128. 128. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Methods Of Appraisal: </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Rating Scales </li></ul><ul><li>Quality (Accuracy, Thoroughness, </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptability Of Work Performed) </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Job Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul>
  129. 129. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Methods Of Appraisal: </li></ul><ul><li>Paired Comparison Method </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Distribution Method </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Incident Method </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative/Essay Method </li></ul><ul><li>BARS Method (Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales) </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Appraisals </li></ul>
  130. 130. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Steps For BARS: </li></ul><ul><li>Generate Critical Incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Performance Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Reallocate Incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Scale The Incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Develop A Final Instrument As Behavioral Anchors – Clusters Of Skills </li></ul>
  131. 131. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Performance Management: </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Planning (Employee Goal Setting, Objective Setting) </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Data Gathering, Observation, Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Diagnosis And Coaching </li></ul>
  132. 132. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>What Is Participative Management? </li></ul><ul><li>Process Of Involving Those Who Are Influenced By Decisions, In Making Decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Where Everyone Makes Certain That Everyone Gets Their Needs Met. </li></ul>
  133. 133. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Participative Management: </li></ul><ul><li>Delegating Process: </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility + Accountability + Authority </li></ul>
  134. 134. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>In Participate Management We Negotiate: </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul>
  135. 135. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>The Concept Of Control Is Generally Replaced By </li></ul><ul><li>The Concept Of Self-control And Accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>The Word Manage Is Generally Replaced By The Words Lead, Encourage, Persuade, Lift, Serve, Help,Understanding, And Inspire </li></ul><ul><li>The Words Negotiate And Review And Discuss And Decide Replace Words Like Orders, Inform, Tell, Assign, Direct, And Require. </li></ul><ul><li>The Attitude Of Negotiation Is Encouraged By Phrases Like How Can We Improve </li></ul><ul><li>The Phrase I Is Replaced By We </li></ul>
  136. 136. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Managerial Succession Planning: </li></ul><ul><li>Business Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>From To </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Pyramids - Flatter Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Desire For Seasoned Leaders – Want The Seasoning To Develop Sooner </li></ul><ul><li>Stability - Flexibility With Faster Market Responsiveness </li></ul>
  137. 137. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Managerial Succession Planning: </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Pools Of Broadly Qualified Candidates – Have Position Pools </li></ul><ul><li>More Broadly Disciplined Candidates </li></ul><ul><li>More Centralization And Integration Of Systems And Information In Business Units </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Boundary Fertilization To Develop Broader Skills And Perspective </li></ul>
  138. 138. Human Resource Systems <ul><li>Managerial Succession Planning: </li></ul><ul><li>Largely Line Driven </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Competencies And Models Define Success </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Functional Management Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Sets Career Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential Job Assignments Provide Primary Development, Supplemented By Specific Training </li></ul><ul><li>Create Assignments For Development </li></ul>