Summer training


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Summer training

  1. 1. Interview Project
  2. 2. Hydrocarbon gases Non-Hydrocarbon gases Methane C1 Hydrogen sulfide H2S Ethane C2 Water vapor H2O(V) Propane C3 Carbon dioxide CO2 Butane C4 Nitrogen N2 Pentane C5 Mercury Hg Hexane+ C6+What is the meaning of + ?
  3. 3. Hydrocarbon gases Non-hydrocarbon gasesMethane C1 77-99 % Hydrogen sulfide H2S 0-4 PPM Ethane C2 0.05-20 % Carbon dioxide CO2 0.1-3.44 %Propane C3 0.01-5 % Nitrogen N2 0.11-.83 % Butane C4 0-1.74 % Water vapor H2O(V)Pentane C5 0-0.24 %Hexane+ C6+ 0-0.08 %
  4. 4. Composition Reservoir
  5. 5. Hydrocarbon gases Non-hydrocarbon gases Lean Rich Sour Sweet Wet Dry Ethane C2 Ethane C2 H2S H2S H2O(V) H2O(V) Propane C3 CO2 CO2 Butane C4 Propane C3 Pentane C5 Hexane+ C6+ Butane C4 Pentane C5 Hexane+ C6+Note: The C1 is the main component inboth
  6. 6. Natural gas reservoir Oil and associated gas reservoir
  7. 7. TCF: Trillion Cubic feet
  8. 8. Domestic 2% CNG 1% Petrochemical 12% Electricity 56 %Industry 29 %
  9. 9. UP-Stream Down-Stream Gas treatment Consumers GasProduction Factory
  10. 10. Reason Process Contaminant Gas production from wells Oil Acid Condensate gas H2o Acid Liquids removal Free Water H2S Corrosion Acid gas removal (Sweeting) CO2H.C.+ H2O Hydrate Water removal (Dehydration) H2O(V) (Physical combination) Compression ? Pipe blockage National Grid
  11. 11. National Grid Field Treatment Consumers Up- Stream Process Down- Stream Process Well C1 C2 C3 C4 C5+ NGL Sales gas National Grid Field Treatment Factory ConsumersRich Gas Well
  12. 12. LNG C1 C2 Sales gas Factory National Grid Field Treatment ConsumersLean Gas Well
  13. 13. Products NGL $ National GridRich gas
  14. 14. Gas Processing Gas Distribution Gas Transmission Factories National Grid
  15. 15. El-Salam El-Tarek El-Obayid El-Qasr WDGC Western Desert Gas Complex Sales Gas National Grid C2/C3 (gas) Sidpec C3 (Liq.) Naftomar LPG (Liq.) Petro Gas Cond. (Liq.) Ameryia crude oil
  16. 16. Bed 2 Bed 3 Abu-sananAmeryia LPG Recovery Plant Sales Gas National Grid C2/C3 (gas) WDGC LPG (Liq.) Petro Gas Cond. (Liq.) Ameryia crude oil
  17. 17. Components Co2 H2S N2 C1 C2 C3 IC4 NC4 IC5 Nc5 C6 C7+Acid gasLNGLPGCommercialpropaneCondensateNGL
  18. 18. LNG Export Lean gas Domestic Gas treatment Sales gas Industry CNG stations Rich gas GasProduction C2/C3 Petrochemicals NGL C3 Export LPG(C3/C4) Domestic Condensate Oil refinery C5+ (API) Up-Stream Process Down-Stream Process Products
  19. 19. NationalDehydration Chilling GridStorage Fractionation
  20. 20. NationalDehydration Chilling Grid Storage Fractionation
  21. 21. H2OCH4
  22. 22. H2O HydrateT P
  23. 23. Psi
  24. 24. Adsorption AbsorptionMolecules Molecules LiquidSolid Surface Solvent
  25. 25. Wet gas Hot Regen gas Wet Regen gas Molecular sieve Hot Regen gas Cold Regen gasDry gas Adsorption Heating Cooling
  26. 26. PFD: Process Flow Diagram
  27. 27. 0 4 8 12 16 20 24
  28. 28. NationalDehydration Chilling Grid Storage Fractionation
  29. 29. Pressure reduction RefrigerationTurbo-Expander Joule-Thomson valve RefrigerantHigh P Low PHigh T Low T High T Low T High P Low P High T Low T Refrigerant
  30. 30. Pressure reduction Turbo-Expander Joule-Thomson valve • For Gas only • For Liquid and Gas • Produce work • Doesnt produce work • More efficient ΔP ΔT ΔP ΔT WExpander Compressor
  31. 31. Shell side Flow inTube side Flow out Shell side Flow outTube side Flow in
  32. 32. NGL Pressure reduction National Grid Field Treatment Consumers Pipe storageWell
  33. 33. Refrigeration
  34. 34. Compressor Air coolerVapor Refrigerant Process Gas CondenserLatent heat of vaporization Evaporator -ChillerLiquid Refrigerant Joule-Thomson valve
  35. 35. Gas RefrigerantHot Process GasCold Process Gas Liquid Refrigerant
  36. 36. Compressor -42 °C Air cooler 1 bar 80 °C 20 bar Vapor Propane Process Gas CondenserLatent heat of vaporization 50 °C 20 bar Evaporator -Chiller Liquid Propane -42 °C 1 bar Joule-Thomson valve
  37. 37. 120° C GAS - (STEAM)100° C LIQUID - (WATER)0° C SOLID - (ICE) 335 KJ 419 KJ 2676 KJ D 1 kg water at 1 bar pressure
  38. 38. NationalDehydration Chilling Grid Storage Fractionation
  39. 39. •Distillation :The process of separating materials by successively heating to vaporizea portion and then cooling to liquefy a part of the vapor. Materials to be separatedmust differ in boiling point and/or relative volatility.
  40. 40. C2/C3NGL
  41. 41. NationalDehydration Chilling GridStorage Fractionation
  42. 42. Evaporation BoilingOrdinary evaporation is a surface The boiling point is definedphenomenon - some molecules have as the temperature at whichenough kinetic energy to escape. If the the saturated vapor pressurecontainer is closed, an equilibrium is of a liquid is equal to thereached where an equal number of surrounding atmosphericmolecules return to the surface. The pressurepressure of this equilibrium is called thesaturation vapor pressure.
  43. 43. vapor pressure (true vapor pressure): The pressure exerted by the equilibriumvapor of a liquid when confined in a closed tank. Water boils at 100 °C Because vapor pressure of water = 1 atm @ 100 °C
  44. 44. 1 atmStorage pressure Vapor pressure
  45. 45. Storage pressure Vapor pressure Propane LPGCondensate
  46. 46. Pressurized Vapor pressure of C3&C4 @ ambient T 1 atm Propane LPGNon- Pressuried Vapor pressure of C5 @ ambient T 1 atm Condensate
  47. 47. Pressurized RefrigeratedT) Ambient T) Critical T) Ambient T) Critical 96 °C -82 °C Propane Methane
  48. 48. V.P.=10 bar @ 50 °C Rault lawVapor pressure of mixture (C3/C4) = (XC3*V.P. C3) + (XC4*V.P. C4)
  49. 49. Exhaust High pressure gas 500 °C Centrifugal Axial compressor Turbine compressorAir Combustion chamber Low pressure gas Fuel