African hawk 2 part 1

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African hawk 2 part 1

  1. 1. African Hawk II Automated Version Graduation Project Done By: Mamdouh Sadek Al- Moatasem BelaaH Samy Samir Khattab
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. Introduction• Mini UAVs• Pheonix 607 (2006/2007)• Mantis (2007/2009)• Buraq (2008/2009)• African Hawk (2009/2010)
  4. 4. Introduction• It’s a Vision• UAS• Autopilot
  5. 5. Introduction Objectives• Modeling and Manufacturing of the aircraft.• Design and installation of autopilot chip onboard of the aircraft.
  6. 6. Introduction What’s New?!• Internal Arrangement• Landing Gear• Vacuum Bagging• MicroPilot Autopilot• Emergency Recovery System
  7. 7. Propulsion Model
  8. 8. Objective• Set Mathematical to relate parameters• Thrust• RPM• Velocity
  9. 9. Experimental Test• Relation between throttle position, Thrust and RPM
  10. 10. Measuring Thrust
  11. 11. Measuring RPM
  12. 12. Results 1- Thrust Vs. Throttle Position 4500 y = 0.209x2 + 18.981x 4000 R² = 0.9939 3500 3000thrust(gm) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 throttle position (%)
  13. 13. 2- RPM Vs. Throttle Position 10000 y = -0.3269x2 + 121.4x 9000 R² = 0.9887 8000 7000 6000RPM 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Throttle Position (%)
  14. 14. 3-Thrust Vs. RPM 12000 y = 2.5148x R² = 0.8367 10000 8000rpm 6000 4000 2000 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 THRUST(gm)
  15. 15. Endurance Vs. Throttle Position-4 140 120 y = 103681x-2.112 R² = 0.9964 100Endurance- min 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Throttle position (%)
  16. 16. 5Thrust Vs. airplane Velocity• BEM Theory• CL and CD• No geometry for blades• 3D Scanning• 2D Sections
  17. 17. Geometric Model
  18. 18. What’s New ?!• Nothing Changed in the external geometry• Some internal parts were edited• Some new internal parts were added
  19. 19. Wing
  20. 20. WingRibs
  21. 21. Servo Motors Flap Servo
  22. 22. ServosSlim Servo
  23. 23. Fuselage
  24. 24. Fuselage
  25. 25. Fuselage Frame
  26. 26. FuselageBattery Lower Holder
  27. 27. FuselageBattery Upper Holder
  28. 28. Landing Gear Housing
  29. 29. Landing Gear Housing
  30. 30. Landing Gear Housing
  31. 31. Mass Model
  32. 32. Mass Model• Objective:Center of Gravity of the aircraft is related to the stability condition of the aircraft.Moment of inertias will be needed for the calculation of the stability derivatives.
  33. 33. Mass Model• Two methods of calculations:The first method (using CAD software)The second technique (Manual calculations)
  34. 34. Mass Model• Firstly we will define the Axis system we used:We took the center of the general Axis at the leading edge of the airfoil cross section of the wing’s root.The +ve Z direction is upward,the +ve Y direction is in the right wing direction from the front view,the +ve X direction is in the direction of the fuselage rear.
  35. 35. Mass Model• The aircraft is divided into 3 main sections of components:Structural Components.Propulsion Components.Control Components.
  36. 36. Mass Model Results
  37. 37. Aerodynamic model Cl-alfa curve • cl-alfa 1.4 wing only airplane 1.2 1 0.8 0.6cl 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 alfa
  38. 38. Aerodynamic Model
  39. 39. Drag polar cl-cd , drag polar 1.4 wing only airplane 1.2 1 0.8 0.6cl 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 cd
  40. 40. Cm-alfa cm-alfa 0.06 wing only airplane 0.04 0.02 0 -0.02cm -0.04 -0.06 -0.08 -0.1 -0.12 -0.14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 alfa
  41. 41. Manufacturing Master Mold
  42. 42. Manufacturing Steps• Laser cutting and structure assembly• Balsa Surface fabrication• Composite Surface fabrication• Surface finish
  43. 43. Ribs Fabricating & arrangement• Plywood, 27 ribs.
  44. 44. Balsa Surface fabrication 1.5 mm Balsa wood sheet covering •
  45. 45. Balsa Surface fabrication
  46. 46. Composite Surface fabrication• First layer: fiber glass 200 gm/m2• Other layers fiber glass 400 gm/m3• Lower Surface• Painting
  47. 47. Master Mold
  48. 48. Female Mold• Foam Jigs• Wood Lips
  49. 49. Female Mold• Gaps are sealed with clay• Surface is waxed at least two times
  50. 50. Female Mold• Applying Epoxy Resin• Start from root• Brush in one direction
  51. 51. Female Mold• Six layers• Around 30 min between each layer• Most reusable part
  52. 52. ManufacturingVacuum Bagging
  53. 53. Manufacturing Skin Using Vacuum Bagging Technique• What is vacuum Bagging ?! a new technique used in composite manufacturing that used the pressure as a clamping force to press the fiber laminates together with the mold until the resin is cured.
  54. 54. Vacuum Bagging
  55. 55. Vacuum Bagging Light weight Product • vacuum bagging results in absorbing of excessive resin in the breathermaterial and can reduce Epoxy resin weight by 30% and total weight by 15% Better uniformity of lay up (No thick / • thin cross sections) exact shaping • vacuum Bagging lay up results in perfect shape that exactly like thefemale mold shape due to clamping force between mold and laminate. Strong bonding between layers •
  56. 56. Vacuum Bagging Layers
  57. 57. • Carbon fiber• Release Fabric
  58. 58. • Perforated film• Breather /bleeder
  59. 59. • Bag
  60. 60. Vacuum Bagging Equipment1-Vacuum Pump2-Gauge
  61. 61. 3-hose & Regulator
  62. 62. Vacuum Bagging Easy lock
  63. 63. Vacuum Bagging Tubing Clamps
  64. 64. Vacuum Bagging Vacuum Port
  65. 65. Final Shape
  66. 66. Manufacturing procedures 1-Cutting carbon fiber cloth •
  67. 67. 2-Cutting vacuum bagging layers •
  68. 68. • 3. Preparation of bag and vacuum bagging equipment• 4. Female mold preparation• 5-Mixing Epoxy resin
  69. 69. • 6. Applying epoxy on the laminate
  70. 70. • 7. Applying vacuum bagging layers
  71. 71. 8. Mold Entrance in the bag & sealing the open side • 9. Opening vacuum pump •
  72. 72. • 10. Removing skin from the mold
  73. 73. • fuselage
  74. 74. Internal structure
  75. 75. Control surfacescutting control surfaces
  76. 76. Control SurfacesBalsa Leading Edges
  77. 77. Control Surfaces Covering
  78. 78. TO BE CONTINUED………….

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