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# African hawk 2 part 1

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### African hawk 2 part 1

1. 1. African Hawk II Automated Version Graduation Project Done By: Mamdouh Sadek Al- Moatasem BelaaH Samy Samir Khattab
2. 2. Introduction
3. 3. Introduction• Mini UAVs• Pheonix 607 (2006/2007)• Mantis (2007/2009)• Buraq (2008/2009)• African Hawk (2009/2010)
4. 4. Introduction• It’s a Vision• UAS• Autopilot
5. 5. Introduction Objectives• Modeling and Manufacturing of the aircraft.• Design and installation of autopilot chip onboard of the aircraft.
6. 6. Introduction What’s New?!• Internal Arrangement• Landing Gear• Vacuum Bagging• MicroPilot Autopilot• Emergency Recovery System
7. 7. Propulsion Model
8. 8. Objective• Set Mathematical to relate parameters• Thrust• RPM• Velocity
9. 9. Experimental Test• Relation between throttle position, Thrust and RPM
10. 10. Measuring Thrust
11. 11. Measuring RPM
12. 12. Results 1- Thrust Vs. Throttle Position 4500 y = 0.209x2 + 18.981x 4000 R² = 0.9939 3500 3000thrust(gm) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 throttle position (%)
13. 13. 2- RPM Vs. Throttle Position 10000 y = -0.3269x2 + 121.4x 9000 R² = 0.9887 8000 7000 6000RPM 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Throttle Position (%)
14. 14. 3-Thrust Vs. RPM 12000 y = 2.5148x R² = 0.8367 10000 8000rpm 6000 4000 2000 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 THRUST(gm)
15. 15. Endurance Vs. Throttle Position-4 140 120 y = 103681x-2.112 R² = 0.9964 100Endurance- min 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Throttle position (%)
16. 16. 5Thrust Vs. airplane Velocity• BEM Theory• CL and CD• No geometry for blades• 3D Scanning• 2D Sections
17. 17. Geometric Model
18. 18. What’s New ?!• Nothing Changed in the external geometry• Some internal parts were edited• Some new internal parts were added
19. 19. Wing
20. 20. WingRibs
21. 21. Servo Motors Flap Servo
22. 22. ServosSlim Servo
23. 23. Fuselage
24. 24. Fuselage
25. 25. Fuselage Frame
26. 26. FuselageBattery Lower Holder
27. 27. FuselageBattery Upper Holder
28. 28. Landing Gear Housing
29. 29. Landing Gear Housing
30. 30. Landing Gear Housing
31. 31. Mass Model
32. 32. Mass Model• Objective:Center of Gravity of the aircraft is related to the stability condition of the aircraft.Moment of inertias will be needed for the calculation of the stability derivatives.
33. 33. Mass Model• Two methods of calculations:The first method (using CAD software)The second technique (Manual calculations)
34. 34. Mass Model• Firstly we will define the Axis system we used:We took the center of the general Axis at the leading edge of the airfoil cross section of the wing’s root.The +ve Z direction is upward,the +ve Y direction is in the right wing direction from the front view,the +ve X direction is in the direction of the fuselage rear.
35. 35. Mass Model• The aircraft is divided into 3 main sections of components:Structural Components.Propulsion Components.Control Components.
36. 36. Mass Model Results
37. 37. Aerodynamic model Cl-alfa curve • cl-alfa 1.4 wing only airplane 1.2 1 0.8 0.6cl 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 alfa
38. 38. Aerodynamic Model
39. 39. Drag polar cl-cd , drag polar 1.4 wing only airplane 1.2 1 0.8 0.6cl 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 cd
40. 40. Cm-alfa cm-alfa 0.06 wing only airplane 0.04 0.02 0 -0.02cm -0.04 -0.06 -0.08 -0.1 -0.12 -0.14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 alfa
41. 41. Manufacturing Master Mold
42. 42. Manufacturing Steps• Laser cutting and structure assembly• Balsa Surface fabrication• Composite Surface fabrication• Surface finish
43. 43. Ribs Fabricating & arrangement• Plywood, 27 ribs.
44. 44. Balsa Surface fabrication 1.5 mm Balsa wood sheet covering •
45. 45. Balsa Surface fabrication
46. 46. Composite Surface fabrication• First layer: fiber glass 200 gm/m2• Other layers fiber glass 400 gm/m3• Lower Surface• Painting
47. 47. Master Mold
48. 48. Female Mold• Foam Jigs• Wood Lips
49. 49. Female Mold• Gaps are sealed with clay• Surface is waxed at least two times
50. 50. Female Mold• Applying Epoxy Resin• Start from root• Brush in one direction
51. 51. Female Mold• Six layers• Around 30 min between each layer• Most reusable part
52. 52. ManufacturingVacuum Bagging
53. 53. Manufacturing Skin Using Vacuum Bagging Technique• What is vacuum Bagging ?! a new technique used in composite manufacturing that used the pressure as a clamping force to press the fiber laminates together with the mold until the resin is cured.
54. 54. Vacuum Bagging
55. 55. Vacuum Bagging Light weight Product • vacuum bagging results in absorbing of excessive resin in the breathermaterial and can reduce Epoxy resin weight by 30% and total weight by 15% Better uniformity of lay up (No thick / • thin cross sections) exact shaping • vacuum Bagging lay up results in perfect shape that exactly like thefemale mold shape due to clamping force between mold and laminate. Strong bonding between layers •
56. 56. Vacuum Bagging Layers
57. 57. • Carbon fiber• Release Fabric
58. 58. • Perforated film• Breather /bleeder
59. 59. • Bag
60. 60. Vacuum Bagging Equipment1-Vacuum Pump2-Gauge
61. 61. 3-hose & Regulator
62. 62. Vacuum Bagging Easy lock
63. 63. Vacuum Bagging Tubing Clamps
64. 64. Vacuum Bagging Vacuum Port
65. 65. Final Shape
66. 66. Manufacturing procedures 1-Cutting carbon fiber cloth •
67. 67. 2-Cutting vacuum bagging layers •
68. 68. • 3. Preparation of bag and vacuum bagging equipment• 4. Female mold preparation• 5-Mixing Epoxy resin
69. 69. • 6. Applying epoxy on the laminate
70. 70. • 7. Applying vacuum bagging layers
71. 71. 8. Mold Entrance in the bag & sealing the open side • 9. Opening vacuum pump •
72. 72. • 10. Removing skin from the mold
73. 73. • fuselage
74. 74. Internal structure
75. 75. Control surfacescutting control surfaces
76. 76. Control SurfacesBalsa Leading Edges
77. 77. Control Surfaces Covering
78. 78. TO BE CONTINUED………….