What is ClassroomManagement?– It’s effective discipline– It’s being prepared for class– It’s motivating your students– It’s providing a safe, comfortablelearning environment– It’s building your students’ selfesteem– It’s being creative and imaginative indaily lessons– And . . .
. . . It’s different forEVERYONE!!WHY?– Teaching Styles– Personality/Attitudes– Student population– Not all management strategies areeffective for every teacher• Try different strategies to see ifthey work for you
Why is ClassroomManagement Important?• Satisfaction and enjoyment inteaching are dependent uponleading students to cooperate• Classroom managementissues are of highest concernfor beginning teachers
Principles for successfulclassroom management• Deal with disruptive behaviors but alsomanage to minimize off-task, non-disruptive behaviors• Teach students to manage their ownbehavior• Students learn to be on-task andengaged in the learning activities youhave planned for them– It is more natural to be off-task than on
Techniques for BetterClassroom Control• Focus attention on entire class• Don’t talk over student chatter• Silence can be effective• Use softer voice so students reallyhave to listen to what you’resaying• Direct your instruction so thatstudents know what is going tohappen
Techniques for BetterClassroom Control• Monitor groups of students to checkprogress• Move around the room so studentshave to pay attention more readily• Give students non-verbal cues• Engage in low profile intervention ofdisruptions• Make sure classroom is comfortableand safe
Techniques for BetterClassroom Control• Over plan yourlessons to ensureyou fill the periodwith learningactivities• Come to classprepared• Show confidence inyour teaching• Learn studentnames as quickly aspossible
Transition vs. AllocatedTime• Allocated time: the time periods youintend for your students to be engagedin learning activities• Transition time: time periods that existbetween times allocated for learningactivities– Examples• Getting students assembled and attentive• Assigning reading and directing to begin• Getting students’ attention away from readingand preparing for class discussion
Transition vs. AllocatedTime• The Goal:–Increase the variety of learningactivities but decrease transitiontime.• Student engagement and on-task behaviors are dependenton how smoothly andefficiently teachers move fromone learning activity to another
Withitness• Withitness refers to ateacher’s awareness ofwhat is going on in theclassroom
A teacher has “withitness” if:• When discipline problems occur, theteacher consistently takes action tosuppress the misbehavior of exactlythose students who instigated theproblem• When two discipline problems ariseconcurrently, the teacher deals with themost serious first• The teacher decisively handlesinstances of off-task behavior beforethe behaviors either get out of hand orare modeled by others
Withitness (continued)• When handling misbehavior –make sure all students learn whatis unacceptable about thatbehavior• Getting angry or stressed does notreduce future misbehavior• Deal with misbehavior withoutdisrupting the learning activity
Jones’ study of off-taskbehaviors• 99% of off-task behaviors takeone of several forms– Talking out of turn– Clowning– Daydreaming– Moving about without permission• Antisocial, dangerous behaviorsmake up a fraction of the timestudents spend off-task
Proximity and BodyLanguage• Eye contact, facial expressions,gestures, physical proximity tostudents, and the way you carryyourself will communicate that youare in calm control of the classand mean to be taken seriously.• Be free to roam• Avoid turningback to class
Cooperation throughcommunication• Verbalize descriptions of behaviors andnever value judgments aboutindividuals• Verbalize feelings but remain in control• DO NOT USE SARCASM• Do not place labels (good or bad)• Do not get students hooked on praise– Praise the work and behavior – not thestudents themselves• Speak only to people when they areready to listen
Classroom Rules ForConduct• Formalized statements that providestudents with general guidelines for thetypes of behaviors that are requiredand the types that are prohibited• A few rules are easier to rememberthan many rules• Each rule in a small set of rules is moreimportant than each rule in a large setof rules
Necessary classroom rulesof conduct• Maximizes on-task behaviors andminimize off-task (esp. disruptive)behaviors• Secures the safety and comfort of thelearning environment• Prevents the activities of the class fromdisturbing other classes• Maintains acceptable standards ofdecorum among students, schoolpersonnel, and visitors to the schoolcampus
A Businesslike Atmosphere• Take advantage of the first days ofclass• Establish an environment in whichachieving specified learning goalstakes priority over other concerns• It is much easier to establish thisenvironment from the beginningrather than later
5 steps1. Take advantage of the new schoolyear or term to set the stage forcooperation2. Be particularly prepared andorganized3. Minimize transition time4. Utilize a communication style thatestablishing non-threatening,comfortable environment5. Clearly establish expectations forconduct
Beginning a new year• Take advantage of initialuncertainty• Ride your “fences”• PLAN for a favorable beginning– Classroom/lab organization– Ongoing routines• Use learning activities with easy-to-follow, uncomplicated directions• Use a disclosure statement
Disclosure Statement• Used to clearly communicateexpectations to students andparents• Refer back to the guidelinesthroughout the term• Not a legally binding document
Components of DisclosureStatement• Basic Course Outline• Grading Procedures– Include procedures for making up missedwork, extra credit, homework expected,etc.• Attendance Policies (should be consistentwith school policy)• Other class rules, policies, procedures• Safety considerations as necessary• Accommodation for disabilities statement• Signature of student and parent/guardian
Room/lab arrangement• Make sure all students can see andhear clearly (and you can see themclearly)• Arrangement is determined by learningactivity (lecture, class discussion, smallgroup work, etc.)• Allow room and easy access forproximity control• Think through class procedures andlearning activities and arrange theroom in the best possible way
Functions of Behavior• Every behavior has a function• Four primary reasons for disruptivebehavior in the classroom– Power– Revenge– Attention– Want to be left alone (i.e., disinterest orfeelings of inadequacy)
Functions of Behavior• Many misbehaviors exhibited bystudents are responses to a behaviorexhibited by the teacher• Do not tolerate undesirable behaviorsno matter what the excuse• Understanding why a person exhibits abehavior is no reason to tolerate it• Understanding the function of abehavior will help in knowing how todeal with that behavior
Dealing with off-taskbehaviors• Remain focused and calm; organizethoughts• Either respond decisively or ignore it alltogether• Distinguish between off-task behaviorsand off-task behavior patterns• Control the time and place for dealingwith off-task behavior• Provide students with dignified ways toterminate off-task behaviors
Dealing with off-taskbehaviors• Avoid playing detective• Utilize alternative lesson plans• Utilize the help of colleagues• Utilize the help of guardians• DO NOT USE CORPORALPUNISHMENT– A form of contrived punishment in whichphysical pain or discomfort is intentionallyinflicted upon an individual for the purposeof trying to get that individual to be sorry heor she displayed a particular behavior
Modifying off-task behaviorpatterns• Use the principle of “Extinction”– Whenever the positive rein forcers for aperson’s voluntary behavior pattern areremoved or cease to exist, the person willbegin to discontinue that behavior• Specify the exact behavior pattern toextinguish• Identify positive reinforcers for thebehavior• Plan to eliminate positive reinforcement• Establish a realistic time schedule• Implement the plan• Evaluate the effectiveness byobserving behavior
Modifying off-task behaviorpatterns• Use the principle of “Shaping”– Reinforce behaviors that are similar to thebehavior to be learned– Subsequent actions that are more like thebehavior to be learned than previousactions are reinforced– Subsequent actions that are less like thebehavior to be learned than previousactions are not positively reinforced
Attention Seeking Behavior• Attention-seeking students preferbeing punished, admonished, orcriticized to being ignored• Give attention to this student whenhe or she is on-task andcooperating• “Catch them being good!” – andlet them know you caught them
Power Seeking Behavior• Power-seeking students attemptto provoke teachers into a struggleof wills• In most cases, the teacher shoulddirect attention to other membersof the class
Behavior: Rambling -- wandering aroundand off the subject. Using far-fetchedexamples or analogies.POSSIBLE RESPONSES:Refocus attention by restating relevantpoint.Direct questions to group that is back on thesubjectAsk how topic relates to current topic beingdiscussed.Use visual aids, begin to write on board,turn on overhead projector.Say: "Would you summarize your main pointplease?" or "Are you asking...?"
Behavior: Shyness or Silence -- lack ofparticipationPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:o Change teaching strategies from groupdiscussion to individual written exercisesor a videotapeo Give strong positive reinforcement forany contribution.o Involve by directly asking him/her aquestion.o Make eye contact.o Appoint to be small group leader.
Behavior: Talkativeness -- knowingeverything, manipulation, chronic whining.POSSIBLE RESPONSES:o Acknowledge comments made.o Give limited time to express viewpoint orfeelings, and then move on.o Make eye contact with another participant andmove toward that person.o Give the person individual attention duringbreaks.o Say: "Thats an interesting point. Now lets seewhat other other people think."
Behavior: Sharpshooting -- trying to shootyou down or trip you up.POSSIBLE RESPONSES:o Admit that you do not know the answerand redirect the question the group orthe individual who asked it.o Acknowledge that this is a joint learningexperience.o Ignore the behavior.
Behavior: Heckling/Arguing -- disagreeingwith everything you say; making personalattacks.POSSIBLE RESPONSES:Redirect question to group orsupportive individuals.Recognize participants feelings andmove one.Acknowledge positive points.Say: "I appreciate your comments,but Id like to hear from others," or "Itlooks like we disagree."
Behavior: Grandstanding -- getting caughtup in ones own agenda or thoughts to thedetriment of other learners.POSSIBLE RESPONSES:o Say: "You are entitled to your opinion,belief or feelings, but now its time wemoved on to the next subject," oro "Can you restate that as a question?" oro "Wed like to hear more about that ifthere is time after the presentation."
Behavior: Overt Hostility/Resistance --angry, belligerent, combative behavior.POSSIBLE RESPONSES:o Hostility can be a mask for fear. Reframehostility as fear to depersonalize it.o Respond to fear, not hostility.o Remain calm and polite. Keep your temper incheck.o Dont disagree, but build on or around whathas been said.o Move closer to the hostile person, maintaineye contact.o Always allow him or her a way to gracefullyretreat from the confrontation.
Behavior: Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry,belligerent, combative behavior (continued)POSSIBLE RESPONSES:Say: "You seem really angry. Does anyoneelse feel this way?" Solicit peer pressure.Do not accept the premise or underlyingassumption, if it is false or prejudicial, e.g., "Ifby "queer" you mean homosexual..."Allow individual to solve the problem beingaddressed. He or she may not be able to offersolutions and will sometimes undermine his orher own position.Ignore behavior.Talk to him or her privately during a break.As a last resort, privately ask the individual toleave class for the good of the group.
Behavior: Griping -- maybe legitimatecomplaining.POSSIBLE RESPONSES:o Point out that we cant change policyhere.o Validate his/her point.o Indicate youll discuss the problem withthe participant privately.o Indicate time pressure.
Behavior: Side Conversations -- may be related tosubject or personal. Distracts group members andyou.POSSIBLE RESPONSES:Dont embarrass talkers.Ask their opinion on topic beingdiscussed.Ask talkers if they would like to sharetheir ideas.Casually move toward those talking.Make eye contact with them.Standing near the talkers, ask a near-byparticipant a question so that the newdiscussion is near the talkers.As a last resort, stop and wait.
Be familiar with schoolpolicies from the start!Policies relating directly to students:• Attendance/Tardy Policy• Academic/Grading Policies• Telephone use (school phones, cell,pagers)• Student Dress and Grooming Policies• Safe School Policies– Weapons, fighting, intimidation, verbalabuse, etc.• Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Policies• Sexual Harassment Policy
Policies you’ll need to beaware of as a teacher• Internet/Email use policies• Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act(FERPA) Policies• Policies regarding the reporting of abuse,neglect, suicide threats, etc.• Emergency procedures– Fire, earthquake, bomb threat, intruder, etc.• Field Trip policies• Accident reporting procedures• Reporting academic progress• Purchasing guidelines• Substitute teachers– Requests for, planning, etc.• Use of videos, movies, and instructionalmaterials
If you advise a studentgroup (CTSO):• Be familiar with:– Travel policies– Fundraising policies– Activity absence policies– Student organization finance policies