TCP over 6LoWPAN for Industrial Applications

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TCP over 6LoWPAN for Industrial Applications

  1. 1. SHORT PAPER: TCP over 6LoWPAN for Industrial Applications Tiancong Zheng, Ahmed Ayadi, Xiaoran Jiang IT/TELECOM Bretagne Rennes, France 8-9 February 2011Ahmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 1 / 23
  2. 2. Outline 1 IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks: Overview 2 Reliable transport protocols for 6LoWPANs: Why TCP?? 3 TCP over 6LoWPANs for Industrial Applications 4 Experimental Setup Hardware Setup Software Setup Physical Setup Energy Parameters 5 Results and Discussion One hop Scenario Multi-hop Results 6 Conclusion and perspectivesAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 2 / 23
  3. 3. IPv6 Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks:Overview 6LoWPAN is the name of a working group in the internet area of the IETF, The IETF Working Group 6LoWPAN has recently introduced an adaptation layer that provides header compression and fragmentation/reassembly mechanisms to allow sending/receiving IPv6 packets over LLNs (e.g., IEEE 802.15.4). Edge LoWPAN nodes routers Internet IPv4/IPv6Ahmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 3 / 23
  4. 4. The 6LoWPAN layer in TCP/IP model Figure: The 6LoWPAN architectureAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 4 / 23
  5. 5. Reliable transport protocols for 6LoWPANs: Why TCP?? Currently, the 6LoWPAN WG has defined only UDP header compression algorithm named NHC, UDP does not assure reliable communication between wireless divines, If some industrial applications are loss tolerant, many others applications are sensitive to losses and their performance decrease when the loss ratio increases.Ahmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 5 / 23
  6. 6. Reliable transport protocols for 6LoWPANs: Why TCP?? Currently, the 6LoWPAN WG has defined only UDP header compression algorithm named NHC, UDP does not assure reliable communication between wireless divines, If some industrial applications are loss tolerant, many others applications are sensitive to losses and their performance decrease when the loss ratio increases. TCP is the most reliable transport protocol used in IP-based networks, TCP ensures reliability of data transmission from a sensor to a host external IP and vice versa, TCP could be a good choice for Machine-To-Machine reliable connection, With TCP, we are able open SSH connection to log into wireless devices (sensors, actors, etc.) and execute commands. TCP allows also remotely programming/retasking wireless devices over-the-air.Ahmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 5 / 23
  7. 7. Outline 1 IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks: Overview 2 Reliable transport protocols for 6LoWPANs: Why TCP?? 3 TCP over 6LoWPANs for Industrial Applications 4 Experimental Setup Hardware Setup Software Setup Physical Setup Energy Parameters 5 Results and Discussion One hop Scenario Multi-hop Results 6 Conclusion and perspectivesAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 6 / 23
  8. 8. TCP over 6LoWPANs for Industrial Applications Reduces wired links between machines, Replace cables by reliable wireless Machine-to-Machine (M2M) links: low-cost, easy installation, easy move and removal, etc. 1 1 larousse.frAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 7 / 23
  9. 9. TCP over 6LoWPANs for Industrial Applications Renewable energy: Solar energy2 , Wind power 3 , etc. Reduce maintenance, integration and operation costs 2 ecofriend.org 3 wordpress.comAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 8 / 23
  10. 10. TCP over 6LoWPANs for Industrial Applications 45 Environment: Waste control, , Air quality, etc. 4 evoc.com 5 waste.epa.gov.twAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 9 / 23
  11. 11. Outline 1 IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks: Overview 2 Reliable transport protocols for 6LoWPANs: Why TCP?? 3 TCP over 6LoWPANs for Industrial Applications 4 Experimental Setup Hardware Setup Software Setup Physical Setup Energy Parameters 5 Results and Discussion One hop Scenario Multi-hop Results 6 Conclusion and perspectivesAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 10 / 23
  12. 12. Hardware Setup In our testbed, all wireless devices are connected to the standard laptop by USB port. This solution allows us to log the output messages from the mots to the standard laptop, The embedded device used in our testbed: the Crossbow TelosB mote. It uses TI MSP430 microcontroller, which offers a 10kB RAM, and a 48 kB program flash memory. Its radio is CC2420,which uses ISM frequency band and offers 250 kbps data rate. We used the last channel (No. 26) of IEEE 802.15.4 to reduce the interference with IEEE 802.11.Ahmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 11 / 23
  13. 13. Software Setup 6 Contiki OS as the operating system for our wireless devices. Contiki OSis a memory-constraint open source operating system for networked embedded devices that includes the uIPv6 stack. We have chosen Contiki OS because 6LowPAN, UDP and TCP are already implemented on this OS. Contiki OS provides standard operating system features like threads, timers, random number generator, clocks, a file system, and a command line shell. TCP is partially implemented on Contiki OS because of the memory-constraint of the wireless devices. 6 www.sics.se/contikiAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 12 / 23
  14. 14. Physical Setup N3 N4 1.5m Laptop Station N5 1.5m Wireless Devices N2 EN 3m N1 ER 1m 3m 3m Seven wireless nodes are distributed with the same distance (between three and four meters) between each neighbor.We can distinguish four types of wireless devices based on their functionalities: 1 The Edge Router is the border router that connects the wireless network to the IP-based wired network. 2 Wireless nodes (N1, N2, N3, N4, and N5) play two functions: a sensor node where TCP client application is running called Ternminal Node, or relay of data frames from the ER to the TN and vice-versa. 3 The External Node generates a concurrent CBR traffic.Ahmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 13 / 23
  15. 15. Outline 1 IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks: Overview 2 Reliable transport protocols for 6LoWPANs: Why TCP?? 3 TCP over 6LoWPANs for Industrial Applications 4 Experimental Setup Hardware Setup Software Setup Physical Setup Energy Parameters 5 Results and Discussion One hop Scenario Multi-hop Results 6 Conclusion and perspectivesAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 14 / 23
  16. 16. Energy Parameters Contiki OS provides a tool to compute the running time spent by a node on one of the flowing radio states: Transmit and Listen. Contiki OS provides also an estimation of its CPU consumption. For example to compute the consumed energy due the channel listening EListen EListen = TListen × Voltage × IListen where TListen and IListen are respectively the time spent by a mote in listen mode and the listen current. Table: Energy Parameters Parameter Value Voltage 3V CPU 0.5 mA Transmit 17.4 mA Listen 19.7 mAAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 15 / 23
  17. 17. One hop Results Compare three scenarios: Only TCP, TCP with UDP (364bps), TCP with UDP (1546bps). Table: Energy consumption distribution Mac Protocol CPU Transmit Listen CX-MAC 7.5% 14.3% 78.1% Table: TCP with CX-MAC: One hop performance Cons. Ener.(mj) Segm. Retrans. Trans. Dur.(s) No CBR 2755.7 0.1 267.1 CBR=364bps 2886.7 10.3 295.2 CBR=1.5kbps 3393.1 52.1 408.7Ahmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 16 / 23
  18. 18. Multi-hops scenario Compare three scenarios: Only TCP, TCP with UDP (364bps), TCP with UDP (1546bps). N3 N4 1.5m Laptop Station N5 1.5m Wireless Devices N2 EN 3m N1 ER 1m 3m 3mAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 17 / 23
  19. 19. Multi-hop: Retranmissions 250 No CBR CBR=364bps 200 CBR=1546bps Retransmission times 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of hops Figure: Experimental results of multi-hop TCP over 6LoWPAN end-to-end retransmissions times with and without a concurrent CBR trafficAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 18 / 23
  20. 20. Multi-hop: Transfer Duration No CBR 2,000 CBR=364bps CBR=1546bps Transfer Duration (s) 1,500 1,000 500 1 2 3 4 5 Number of hops Figure: Experimental results of multi-hop TCP over 6LoWPAN transfer durationwith and without a concurrent CBR trafficAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 19 / 23
  21. 21. Multi-hop: Throughput 1,500 No CBR CBR=364bps CBR=1546bps Throughput (bps) 1,000 500 1 2 3 4 5 Number of hops Figure: Experimental results of multi-hop TCP over 6LoWPAN throughput with and without a concurrent CBR trafficAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 20 / 23
  22. 22. Multi-hop: Consumed energy ·104 No CBR 1 CBR=364bps Consumed Energy (mJ) CBR=1546bps 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 1 2 3 4 5 Number of hops Figure: Experimental results of multi-hop TCP over 6LoWPAN total consumed energy with and without a concurrent CBR trafficAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 21 / 23
  23. 23. Conclusion and perspectives Conclusion The IEEE 802.15.4 radios are very sensitive (interference with WiFi, Air-conditioner Movement of persons, etc.). TCP offers a reliable data communication between anywhere IP host to a low-power wireless device, Perspectives The TCP performance could be improved by reducing the header size (TCPHC), A cross-layer mechanisms could also optimize the energy consumption by reducing the radio passive listening. Acknowledgment This work has been funded by the Pˆle de Recherche Avanc´e en o e Communications.Ahmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 22 / 23
  24. 24. Thank youAhmed Ayadi (IT/TELECOM Bretagne) NTMS Wireless Sensor Networks 2011 Paris, 8-9 February 2011 23 / 23

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