Faculty of tourismand hotel Helwan university Grade one :English tourism section DR:Mona Raafat Research about : Tutankhamun Names : [ Ahmed Emad _Karim Adel_Mohamed Ezz_Moustafa ]Tutankhamun - The Boy King Updated: 4 October 2008 When Howard Carter and Lord Caernarfon opened up the Tomb of Tutankhamun, they opened up the beginnings of a mystery that is still not 100% resolved today. But scientists have at least identified the cause of the Curse of Tutankhamuns deaths. Bacteria growing on the bodies of the mummies, when touched, were extremely poisonous, and caused the deaths of recipients with pneumonia like symptoms. This bacteria, when heated, reactivated and began to multiply again after 3000 odd years entombed. This bacteria was also coating the objects inside the tomb. The big question is - Did the Egyptians, who had a massive knowledge of plants that could heal and plants Death Mask of Pharaoh that could kill, deliberately coat the Tutankhamun artefacts, knowing it would activate
in the future? Hence the reason for the Curse Warnings. Or are these curse warnings lost in translation - are they really Biological Warning Notices? Well, stranger things happen!In Poland a Kings grave was opened up by 14 scientists. It had beensealed for 500 years. Inside they found a sword, sceptre and acrown. These they handled without protective clothing, as well astouching the mummy. Pope John, then Cardinal, resealed thetomb. Soon 12 of the 14 scientists were dead. Stories of a curserebounded around Poland. The "truth" was exactly the same as in Egypt- the same bacteria was found on the body of the dead King.Tutankhamuns body had started decomposition BEFORE mummification.During investigations into the finding of a complete mummy in Egypt,scientists found exactly the same bacteria on the body, concentratedaround the ears. These scientists wore masks and gloves and nothinghappened to any of them! What this does not explain are the"coincidences" surrounding the death of Lord Caernarfon in Cairo. At thesame time of his death, all the lights of Cairo went out. Not unusual youmay say - but consider this, Cairo is split into four electrical districts, N SE and W. None of which are connected in any way, or where not at thetime. But all 4 districts were shorted out at exactly the sameinstant! Also, back home in England, on Lord Caernarfons estate, thefamily dog, at precisely the same time, sat up, howled into the night air,frothed at the mouth, and fell over completely dead! Bacteria or not, stillit makes you wonder..................Tutankhamun lived over 3,300 years ago in 18 dynasy during the periodknown as the New Kingdom. For two centuries, Egypt had ruled as aworld superpower, while its Royal family lived the opulent lifestyle. Thepowerful priesthood of the god Amun had controlled vast temples andestates. All that changed during the reign of Amenhotep IV when herenounced the multitude of gods worshipped by the Egyptians andabolished the priesthood of Amun. Amenhotep established a new order toworship the sun god Aten and changed his own name to Akhenaten,meaning "servant of the Aten." A new capital was established well to thenorth of Thebes (modern Luxor) the home of the main temples of Amun.His new city was named Akhetaten, meaning "Horizon of the Aten." It was here that Akhenaten (left) ruled with his chief wife, Nefertiti, who bore him six daughters, but no son to carry on as Pharaoh. It is now believed that Akhenaten and a lesser wife named Kiya were the parents of Tutankhaten, as Tutankhamun was known at first. He would have spent most of his early years in the palaces of Akhetaten, being tutored in many skills, including reading and writing. Much is uncertain about this period and, in time, both Nefertitis and Kiyas names ceased to appear in written records. A shadowy figure emerged by the name of Smenkhkare - he may have been a brother of the king and briefly ruled alongside him. In any case, soon after the deaths of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare, Tutankhaten became a Boy King at the age of about
nine. He married a slightly older Ankhesenpaaten (below), one of the daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Soon their names were changed to Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun to reflect the return to favour of the Amun hierarchy and the ousting of the Aten power base. The temples of Amun were restored. At such a young age, Tutankhamun would not have been responsible for the real decision making. This would have been handled by two high officials called Ay (possibly the father of Nefertiti) and Horemheb, commander-in-chief of the army. Sometime around the ninth year of Tutankhamuns reign, possibly 1325 B.C., he died. There is evidence of an injury to the skull that had time to partly heal. He may have suffered an accident, such as falling from his horse-drawn chariot, or perhaps he was murdered. No one knows. Ay oversaw Tutankhamuns burial arrangements which lasted 70 days. April 4 2003. A TV Discovery Documentary saw two former FBI Meanwhile, Ankhesenamun was left agents, now senior policemen, in a dilemma - there was no heir to investigate the death of the throne. (Two stillborn female Tutankhamun quite thoroughly foetuses were found in the tomb). In with forensic and x-ray evidence. desperation she wrote to Their conclusion: Tutankhamun Suppiluliumas I, king of the Hittites, was murdered by a scheming asking him to send one of his sons double dealing Prime Minister to marry her and become Pharaoh. called Ay, who married and quite Being an enemy of Egypt, the Hittite possibly murdered Tutankhamuns king suspected a trick and sent an widow in order to further his own envoy to check. The widows lust for power. Tutankhamun was situation was confirmed and he then coming of age and this worried Ay, sent a son who was murdered at the who had been ruling in the boys border - probably by agents sent by name for the past 10 years. Ay General Horemheb. ruled only 4 years to be replaced by Tutankhamens General, The ageing Ay became Pharaoh and Horemheb. Of Queen took Ankhesenamun as his queen to Ankhsenamun - no trace has been legitimise his rule. What happened found. Another theory is mentioned to her after that is not known. Ay at the base of the text. ruled for only four years and after his death Horemheb grabbed power. He soon obliterated evidence of the reigns of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun and Ay and substituted his own name on many monuments.The name "Tutankhamun" is derived from the hieroglyphs which translate as Tut-ankh-amun meaning the "Living Image of Amun." Today, many people refer to him as Tut.When Tut was born, he was given the name Tutankhaten meaning the "Living Image of
the Aten" the Aten was the single god worshipped during the rule Akhenaten, theheretic king who is believed to have been the father of Tutankhamun. Not long afterTutankhaten became Pharaoh, there was a restoration of the previously deposed stategod Amun and Tuts name was changed to Tutankhamun. These days, Tuts name isfound with differing spellings, including Tutankhamun, Tutankhamen andTutankhamon. In reality, we cannot be sure how the ancient Egyptians pronounced thename as they did not write vowels. (Some hieroglyphs are transliterated as vowels,since they are weak consonants). Egyptologists add vowels to assist incommunicating information. The most famous Egyptian pharaoh today is, without doubt, Tutankhamun. The boy king died in his late teens and remained at rest in Egypts Valley of the Kings for over 3,300 years. All that changed in November 1922, when Tutankhamuns tomb was discovered by the British Egyptologist Howard Carter who was excavating on behalf of his patron Lord Caernarfon. His tomb almost escaped discovery and could have been undiscovered to this day. The tomb itself is very small and Carter had been searching for the appears to have been destined for tomb for a number of years and someone of lesser importance. Caernarfon had decided that enough Tutankhamuns unexpected early time and money had been expended demise saw the tombs rushed with little return. However, Carter modification to accommodate the managed to persuade his patron to pharaoh. The only part of the fund one more season and within complex that contains wall paintings days of resuming the tomb was is the Burial Chamber. One of the found. Today, the tomb still contains scenes, shown below, depicts the the pharaohs remains, hidden from Opening of the Mouth Ceremony view inside the outermost of three where the senses are restored to the coffins. He is the only pharaoh still deceased Tutankhamun. In this case residing in the Valley of the Kings - the person performing this duty is as far as we know! Ay, who became the next Pharaoh.
It contained four gilded shrines nested one inside the other. The innermost of thesecovered a stone sarcophagus. Inside that were three coffins - the innermost beingmade of 110 kilograms of solid gold. Inside that lay the pharaoh himself wearing thefamous gold mask.
Adjacent to the Burial Chamber was the so-called Treasury which washome to much of the supporting equipment for Tutankhamuns afterlife. Itcontained a dazzling array of boats, gilded figures and the canopic chestwithin which were various internal organs belonging to the ancient king.Gathered around the chest in their protective stance were four beautifulgilded figures of goddesses. Just inside the entrance to the room was theprotective black figure of Anubis in the form of a recumbent jackal. TheAntechamber contained dismantled chariots, containers of food, variousfuneral couches, thrones, and two black guardian figures at the entrance ofthe Burial Chamber. It was this area that was first seen when Carter made ahole in the blocked-off far end of the entry passage. A small Annex was ajumble of other equipment.Carter concluded that the tomb had been broken into on two occasionssoon after the pharaoh was buried. After each break-in the tomb wasresealed by officials of the necropolis. Fortunately, the tomb robbers didnot get away with too much and much of the material sealed in withTutankhamun may now be viewed in Cairos Egyptian Museum with a fewitems in the Luxor Museum.August 2002. Startling evidence has come to light about a possible coverup regarding artefacts found in the tomb. Howard Carter was never patient,frequently quick tempered. In the spring of 1924, 18 months after thediscovery of the tomb. All work had been brought to a halt. Egyptianofficialdom bombarded Carter to distraction with petty rules andrestrictions. Open war was announced when they announced that theywere laying claim in total to the priceless relics Carter had found. Strictlimits were placed on the number of foreigners allowed to enter the tombwhilst, at the same time, hordes of local dignitaries flooded in and out ofthe tomb - without a care for the priceless and irreplaceable items strewnabout them.Cater ordered his men, effectively, to strike! Permission to explore the sitewas revoked. Seething with anger Carter confronted officials at the BritishConsulate in Cairo. Heated words were exchanged - then Carter made anextraordinary threat - Unless he got what he wanted he would publish, forthe whole world to read, a set of ancient papyrus documents he had foundin the tomb. These gave the "true account of the Exodus of the Jews fromEgypt"!! To modern ears the full implications may be unclear but, as weshall see, Carter was threatening truly explosive disclosures - ancientdocuments that would do nothing less than re-write the history of Judaismand Christianity. The British official realised what he was up to. This wasat the same time as tensions were rising over plans to establish a Jewishhomeland in the Middle East. What Carter was suggesting would throw theMiddle East into turmoil. The official was so incensed he hurled an ink wellat Carter, who ducked just in time! The inkwell exploded against the wall
so much so that the room had to be redecorated!Carter suddenly found that he had vigorous support from the British in hisfight to regain control. He was soon placed back in charge and continuedhis work for another 7 years. In return for this he never mentioned thedocuments again. History deemed that Carters threat was an idle one - butit was no invention, and the secrets he may have stumbled uponcompletely overturn key elements of the Bible. The implications areenormous - forcing us to ask whether the person we call Moses was in facta renegade Egyptian priest and whether Christianity has its roots begun bya religious revolution begun by a heretical pharaoh.The contents of these papyrus documents are so contentious that if theyhad been made public, may well have changed the course of the 20thCentury completely. The missing papyri have been the subject ofspeculation ever since his tomb was opened. Lord Caernarfon mentionedtheir discovery in 2 letters to friends. A report in The Times also mentionedtheir existence. The author was extremely close to Carter having exclusiverights to the story unfolding. Carter cabled a distinguished philologist, SirAlan Gardiner, asking for his help in translating the contents. Heexpressed "particular interest" in the papyri and suggested that they maythrow some light on religion in the times of the boy king.It is odd that, later, the official story changed and everyone began insistingthat these documents never existed!! Carter alleged that the find was infact "loin cloths" - the boy kings "underwear"!! And that poor light madefor the misunderstanding. Amusing it may be but can we believe it? Toomany people saw these documents for themselves before they"disappeared". And an astounding "blunder" for someone of Cartersstanding. Lord Caernarfon himself states that, on their first entry into theroom, it was fully illuminated by electric light. Someone is clearly lyingthrough their teeth?Looking a little closer at this discovery, the official version has Carteruncovering a secret sunken staircase in the Valley of the Kings. Thenpenetrating a doorway sealed with the jackal emblem of Egyptian royalty,then clearing a rubble strewn corridor leading to another doorway. Makinga small hole, he peers through this doorway to reveal strange animals,statues and gold, everywhere the glint of gold. With him were LordCaernarfon and his daughter Lady Evelyn. They both take their turn to lookand that is all they did. Requiring permission to remove the door and enter,then reseal the hole, the next day, November 27th 1922, to open in front ofonlooking officials. This sounds all very right and correct but it is not whathappened!Curiosity got the better of Carter and his associates - they entered the anteroom on first discovery and THEN resealed the hole. To play act the"official opening" the next day. There is also undisputable evidence thatthis party breached the doorway of another ante room the same day andentered the Kings burial chamber. This was 3 months before the "officialopening" of the burial chamber. He concealed the hole that he had made byerecting a wooden platform over the floor level hole he had crawledthrough. Who revealed all this? The Lady Evelyn to another member of herfamily. This was then recorded in his diary and gave a description of howCarter, in front of dignitaries, was "nervous, poor old fellow, like a naughtyschoolboy, fearing that his hole would be discovered". He also had a copymade of the royal seal which covered the door, to replace the one removed
upon his illicit entry.He passed off the fake as the work of grave robbers, repairs done by theancient Egyptians themselves. Such evidence alone should make uswonder if Carter and Carnarfon pocketed a sizable amount themselvesbefore resealing the doorway. This apparently DID happen. Treasures laterrevealed in their personal collections leave us in no doubt. The tomb WASrobbed, but very soon after sealing it up. Tutankhamuns Finance Ministerhad it repaired and he personally destroyed all records of the tombswhereabouts which quite probably accounts for its undisturbed state for solong. I wonder if the priests of Amun had anything to do with the robbery?Outside the Palace, they were the richest people in the land.So what did the missing papyrus contain that made them so dangerous ifrevealed? Their apparent subject matter, The Exodus, is one of the mostimportant stories of the bible. According to the bible, the Hebrews arrivedin Egypt from Canaan. Their leader in Egypt was Joseph who had been soldinto slavery by his brothers, only to become a power in the court due to hisability to interpret dreams. However, the Jews multiplied so swiftly theEgyptians saw them as a threat and forced them into slavery. All malechildren were ordered to be slain in order to keep their population down butone child escaped. His name was Moses, brought up as an Egyptian andbecame a mighty general in the Pharaohs army before fleeing aftermurdering an Egyptian who had beaten up a Jew.For 40 years he lived in the wilderness where "god" appeared to him as aburning bush, charging him to lead the people out of Egypt "unto a landflowing with milk and honey". Moses demanded the release of his peopleon his return to Egypt and when this was refused, devastating plagueswere brought down on the country until the Pharaoh relented, allowingthem to leave. Thus - The Exodus. This is how it happened according to thebible. By the time that Carter threatened to reveal the documents, orthodoxthinking was already beginning to question this version. Arthur Weigall, aleading Egyptologist, was an expert on Tuktankhamuns half brother andpredecessor Akhenaten. He was one of those who questioned the biblical"Exodus".Akhenaten was the husband of the beautiful Queen Nefertiti. He wasfamous for having broken away from the traditional multi-god society thathad been practised for about 2000 years and installed a single God - the"Aten" an all powerful force symbolised by the heat of the suns rays. Thislasted only about 12 years before Tutankhamun gained the throne and theold order was gradually restored. Arthur Weigall uncovered remarkablesimilarities between Psalm 104 and an "ode" to Ra, composed byAkhenaten himself. In his opinion, Psalm 104 was a copy of the ode itself.Indeed, the ode was written before Moses allegedly wrote Psalm 104. Healso argued that it was during the reign of Tutankhamun that the Exodusactually took place. 20 years later Sigmund Freud would express the sametheory in two major papers. Evidence to back this also comes from thehebrew word for Lord - Adonai or Adon, becomes Aten, the name of thesun, when written in Egyptian. These were set out by Arthur Weigall in abook published a few months before Carters declaration before theConsulate. Carter did read it, but the men were such bitter rivals thatCarter may have paid no heed to these theories. But Carter was convincedthat the exodus took place BEFORE the closure of the boy kings tomb,otherwise how could he claim that the documents revealed the true story ofthe Exodus. Weigalls theory also fits the likely facts about the collapse ofAkhenatens religious revolution. It is known that these priests andconverts did not simply disappear when the boy king took the throne, they
became social lepers and outcasts. This is relevant in that a story notunlike The Exodus, the ancient Egyptian Manetho, writing about 250BC,recorded how one pharaoh had expelled "lepers" and "impure people" fromEgypt. These so called lepers included some of the learned priests; one ofwhom, Osarsiph, ordered the people not to follow the Egyptian gods and tofollow their own laws instead.Later, according to Manetho, Osarsiph changed his name - toMoses. Rather than being anti semetic, Manetho was referring to these"lepers" as being - in the eyes of the opponent - holding with hereticalbeliefs. Other writers describe a king, in order to placate his people,expelling the "unclean" by being forced out of Egypt - led by an Egyptian!Evidence shows that, during the reign of Tutankhamun, northern Egypt wasin the grip of a plague. It decimated the population and lasted about 20 - 30years. It is quite plausible to see stories about the killing of Egyptsfirstborn on the night of the Passover as having its roots in this plague.The people would naturally look for someone to blame, their former Kingbeing particularly handy. To cleanse the land of his pollution they sweptthe land of undesirables, along with any other suspicious lookingforeigners and settlers. Having received a warning, these people wouldhave took it upon themselves to leave forthwith.If this was the story as told in Carters papyrus, it would have been easy tothrow the Middle East into turmoil. In the 20s, the local politics were astangled as they are today - with the rights of a Jewish homeland at themiddle of the turmoil. Arab opinion was outraged, with riots in Jerusalemand Jaffa. The whole area was rife for bloody battle and a tinderbox. Inthese circumstances, Carters threat to reveal the truth could hardly havebeen more inflammatory. The whole basis of the Zionist claim rested uponthe story of the Exodus and opponents of the Zionist state would havejumped upon this and seized any hint that it was flawed. After all, if Mosesand his followers were renegade Egyptians, together with this selection ofoutcast foreigners - what special claim could they possibly have to a"homeland" - Israel. Carter was in a position to cause the Zionists serious,possibly irrevocable, harm. No wonder the British wholeheartedly threwthemselves behind Carters claims to be reinstated at the site. Whathappened to the papyri? Did Carter destroy them or leave them hiddendeep in some Cairo Museum? Are they lying in a draw, hidden beneathsome relatively insignificant papyri? By the evidence of Lord Caernarfonsown letters, it is clearly apparent that he was privy to the existence of thepapyri, was he also aware of their contents. Some have blamed hisuntimely death on the Curse - but the truth may be even stranger? Now, in2007, we have a glut of so called "conspiracy theories" on everything fromAdam & Eve to the source of the bullet that killed X, Y or Z. I am not one ofthese people who delight in so called conspiracy theories, I just think thatwhat we are told is not always the truth. Tutankhamun was killed, yes,posssibly by Ay. But an equally practical theory places Tutankhamunsdeath as the result of a chariot accident. We will never really KNOW, willwe? Items are found in tombs that could throw modern beliefs into turmoilso are hidden away, either by Archaeologists who do not want their ownbeliefs questioned or by religious people who do not want the "good life" tobe terminated.