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‫االداب‬ ‫كلية‬ / ‫الكوفة‬ ‫جامعة‬
)‫الرابعة‬ ‫(المرحلة‬ ‫التاريخ‬ ‫قسم‬
‫وتركيا‬ ‫ايران‬ ‫تاريخ‬ : ‫المادة‬
‫العالق‬ ‫ا...
2
‫إ‬ ‫ىا‬‫ىهت‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫نا‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ل‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىني‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬‫أ‬ ‫ىذ‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ى...
3
‫و‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫نها‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىشث‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬‫إ‬‫ش‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫نتاه‬‫ح‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫غ‬‫ا‬‫ىدهرل‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حا‬ ‫ىل...
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‫حإ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬ ‫دها‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫إ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حذ‬ ‫ىدها‬‫ى‬ ‫ىضب‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ع‬‫س‬‫حإ‬ ‫ا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫تو‬ ...
5
‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىن‬‫ا‬‫قه‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ال‬‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ش‬‫إ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ضد‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ىد‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حا‬ ‫ا‬‫ىش‬‫ك‬‫ات‬ ‫ىتهاد‬‫ى‬ ‫ددض...
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‫ث‬‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاثهن‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حانها‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫...
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‫ىايع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫أ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬‫إ‬‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ىتنه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫أ‬‫...
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‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫علييه‬ ‫ب‬ ‫شصه‬ ‫حاناط‬‫ىا‬ ‫ىض‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ا‬‫حا‬ ‫ىشع‬‫ي‬ ‫ح‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬‫آ‬‫ذحض‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫ىل‬‫ب‬‫حر‬‫ش...
9
)‫هت‬ ‫د‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬‫ا‬
‫شق‬‫أ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىض‬‫و‬‫ج‬‫ىش‬‫ل‬‫وي‬ ‫ىضب‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ىه‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىضك‬‫ت‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬...
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‫الثا‬ ‫المبحث‬‫في‬ ‫الداخلية‬ ‫السياسة‬ ‫مالمح‬ :‫ني‬‫حقبة‬‫الدديكتاتور‬ ‫القمع‬
3591–3593.
‫نذ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬ ‫حاش‬ ‫ض‬...
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‫ى‬‫ى‬‫س‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حال‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫الي‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حااض‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ة‬...
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‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫رض‬‫ش‬ ‫ي‬‫ا‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫...
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941
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التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941

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سياسة محمد رضا بهلوي

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التطورات السياسة الداخلية في عهد الانفتاح السياسي 1941

  1. 1. 1 ‫االداب‬ ‫كلية‬ / ‫الكوفة‬ ‫جامعة‬ )‫الرابعة‬ ‫(المرحلة‬ ‫التاريخ‬ ‫قسم‬ ‫وتركيا‬ ‫ايران‬ ‫تاريخ‬ : ‫المادة‬ ‫العالق‬ ‫احمد‬ .‫أ.م.د‬ : ‫المادة‬ ‫استاذ‬ ‫االنفتاح‬ ‫عهد‬ ‫في‬ ‫الداخلية‬ ‫السياسة‬ ‫التطورات‬‫السياسي‬1491-1491 ‫إ‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫وي‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫عت‬‫إ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫عه‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حاده‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫إ‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ث‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حاد‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫و‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ت‬‫أ‬‫ىشو‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ي‬1491‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫أع‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىهنن‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫حاو‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫غ‬‫حا‬-‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ر‬ ‫ىشريتن‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬‫آ‬1491‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬ ‫إ‬‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ ‫ايا‬ ‫حانه‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫نهص‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ضاه‬ ‫تيهع‬‫دتهتشض‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىها‬‫ا‬‫حادل‬ ‫ىض‬‫و‬‫أج‬ ‫إذ‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىش‬‫ل‬‫حاوي‬ ‫شا‬ ‫اصهاح‬ ‫حانض‬ ‫عا‬ ‫حاتالن‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫حاج‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ )‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫وش‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫ىتش‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫وي‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬ ‫ى‬ ‫أ‬‫أ‬‫ىهع‬‫ى‬ ‫ىشو‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫أي‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىههأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬1491‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫ىسا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫تن‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫ش‬‫حاد‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ش‬ ‫د‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ب‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫دد‬ ‫ا‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ش‬‫أ‬‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫إ‬‫حإ‬ ‫يا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫حع‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬‫ش‬ ‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حادن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫أ‬‫ا‬ ‫ذح‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ش‬ ‫تشض‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حعن‬‫ض‬‫ي‬‫إ‬‫حره‬‫ض‬‫عت‬‫ه‬ )‫ن‬‫س‬‫ىض‬‫ي‬‫ه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ىض‬‫ي‬‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫شض‬ ‫ش‬ ‫جل‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حنن‬‫ض‬‫ب‬ ‫حا‬ ‫لك‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫حاج‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ح‬‫ش‬‫أ‬‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ىهعه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬‫إ‬‫ر‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫د‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫حاا‬ ‫ىك‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ت‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫د‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫إ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حابش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ا‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىك‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫وت‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫إ‬‫ذ‬‫ح‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ض‬‫قش‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫و‬‫الش‬ ‫حا‬‫حإ‬ ‫ىا‬‫د‬‫ت‬ ‫ت‬‫ىض‬‫ت‬ ‫ىا‬‫ن‬‫ده‬ ‫شال‬ ‫رها‬‫حأ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ىت‬‫د‬‫ىذ‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىن‬‫و‬‫جن‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫إ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىهض‬ ‫ني‬‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ج‬ ‫حإ‬‫حإ‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫ق‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫قه‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ده‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫ح‬‫و‬ ‫ىت‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫إ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاا‬‫ش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حااش‬ ‫ىهض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نت‬ ‫ض‬ ‫حا‬ ‫لنل‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حاه‬ ‫نهنق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫حان‬ ‫حنتاهض‬‫ش‬‫ال‬ ‫د‬‫ىن‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ىع‬‫ل‬‫حاه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫انبش‬ ‫نتيجل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫نش‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حونها‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫حان‬ ‫هدق‬ ‫لنل‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫تيه‬ ‫هض‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫أ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫بي‬ ‫تدب‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫عل‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىيتها‬‫ى‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ت‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ىنهل‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حا‬ ‫ىضشب‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫حا‬ ‫ىذ‬‫ى‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫تثو‬ ‫ىهث‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫أ‬‫ىذح‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىبش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫عض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫دهر‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫شا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ض‬‫أ‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫إ‬)‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬‫دت‬ ‫ىتشض‬ ‫ال‬‫و‬ ‫ىك‬‫ا‬‫ذ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫شتج‬‫إ‬‫ىنه‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ر‬‫نضش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫حاج‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫ىش‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫ه‬‫ض‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫غ‬‫رضش‬‫أ‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫د‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫د‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ع‬‫إ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫حاش‬ ‫ىديلل‬‫ى‬ ‫حات‬ ‫ىهض‬‫ى‬ ‫ات‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ع‬‫أ‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬
  2. 2. 2 ‫إ‬ ‫ىا‬‫ىهت‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫نا‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ل‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىني‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬‫أ‬ ‫ىذ‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىشض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ضؤ‬ ‫نهع‬ ‫دها‬ ‫حاتن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬‫ح‬ ‫حاب‬ ‫ييا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫يه‬ ‫دها‬‫ا‬ ‫ةد‬ ‫دتش‬ ‫د‬‫أ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىذ‬ ‫ىض‬‫و‬‫حأ‬ )‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ح‬‫ش‬‫ن‬ ‫ىا‬‫ن‬‫شده‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫د‬‫ىا‬ ‫ىدلا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫حاذيا‬ ‫ي‬‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫حاا‬‫ش‬ ‫ثل‬ ‫احاث‬ ‫شعل‬ ‫ج‬‫أ‬‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫عنيع‬ ‫ج‬‫رض‬‫ىا‬ ‫ش‬‫أ‬‫ىض‬‫ا‬‫جن‬ ‫ىعث‬ ) ‫ى‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫ىض‬‫و‬ ‫ىته‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ضش‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫شض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫ض‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىدن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ج‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬ ‫ىشض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىشض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫و‬ ‫ش‬‫أ‬‫ىع‬‫ى‬ ‫حابه‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫شع‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حا‬ ‫ىذح‬‫ى‬‫أ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ث‬‫ك‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫تنه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬‫ىده‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫شت‬ ‫ش‬‫أ‬‫هنه‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫كثض‬‫إ‬‫حاد‬ ‫عب‬ ‫ذ‬‫أ‬‫حرشو‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ )‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ؤت‬ ‫شو‬1491‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ىه‬‫ع‬)‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫دل‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاضجن‬‫ش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حااه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حاناهو‬‫أ‬‫ال‬ ‫ضد‬ ‫ال‬ ‫صد‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬‫أ‬‫ي‬ ‫ى‬ ‫احابه‬ ‫وضد‬ ‫دض‬ ‫يه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫ش‬‫إ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫ها‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىؤت‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نت‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫شه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ال‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬ )‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ن‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ا‬ ‫عهع‬1491 ‫ح‬ ‫و‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىضا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫شه‬‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ا‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ين‬ ‫ىشى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىيه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نا‬‫إ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫اتا‬‫يا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ها‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىشو‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىذ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫نههن‬1491‫ر‬‫س‬‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫إ‬‫احإ‬ ‫ىند‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ة‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬ ‫حإ‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىلي‬‫ى‬ ‫حاشنن‬‫و‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫إ‬‫ىق‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫شتدب‬ ‫حض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫ين‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ضش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حااهضج‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاد‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫حان‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ض‬‫ح‬‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫دض‬ ‫ىهث‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬ ‫ىد‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫شغيض‬ ‫احايشعي‬ ‫د‬ ‫ضش‬ ‫د‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ع‬‫احاض‬ ‫ىل‬‫ي‬‫احاجو‬ ‫ىند‬‫ل‬‫ل‬ ‫ىل‬‫ي‬‫دجو‬ ‫ىن‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حاا‬ ‫ىك‬‫ل‬‫ت‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ ‫هيضا‬ ‫حاتن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حاتكت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ىلي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاشنن‬‫أ‬‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ش‬ ‫ا‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫ا‬‫ض‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حاا‬ ‫ىك‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ت‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬‫س‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حاجو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حإ‬‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫دتشض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىذ‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫عت‬‫ا‬1‫ي‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ك‬‫ل‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫دت‬ ‫ىييا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬‫إ‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫نتاه‬1494‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫حاذ‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىض‬‫و‬‫ج‬‫إ‬‫حإ‬ ‫ىذ‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ ‫ىض‬‫ه‬‫حان‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ىه‬‫ع‬‫ىه‬‫ه‬‫نتاه‬‫أ‬ ‫إذ‬ ‫ا‬‫ىه‬‫ي‬‫نيهج‬ ‫ىل‬‫ي‬‫حاجو‬ ‫ىا‬‫ن‬‫عل‬ ‫ا‬1‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫حيا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫بث‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ي‬1784‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫ح‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫ث‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬ ‫عه‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىذ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫نه‬ ‫ىشا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىشع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ا‬‫ىهنش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫حا‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ا‬‫ض‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫قهجه‬ ‫ة‬ ‫نه‬ ‫شعهضض‬ )‫ههه‬1414‫ىن‬‫ر‬ ‫ىها‬‫ت‬‫ض‬ ‫حعتب‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حي‬ ‫عض‬ ‫عل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ضاه‬ ‫تنصي‬ ‫شدذاك‬ ‫ح‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ع‬ ‫ج‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ع‬‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حرا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫وت‬ ‫ر‬1491‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫نه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حنت‬ ‫ىل‬‫د‬‫دض‬ ‫ىه‬‫ق‬ )‫ى‬‫ن‬‫إ‬ ‫ىذح‬ ‫ىا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫حأ‬‫ش‬ ‫ضي‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ه‬ ‫شاحا‬ ‫ضي‬ ‫ع‬ ‫شاحااه‬ ‫ضي‬ ‫ع‬ ‫حهأ‬‫ض‬‫احا‬ ‫جل‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬ ‫الش‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ض‬ ‫شعيا‬ ‫حاناط‬ ‫ع‬ ‫تس‬1491-1491
  3. 3. 3 ‫و‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫نها‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىشث‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬‫إ‬‫ش‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫نتاه‬‫ح‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫غ‬‫ا‬‫ىدهرل‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫شد‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حانضر‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫د‬‫إذ‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ك‬‫ت‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫حاجوي‬‫به‬ ‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاشنن‬ ‫ل‬‫ه‬ ‫نه‬‫تكت‬ ‫دهنا‬ ‫و‬‫ه‬ ‫ه‬‫أ‬‫حهه‬ ‫د‬‫ش‬ ‫شنبههها‬‫ح‬‫حا‬ ‫تده‬ ‫صني‬ ‫شعل‬‫آ‬‫ىه‬ ‫دها‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬ ‫حااهض‬ ‫ىض‬‫ي‬‫غ‬ ‫ىها‬ ‫حابش‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫حاشنن‬ ‫ىل‬‫د‬‫حادض‬ ‫تولشضا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫ىهاا‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬ ‫ىبش‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ضد‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ن‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىناا‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حإ‬ ‫ىهو‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬‫ل‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫قت‬ ‫حا‬ ‫هدبشقيه‬ ‫نهاهل‬ ‫هها‬ ‫ها‬ ‫حابش‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫أا‬ ‫رو‬‫ىتها‬ ‫شدض‬ ‫ىها‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حذ‬ ‫ىاث‬ ‫د‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ضشعل‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫شغيض‬ ‫تها‬ ‫ب‬‫ض‬‫شع‬‫ل‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ع‬ ‫قها‬ ‫إ‬‫ىل‬ ‫حاثهن‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫حانها‬ ‫ىض‬‫د‬‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬‫ىن‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫بيجهن‬‫ض‬‫حرذ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاشنن‬ ‫حادضدل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫نتن‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫ش‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ج‬ ‫ىشضا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫تو‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫احا‬ ‫ىهاد‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حذ‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫درض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫تن‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫تس‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىهنني‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حرذ‬ ‫حنن‬‫ض‬‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫آ‬1499‫إذ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىؤت‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ع‬‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫شو‬ ‫حأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫حالن‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫شنهه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ض‬‫و‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىؤت‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىهق‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ش‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نا‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫شو‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫إ‬‫الد‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ضد‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حالجنل‬ ‫نتاههها‬‫رإ‬‫ه‬ ‫ض‬ ‫شض‬ ‫و‬ ‫جناض‬ ‫نتا‬)‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫دها‬‫إ‬‫ر‬‫ىش‬‫ا‬ ‫ىيشال‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫حاج‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫حاتنه‬ ‫عل‬ ‫حاباها‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬‫حاب‬ ‫دها‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬‫ريتن‬‫إ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ت‬ ‫ذ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ضد‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ا‬ ‫ىشريتني‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫احا‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫د‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حذ‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ن‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫تدض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ده‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫حاتش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫جوض‬‫أ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫تشج‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ده‬ ‫ا‬ ‫بيجها‬‫ض‬‫حذ‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫دهص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ها‬ ‫حاده‬ ‫ة‬ ‫هع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬‫ش‬‫أ‬‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ت‬ ‫ىك‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ذ‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ع‬‫إ‬‫ىهنن‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حرذ‬ ‫ىشننن‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نت‬‫إ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ع‬ ‫ذ‬‫إ‬)‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫ه‬ ‫جت‬ ‫حأ‬‫ع‬ ‫حاثهنن‬ ‫رن‬ ‫شو‬‫حرشو‬ ‫ا‬‫دهنش‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬1499‫ذحا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حذ‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫ددش‬ ‫ىدي‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أعلا‬‫ش‬ ‫ىشض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫و‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫جن‬ ‫ىيه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫أ‬‫ض‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ىذحتن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حاد‬‫ر‬‫حا‬‫ض‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ةي‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫اع‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬ ‫ددش‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىهنن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حرذ‬ ‫ىذحتن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حاد‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫تن‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ج‬ ‫نه‬‫ض‬‫و‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ح‬‫حإ‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نت‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىنون‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ييا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫دته‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫شتدش‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫بهن‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ال‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫ح‬‫ض‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىشاض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ت‬ ‫ش‬‫ح‬‫حاصدهرل‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫د‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫غع‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫شع‬‫س‬‫شض‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫شا‬ ‫ىذحتن‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حاد‬ ‫ذحا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫بيجهن‬‫ض‬‫حرذ‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫بهننهت‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬‫إ‬‫ر‬‫إ‬‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫ىع‬‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫الاهضج‬‫س‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ك‬)‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫غو‬‫ض‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حي‬ ‫عا‬ ‫بيجها‬‫ض‬‫حذ‬ ‫رص‬ ‫رن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاب‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫حاج‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ىضا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫هه‬‫إ‬‫دها‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫إ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫قت‬‫ش‬ ‫ل‬‫ح‬‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫شش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫هع‬ ‫جت‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ا‬ ‫وتش‬‫ش‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫حاا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫ىها‬‫ا‬‫حاب‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ح‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫شغيض‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ب‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬ ‫ن‬
  4. 4. 4 ‫حإ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬ ‫دها‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫إ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حذ‬ ‫ىدها‬‫ى‬ ‫ىضب‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ع‬‫س‬‫حإ‬ ‫ا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫تو‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ثا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫دها‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫حنييا‬‫ض‬‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫د‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫و‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫إ‬‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫و‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫دها‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ه‬ ‫عه‬ ‫ه‬‫حاددش‬ ‫نا‬ ‫بهو‬ ‫ها‬‫لننل‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حع‬‫ش‬‫ق‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬‫وض‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ل‬‫دهشال‬ ‫ا‬‫إ‬‫د‬ ‫يجه‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حذ‬ ‫ىدلل‬‫ى‬ ‫ا‬‫ىشريا‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ولش‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫اهش‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىهالجشا‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫ىك‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫شذ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫تش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫إ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫ش‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ىشريت‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫حا‬ ‫ج‬‫ىضش‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ب‬ ‫ىهب‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫أ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ق‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫آ‬‫ىهض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬1491‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حي‬ ‫ىط‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫ىضدل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫تس‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫به‬–‫ىشريت‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫هو‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫أ‬‫ض‬‫و‬‫ب‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ىتضك‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ح‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫علي‬‫أ‬‫ىيض‬‫ى‬‫ىأ‬‫ى‬ ‫ىهشض‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫الت‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫تش‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ث‬ ‫ش‬ ‫شض‬ ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ددش‬‫أ‬‫أ‬ ‫وتشق‬ ‫اهشاها‬ ‫حا‬ ‫تلك‬ ‫نتيا‬‫إ‬‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ىا‬ ‫ىض‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ا‬‫حاثه‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫تاهق‬ 1491‫شنص‬‫بيجهنييا‬‫ض‬‫حأذ‬ ‫نها‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دويض‬ ‫جهن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تلو‬ ‫عل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حإ‬‫ش‬ ‫بيجهنيا‬‫ض‬‫حرذ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫حاتاهشض‬ ‫دا‬ ‫اع‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬ ‫ىهب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫ىشى‬ ‫ع‬‫إ‬‫و‬ ‫ىه‬‫ا‬ ‫ىلش‬‫إ‬)‫ى‬‫ت‬‫تهن‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حإي‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ر‬ ‫ىذح‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حذ‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫اجن‬‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬ ‫ىد‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ن‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ىتنه‬‫ى‬‫إ‬‫ىتغلا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫حاددش‬‫إ‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ا‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ه‬‫نتاه‬‫حإ‬ ‫ىل‬‫ج‬‫رهد‬ ‫ىه‬‫ي‬‫انن‬ ‫ىذ‬‫ي‬‫اتنا‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫علي‬ ‫حب‬‫ض‬‫ى‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫شدا‬‫إ‬ ‫ا‬‫نجهديه‬‫أ‬‫حأ‬ ‫علنا‬‫حإ‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حانضر‬ ‫ددهع‬‫ا‬‫ىهنش‬‫د‬ ‫ىا‬ ‫ىض‬ ‫ع‬ ‫حهأ‬‫ض‬‫حا‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ع‬ ‫قل‬ ‫حاثه‬‫نن‬1491‫حإ‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫د‬ ‫حان‬ ‫حتيه‬‫ش‬‫ق‬ ‫الا‬ ‫ش‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ق‬‫ش‬‫أ‬‫ىع‬‫ت‬ ‫يض‬ ‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬‫ش‬ ‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حاب‬ ‫ىها‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىض‬‫ث‬ ‫إ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ا‬‫ىهنش‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫تو‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حانه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ىت‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫شو‬1491‫ىبه‬‫ى‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ش‬ ‫حاتن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫بيجهن‬‫ض‬‫حأذ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاددش‬‫د‬‫لا‬‫أ‬‫ىض‬‫ر‬ ‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ر‬ ‫ىهنيا‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حرذ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫حنيش‬‫ض‬‫ب‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ه‬‫حررب‬ ‫شري‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ش‬ ‫حاد‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬ ‫نيع‬‫ىيا‬‫د‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ ‫ىشض‬ ‫و‬ ‫جناض‬ ‫نيع‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ت‬‫أ‬‫ىا‬ ‫ىها‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ب‬‫عت‬ ‫أ‬‫بيجهنييا‬‫ض‬‫أذ‬ ‫حننيا‬‫ش‬ ‫ش‬ ‫حاد‬‫ش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫عاها‬‫آ‬‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ا‬ ‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫ىتها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫دض‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫إ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ض‬‫به‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫قش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ر‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ييع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫شا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ر‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ك‬‫حا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاتن‬‫ه‬‫ر‬‫س‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ك‬‫حا‬ ‫ا‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ثب‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬‫أ‬‫ي‬‫ىشو‬‫ى‬‫ل‬1491‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫و‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫اه‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ج‬‫أ‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫اه‬ ‫ى‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ددش‬ ‫يه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫ن‬ ‫اج‬ ‫د‬ ‫دشض‬‫إ‬‫ي‬ ‫ىض‬‫ك‬‫حا‬ ‫ىها‬ ‫د‬‫ىذ‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىتهنن‬ ‫حاكض‬ ‫حنن‬‫ض‬‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫د‬‫ال‬ ‫حة‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫ىدلا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ت‬‫س‬‫ه‬ ‫ض‬‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫رن‬‫آ‬1499 ‫حأ‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىؤت‬ ‫حاد‬ ‫عب‬‫ال‬ ‫شو‬‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ث‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىه‬‫ا‬‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫شو‬1499‫ش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ال‬ ‫حالن‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىهج‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫ش‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نت‬
  5. 5. 5 ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىن‬‫ا‬‫قه‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ال‬‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ش‬‫إ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ضد‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ىد‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حا‬ ‫ا‬‫ىش‬‫ك‬‫ات‬ ‫ىتهاد‬‫ى‬ ‫ددض‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ىد‬‫ص‬ ‫حض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫الد‬‫ىذحتن‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىع‬‫د‬‫حاد‬ ‫ذحا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حذ‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫يش‬ ‫ج‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تنهغ‬ ‫دضدل‬ ‫شرن‬‫أ‬‫ىن‬‫ا‬‫قه‬ ‫ىا‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫حاثهنن‬ ‫ا‬‫دهنش‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫حاثهنن‬ ‫رن‬1491‫ت‬‫س‬‫ي‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫يش‬ ‫ج‬‫ىع‬‫د‬‫حاد‬ ‫ذحا‬ ‫ههه‬ ‫حإ‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ىهن‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ىذحتن‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ىشريتن‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ت‬‫ش‬‫أ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫قه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نت‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ا‬‫ىدلا‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬‫أ‬‫شو‬ ‫عهع‬ ‫هه‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ايه‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫ش‬1491 ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ه‬ ‫ىذحتند‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حاد‬ ‫ذحا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫يه‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫يش‬ ‫دج‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حج‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫شههاد‬ ‫ىتها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫دض‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىضض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ك‬‫ت‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫بي‬‫ض‬‫حذ‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىشة‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫شق‬‫ىيه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نا‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫د‬ ‫حأ‬‫حإ‬ ‫يض‬ ‫ها‬ ‫اا‬ ‫ا‬‫ىها‬‫ه‬‫نتاه‬‫ىل‬‫ا‬ ‫ضد‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ي‬‫حج‬‫ش‬ ‫ىه‬‫ه‬‫يه‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫ددش‬ ‫ىضضا‬‫ق‬ ‫ى‬‫ق‬‫ش‬ ‫ش‬‫أ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫و‬‫ىض‬‫ي‬‫غ‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ال‬ ‫ل‬ ‫قش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫بهش‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ك‬‫إ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ن‬ ‫ىع‬‫ا‬ ‫ىك‬‫ا‬‫ذ‬ ‫ا‬‫ىا‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ا‬‫إ‬‫ىهع‬‫د‬‫قت‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫بهش‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ك‬‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ح‬‫حأ‬ ‫ا‬‫ىهنش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حاشا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫يش‬ ‫حاج‬ ‫ىبه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫شو‬ 1491‫ش‬‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫تيه‬ ‫قه‬ ‫عتبهو‬‫ح‬‫ع‬‫هنل‬ ‫حاا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫وتي‬ ‫هن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫يع‬ ‫ح‬ ‫أ‬‫ر‬ ‫ىتها‬‫ى‬ ‫ب‬‫ض‬‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫إ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حااهض‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫غ‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬ ‫حابش‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫و‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ك‬‫ت‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬‫ى‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حابش‬ ‫هدبشقيه‬ ‫نهاوا‬ ‫حاتن‬‫ح‬‫شدض‬ ‫بيجها‬‫ض‬‫ذ‬‫ه‬ ‫ر‬‫أ‬‫ىض‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ع‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ضاه‬ ‫حو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫و‬ ‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬‫أ‬‫ىهدا‬‫ص‬‫أ‬ ‫ىن‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫ب‬‫ض‬‫حان‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىشى‬‫ب‬‫حا‬ ‫ىها‬‫د‬‫تدض‬ ‫ا‬‫أ‬‫ىهاع‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىدل‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫حريه‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫علي‬ ‫ىشو‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫الد‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حابش‬ ‫ب‬‫ىهادبش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫ها‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىذح‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫شع‬‫ىضض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫جه‬ ‫ىي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬‫إ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ )‫ىشا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬ ‫ىتها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ب‬‫ض‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫حإ‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حان‬ ‫ها‬ ‫ضشؤ‬‫ع‬ ‫قل‬ ‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫جه‬ ‫ىي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬‫إ‬‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ىلنها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ )‫ىت‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نتاه‬1491)‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ح‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حج‬‫ش‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىك‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ت‬ ‫و‬‫أ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ر‬‫إ‬‫ر‬‫إ‬‫ا‬ ‫إ‬)‫ت‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ن‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫ب‬‫ض‬‫حان‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حابهه‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬ ‫ضؤش‬ ‫ىهذو‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬ ‫ىلا‬‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ )‫ىت‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نتاه‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫ىضض‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ر‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫د‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬‫ش‬1499‫حإ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ت‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫او‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫و‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬‫ش‬ ‫ىتها‬‫ى‬ ‫ب‬‫ض‬‫ع‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نتاه‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ههاا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ي‬‫ن‬ ‫ىه‬‫ي‬‫اكن‬ ‫ديع‬ ‫ى‬ ‫و‬ ‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ش‬ ‫ىع‬‫ي‬‫ا‬ ‫ىض‬‫ي‬‫تغي‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫دهشاا‬ ‫أا‬ ‫هن‬ ‫نضبي‬‫ىع‬‫ث‬ ‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫ع‬ ‫ىي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬‫إ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫إ‬‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نتاه‬1491‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاايل‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫نن‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ )‫انت‬ ‫نا‬ ‫شتا‬‫إ‬‫و‬ ‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫دهشال‬ ‫ش‬ ‫رييه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاده‬ ‫عل‬ ‫حاباها‬‫ش‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬ ‫د‬ ‫حا‬ ‫و‬ ‫دت‬ ‫ىتها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ب‬‫ض‬‫ع‬ ‫ىهنق‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫ىهقن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫د‬ ‫حا‬‫إ‬‫ر‬‫إ‬‫ىلا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ان‬ ‫ا‬‫حا‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫حا‬ ‫ىشو‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ش‬ ‫ىو‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حاتن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاددش‬‫أ‬‫حأ‬ ‫شرضاا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫بهش‬ ‫حا‬ ‫نيا‬‫ح‬ ‫ددهع‬‫ل‬ ‫انضر‬
  6. 6. 6 ‫ث‬‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاثهن‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حانها‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ضد‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫إ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نشع‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نتبه‬ ‫ىد‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ر‬ ‫ىدض‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ب‬ ‫د‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ثب‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ع‬1491 ‫أ‬)‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫عل‬ ‫ىق‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ن‬‫أ‬‫ةد‬ ‫ىنه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫د‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫إر‬‫إ‬‫أ‬ ‫ىضض‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ت‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حإ‬‫ش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حاتند‬ ‫ىشض‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫ق‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ذ‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫إ‬)‫ىهن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫تنه‬ ‫ىضا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ه‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫د‬ ‫أ‬‫حإ‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىاط‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫تن‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ده‬ ‫ى‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫تتهن‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ده‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫حا‬ ‫ىنيه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاددش‬‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ض‬‫حان‬ ‫ل‬ ‫قل‬‫إ‬‫ر‬‫إ‬‫علييه‬ ‫حاباها‬ ‫تع‬ )‫ن‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ج‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬‫ش‬‫أ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ضد‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىهاتدضك‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬ ‫حاتضد‬ ‫ا‬‫يش‬ ‫ىبه‬‫ى‬ ‫حاب‬ ‫هن‬‫أ‬‫ا‬ ‫حي‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫أ‬‫شاح‬ ‫شاهعيع‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫حاج‬ ‫ىه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬‫س‬‫ىض‬‫ص‬‫نه‬ ‫ىشو‬‫د‬ ‫ا‬‫يش‬ ‫ىبه‬ ‫حاب‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫عا‬‫ىهض‬‫ى‬ ‫ر‬‫إ‬‫و‬ ‫ح‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫يلت‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىنيع‬‫ى‬‫ك‬‫ا‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬ ‫ىهب‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫إ‬‫ىهقيع‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫إر‬ ‫اه‬‫ض‬‫ىد‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ش‬ ‫يا‬ ‫ىبه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاب‬ ‫ىضك‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ت‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫رت‬‫إ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حاي‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حج‬‫ش‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬ ‫ر‬‫س‬‫ش‬ ‫ىتيه‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫تغي‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىنضا‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ىا‬‫ن‬‫ته‬‫إ‬‫ت‬ ‫ب‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫ىلش‬‫ى‬)‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫اك‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫نن‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىيا‬‫و‬ ‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬ ‫يا‬ ‫ىبه‬ ‫حاب‬ ‫عا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اا‬ ‫اع‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫ددش‬ ‫ىنض‬‫ا‬‫إ‬‫يع‬ ‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىأ‬ ‫ىهب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫عهع‬ ‫ا‬‫ض‬‫ا‬ ‫رن‬1491‫إ‬‫ر‬‫إ‬‫ىل‬ ‫حانها‬ ‫ىض‬‫د‬‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫نيه‬ ‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حاذ‬ ‫حنن‬‫ض‬‫ب‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫هن‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاثهن‬‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ىنيع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬1491‫ىهث‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫الددش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نه‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ث‬ ‫حات‬‫ش‬ ‫ىهون‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬‫ح‬‫ى‬‫ىشض‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫قه‬‫إ‬‫ش‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬ ‫قل‬‫ح‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫د‬ ‫ىدل‬‫ى‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫شهاي‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫شت‬ ‫ىهنبيع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫أ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫نن‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫و‬‫أ‬ ‫ىذ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حأ‬‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نهش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬ ‫اصهاح‬ ) ‫د‬ ‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫شق‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ثع‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫د‬ ‫ع‬‫أ‬‫حانضريا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬‫أ‬‫را‬‫ىهش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫الددش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫نه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حادض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ق‬ ‫ا‬‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ )‫ىلنت‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫اتن‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ىك‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ذ‬ ‫ىق‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫اتدب‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫اد‬‫ض‬ ‫حر‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ت‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ر‬‫حاش‬ )‫ت‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬ )‫لنت‬ ‫تدا‬ ‫ا‬‫دش‬ ‫ا‬ ‫قش‬ ‫ج‬ ‫اونها‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫د‬ ‫ع‬ ‫حا‬ ‫هع‬ ‫ا‬ )‫ت‬ ‫ق‬ ‫إ‬‫حإ‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫دهش‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىتغ‬‫ى‬‫ىهه‬‫ى‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫ح‬‫ض‬‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ا‬ ‫ىضض‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ت‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ىهو‬‫ى‬ ‫غت‬1494 ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫اجه‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ض‬‫اه‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫أث‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫الب‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نهض‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىدهو‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫إ‬‫ذ‬‫أ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫عل‬‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫د‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ةد‬ ‫دتش‬ ‫د‬ ‫عل‬ ‫حاداض‬ ‫رضض‬ ‫ه‬ ‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حانضر‬‫أ‬‫ىا‬ ‫ىض‬‫ي‬‫دو‬ ‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫عتب‬‫أ‬) ‫ىه‬‫ا‬‫ع‬‫ىذح‬‫د‬ ‫ش‬ ‫حإ‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫دهش‬ ‫ىهاا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ )‫ت‬‫ض‬‫ن‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىضض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ىهل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حااض‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫ثه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ىهو‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫غت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫تس‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ىدي‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫أ‬ )‫ىلنت‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫شاتن‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫إ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ند‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ها‬ ‫أع‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫رتت‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىق‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬‫هإ‬‫ىهو‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ج‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىيش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫ىشاا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ك‬‫شت‬‫أ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫ا‬
  7. 7. 7 ‫ىايع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫أ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬‫إ‬‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ىتنه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ) ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ض‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫عه‬ ‫أ‬‫عن‬ ‫صدهويه‬‫إ‬‫عهع‬ ‫حاددع‬ ) ‫ت‬1491‫د‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬‫دش‬ ‫شبذاك‬‫أ‬‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حي‬ ‫عه‬‫أ‬‫ىهع‬ ‫حإ‬‫حا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫تو‬‫ب‬‫د‬ ‫هجهض‬‫ال‬‫ض‬‫دتهتش‬ ‫ش‬‫أ‬) ‫و‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫حادض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حاب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬‫حإ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ىهدل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫نا‬‫أ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫أ‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ى‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫أ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬‫ىناط‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫حا‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬‫ىأ‬‫ى‬ ‫ىشريا‬‫ى‬ ‫ال‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ض‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫و‬ ‫ت‬‫إ‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫ىه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ه‬ ‫تنايذ‬ ‫ينش‬‫أ‬‫ىش‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ )‫ىت‬ ‫جل‬ ‫ىض‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ا‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬1498‫ىع‬‫ا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫حإ‬ ‫حع‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ري‬ ‫ىضض‬‫ن‬‫ل‬ ‫ىشريت‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حاده‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫تاهق‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حإي‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫إ‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ىذد‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬‫آ‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىههأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حأش‬ ‫ىهاا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬ ‫إذ‬ 1498)‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نا‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىشو‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫أي‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حاثهن‬‫ش‬‫ىضض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ري‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫نل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نه‬ ‫حا‬‫حإ‬ ‫حع‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫شع‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫تاهق‬–‫ىهنن‬‫ى‬‫ث‬‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ىشريت‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬‫شو‬1498‫حإ‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫يق‬ ‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حات‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىض‬‫ر‬‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫ال‬‫ىل‬ ‫تاهق‬ ‫ضراه‬‫ه‬ ‫ته‬ ‫ىني‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬‫آ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫أ‬‫ا‬‫إ‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ت‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫ج‬ ‫حقل‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ت‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫حان‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ي‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ىق‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ع‬ ‫ىذ‬‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ىه‬ ‫انهن‬‫ض‬‫و‬ ‫ىأ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حانان‬1497‫ى‬‫و‬‫أ‬‫ىضدل‬ ‫ىأ‬ ‫ىها‬‫ا‬‫اهش‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حأ‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ند‬–‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حي‬‫أ‬‫ىأ‬‫ى‬ ‫تشق‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىاضا‬‫ى‬‫إ‬‫ىس‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫تاهق‬–‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ها‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫دل‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىههأ‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬1494‫حإ‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫عض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫ش‬‫قل‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫تاهق‬ ‫ىذ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫علي‬‫أ‬‫ىيه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫أ‬‫ض‬‫شات‬ ‫ح‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫دش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫هن‬ ‫ا‬‫ض‬‫و‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫اج‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫شض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫دها‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاشنن‬ ‫حاجويل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ص‬ ‫دتشض‬ ‫حا‬‫ىه‬‫ص‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫د‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫شدها‬‫ة‬ ‫ى‬ ‫نه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىأ‬ ‫تشق‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ردل‬‫ىدي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫وت‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ض‬ ‫حو‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حاج‬‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬1491‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حالج‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حجي‬‫ش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫ش‬ ‫اإل‬ ‫وضرايه‬‫حإ‬ ‫ىد‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ىه‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ى‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫تاهق‬‫ىه‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫تاهق‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫إ‬‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ىه‬‫ث‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫و‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫نهاو‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نهض‬ ‫حا‬‫س‬‫ىناط‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ع‬‫إ‬‫ر‬‫إ‬‫ا‬‫ىي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬‫إ‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىس‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حي‬ ‫صلدل‬‫انه‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ىه‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىبط‬ ‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نش‬ ‫ىا‬‫ق‬‫ش‬ ‫ض‬ ‫شاع‬‫وضصه‬‫ىن‬‫ر‬ )‫ى‬‫ل‬‫قهت‬ ‫ىها‬‫ص‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىههأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬‫آ‬‫ذحض‬1491‫أ‬‫ها‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نه‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ع‬ ‫ىوند‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ني‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫دال‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫عل‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫نلب‬ ‫عد‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬‫إ‬‫ثا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىهو‬‫ى‬ ‫غت‬‫أ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫إ‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬ ‫د‬ ‫ىشان‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫و‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫نت‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىهنن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ث‬‫حا‬‫آ‬‫ذحض‬1491‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫س‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ر‬ ‫ىناط‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ال‬‫أ‬‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حالج‬ ‫ضا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫و‬‫س‬‫ع‬
  8. 8. 8 ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫علييه‬ ‫ب‬ ‫شصه‬ ‫حاناط‬‫ىا‬ ‫ىض‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ا‬‫حا‬ ‫ىشع‬‫ي‬ ‫ح‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬‫آ‬‫ذحض‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫ىل‬‫ب‬‫حر‬‫ش‬ ‫ىه‬ ) ‫نا‬ ‫يض‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬ ‫حان‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رت‬ ‫يش‬ ‫حا‬ ‫أ‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىذ‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىيا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ى‬‫ض‬ ‫حض‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫حا‬ ‫ىذح‬ ‫قلق‬‫إ‬‫ىن‬‫ر‬ )‫ىتبهات‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىههأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬1491‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫دتشض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫تكل‬ ‫ح‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫ىضض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ر‬ ‫قل‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫شت‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىدي‬‫ى‬ ‫وت‬‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاته‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫علي‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫ىهنش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىذ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫تنا‬ ‫ىهث‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ونبن‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬ ‫ددش‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ض‬‫و‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫ش‬‫س‬‫ع‬ ‫ش‬ ‫حاناط‬‫ح‬‫حإ‬ ‫ا‬‫قهنش‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ص‬‫را‬ ‫نتاههها‬‫عا‬‫إ‬‫ل‬ ‫شنن‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ق‬ ‫تاهذ‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫اض‬ ‫أ‬‫ت‬ ‫واصش‬ ‫ه‬‫س‬‫رب‬ ‫حاناط‬ ‫ع‬‫أ‬‫ىه‬ ‫انهن‬‫ض‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫إ‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ش‬ ‫حض‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫حا‬ ‫ىذح‬ ‫ىا‬ ‫ىيه‬‫ا‬‫تنه‬‫أ‬ ‫ض‬‫انه‬‫ض‬ ‫رنليه‬‫ر‬‫س‬‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ع‬ ‫تهنا‬‫أ‬‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫رن‬ ‫صهاديه‬ ‫عل‬ ‫دهرهل‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ج‬‫إذ‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫اغشنه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫هض‬‫ح‬‫ال‬‫ض‬‫ىد‬ ‫شع‬ ‫ل‬ ‫قتصه‬‫أ‬‫ىه‬‫ا‬‫ىل‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ق‬‫ش‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫نل‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫شا‬ ‫حا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫دد‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫آ‬‫ىهض‬‫ى‬1491 ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ث‬‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫دد‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حان‬ ‫حض‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ر‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫نن‬1491‫ه‬‫س‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫غ‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬ ‫علييه‬ ‫نضشال‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حابا‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ههانهض‬ ‫اتصل‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫إ‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ال‬ )‫ىتبهات‬‫ى‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ع‬‫ه‬‫إ‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىههأ‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫نتاه‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حااه‬1491‫حأ‬ ‫شرق‬ ‫عل‬‫تع‬ ‫حاتهان‬ ‫حايشع‬ ‫شرن‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫تش‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حب‬‫ض‬‫ع‬)‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫تكل‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ج‬‫ع‬ ‫قل‬ ‫ىه‬‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫شت‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫حاش‬ ‫دي‬ ‫وت‬‫ىأ‬ ‫حاته‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ن‬‫جه‬ ‫ىا‬ )‫ى‬‫ت‬ ‫ددش‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ص‬ ‫نل‬ ‫ثع‬‫إ‬‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫الش‬ )‫ت‬ ‫ه‬‫ض‬ ‫جهن‬ ‫حا‬ )‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ب‬‫ض‬‫حاد‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫ش‬ ‫نه‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ر‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫نل‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ر‬‫ض‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ك‬‫ا‬‫إ‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ىههأ‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ )‫ىتبهات‬‫ى‬1491 ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫حاج‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ىدي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫وت‬ ‫حع‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫رد‬‫إ‬‫ر‬‫إ‬‫ة‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ه‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫نها‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ص‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫س‬‫ش‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ن‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ذعا‬‫أ‬‫ىل‬ ‫ب‬‫ض‬‫حاد‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫ش‬ )‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬ ‫را‬‫عا‬‫إ‬‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫حاش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬‫وض‬ )‫دتاهه‬ ‫حإ‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ل‬ ‫وج‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬ ‫هه‬‫حإ‬ ‫دها‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حإ‬‫ش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫قت‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ض‬‫ح‬‫أ‬‫ا‬‫ىهنش‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىلح‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫حإ‬‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫نتاه‬‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ث‬‫إ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫ىد‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ات‬‫س‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫تاا‬ ‫ى‬‫جض‬ ‫شقل‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫د‬ ‫حان‬‫ىيا‬‫و‬ ‫ىه‬ ‫حاا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫اك‬ ‫ىها‬‫ج‬‫ا‬ ‫ىد‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حان‬ ‫حا‬ ‫لدل‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬‫حاب‬ ‫ع‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫شغيض‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حاج‬‫ىهو‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬‫حأ‬‫ش‬‫و‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫تش‬ ‫ىك‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ذ‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫إ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ن‬ )‫دهت‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىلدل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ال‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حانه‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاب‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ر‬‫إ‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ر‬ ‫ىعد‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫د‬ ‫ر‬‫ش‬ ‫ىك‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬ ‫د‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫احا‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬
  9. 9. 9 )‫هت‬ ‫د‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬‫ا‬ ‫شق‬‫أ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىض‬‫و‬‫ج‬‫ىش‬‫ل‬‫وي‬ ‫ىضب‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ىه‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىضك‬‫ت‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫بل‬ ‫ىب‬ ‫لكه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫حاتن‬ ‫حان‬‫ض‬‫حأ‬ ‫اأ‬ ‫تش‬ ‫أشق‬‫ش‬‫ه‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىتال‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىهشو‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫آ‬1491‫إ‬‫ر‬‫إ‬‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫لا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫دهشال‬ ‫حا‬‫س‬‫ب‬ ‫ص‬ ‫علا‬‫إ‬‫ىض‬ ‫ىه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫إ‬ ‫ج‬‫ىهض‬‫ا‬)‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ال‬ ‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ي‬ )‫ى‬ ‫شعل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫هثي‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ا‬‫ضش‬ ‫تهه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ج‬‫راض‬‫ىا‬ ‫شبانل‬ ‫اكا‬‫إ‬‫حإ‬ ‫ىل‬‫ا‬‫اشده‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ع‬‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ىتاهه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اد‬‫ض‬ ‫حر‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ضد‬ ‫حا‬C.I.A.‫ى‬ ‫ح‬ ‫را‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫عيا‬ ‫يي‬‫ىه‬ ‫ض‬‫ىأ‬ ‫حاته‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫ىش‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ع‬‫آ‬1491‫شرن‬‫أ‬‫ل‬ ‫حاشنن‬ ‫حاجويل‬ ‫ا‬‫شدل‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ص‬ ‫جا‬ )‫عبهه‬‫ىه‬‫ع‬ ‫دذح‬ ‫ش‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫عل‬ )‫ت‬‫ض‬‫ن‬ ‫اضض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬‫ي‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫رن‬ ‫شاهو‬
  10. 10. 11 ‫الثا‬ ‫المبحث‬‫في‬ ‫الداخلية‬ ‫السياسة‬ ‫مالمح‬ :‫ني‬‫حقبة‬‫الدديكتاتور‬ ‫القمع‬ 3591–3593. ‫نذ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬ ‫حاش‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ك‬ ‫إني‬‫إ‬‫را‬‫ىهش‬‫د‬ ‫رن‬ ‫لنل‬ ‫حا‬ ) ‫ت‬‫إ‬‫ىها‬‫ق‬ ‫حان‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ىه‬‫ع‬ ‫حإ‬‫ىدل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫وا‬ ‫ىك‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ذ‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫غ‬‫حا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ىهاع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫شو‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫قت‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ضش‬ ‫ش‬‫إ‬‫ذ‬‫إ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫انهن‬‫ض‬‫و‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىق‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫إ‬‫حا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫حان‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫حأ‬ ‫ا‬‫ىهنش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ولش‬‫شو‬ 1491‫ا‬1‫ي‬ ‫ىا‬ ‫حااه‬ ‫شرن‬‫آ‬1499‫ىأ‬ ‫تشق‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ص‬‫تش‬‫إت‬‫ىأ‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫و‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫اهق‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حانان‬ ‫ىضدها‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫ش‬ ‫ج‬‫تيشعي‬‫ض‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬ ‫احاكشن‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫جنو‬‫ا‬1‫ي‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫و‬ ‫نا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫حإ‬ ‫ىشو‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ىهج‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ن‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫شد‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حانا‬‫إ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫وتش‬ ‫ىق‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫يتن‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ض‬‫ح‬‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫حاتنش‬‫ش‬ ‫ىهت‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ض‬‫ا‬9‫ي‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫ش‬ ‫ح‬ ‫حربل‬‫ش‬‫حإ‬ ‫عل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ ‫ىيش‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬ ‫ح‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫قل‬ ‫ىه‬‫ص‬ ‫ه‬ ‫دايا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تاهق‬ ‫حأ‬‫شو‬1499‫ا‬9‫ي‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫أ‬‫ا‬‫إ‬‫ىهنن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ث‬‫حا‬ ‫ا‬‫ىهنش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫نت‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ث‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫نتاه‬1499 ‫آذحض‬ ‫ىا‬ ‫ىض‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ث‬‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ )‫ىهت‬‫ى‬ ‫جل‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىتح‬‫ت‬‫ر‬‫ح‬‫ش‬1499‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫نا‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫شع‬ ‫ىش‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىدي‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ح‬ ‫عه‬ ‫ثع‬ ‫جل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫حاييه‬‫ش‬ ‫شصشو‬‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىهنن‬‫ث‬‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ ‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ىا‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ) ‫نا‬ ‫حانهع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ها‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬1‫ي‬ ‫ا‬1‫هوق‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫اهنن‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ت‬‫ضش‬ ‫ي‬179–179 ‫ا‬1‫ي‬‫ش‬ ‫حاكشن‬‫ت‬‫ض‬‫ض‬ ‫اث‬ ‫دي‬ ‫يت‬ ‫يشع‬‫ىل‬ ‫انهن‬‫ض‬‫و‬ ‫ىضدل‬ ‫ى‬‫ن‬‫جه‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىه‬ ‫ههر‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫انهن‬‫ض‬‫شب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اد‬‫ض‬ ‫ح‬ ‫دها‬ –‫ىهوق‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حش‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ن‬‫ض‬‫ر‬ ‫ى‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫شان‬117‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ؤ‬ ‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫؛‬ ‫ح‬ ‫هغ‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫حاثش‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ش‬ ‫ن‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حي‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اها‬‫ض‬‫و‬ ‫حر‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ه‬ ‫تث‬ ‫حر‬148111 ‫ا‬1‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حاتنش‬ ‫صهوض‬ ‫ال‬ ‫رش‬ ‫حجأث‬‫ض‬ ‫ة‬ ‫نه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫عا‬ ‫التاهصي‬ ‫ي‬‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حي‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حال‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫هوق‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬ ‫حا‬114-111 ‫ا‬9) ‫نا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ي‬118 ‫ا‬9‫ه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ا‬ ‫شت‬ ‫شاض‬ ‫حات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حرنتاههها‬ ‫تا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫ي‬‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬ ‫ىل‬‫ا‬‫نهض‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ثهض‬‫أ‬‫ىأ‬‫ج‬‫ض‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ينن‬ ‫حا‬‫آ‬‫هنه‬ ‫و‬ ‫هنني‬ ‫حاكه‬ ‫ل‬‫ل‬ ‫ع‬‫ض‬ ‫ع‬ ‫هن‬‫أ‬‫حأ‬ ‫شتنشض‬ ‫جل‬ ‫دذح‬ ‫عا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬ ‫حض‬‫ض‬‫ق‬‫ض‬ ‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫حا‬‫نهضال‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حاددش‬ ‫ويا‬ ‫ال‬ ‫عن‬ ‫جيها‬‫أ‬‫ىي‬‫ص‬‫التاه‬ ‫ى‬‫د‬‫شجض‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫قت‬ ‫ىبش‬ ‫ىا‬‫ع‬ ‫ىاضا‬ ) ‫نا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حجأث‬‫ض‬117–111
  11. 11. 11 ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫س‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حال‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫الي‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫حااض‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫حاج‬ ‫ىضشب‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫حا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ر‬ ‫ىذاك‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫س‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫أ‬‫ههإ‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫حات‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ىهاي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫إ‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫نتاه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ؤا‬ ‫ىهو‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫د‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫د‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫هو‬ ‫حان‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬1499‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫إ‬‫ىق‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ه‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫دتاه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ) ‫نا‬ ‫تشض‬ ‫حا‬ ‫عل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫تجهش‬ ‫رب‬ ‫شبيذح‬‫ا‬8‫ي‬ ‫أ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ه‬‫حآ‬ ‫ىلش‬‫ىن‬‫ر‬ )‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ر‬‫دهش‬ ‫ىها‬‫د‬‫ر‬ ‫ىض‬‫ا‬ ‫وت‬ ‫ىك‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫شذ‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نهه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ب‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ه‬ ‫ىاها‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫إ‬‫س‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫أ‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ها‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ىدل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫ب‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫حالن‬ ‫ج‬‫ىضش‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ىذ‬‫ى‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫يه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫يض‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ىط‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حاا‬‫ش‬ ‫حب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حأ‬‫احاشنن‬ ‫د‬‫ا‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ل‬ ‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫احا‬ ‫عد‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ش‬ ‫ي‬‫ا‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬1498‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫إ‬‫عتههض‬‫إا‬‫حأ‬‫حو‬‫ش‬ ‫شو‬‫حآ‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫الددش‬‫ىها‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ض‬‫ب‬ ‫ىيتها‬‫ص‬‫ا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ب‬ ‫حاد‬ ‫أ‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ت‬ ‫ىهضض‬‫ن‬ ‫ىض‬‫ا‬ ‫حقههو‬ ‫نشجيض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬7‫ي‬ ‫علع‬ ‫ح‬‫ش‬‫ا‬4‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬‫أ‬‫ىتن‬‫ى‬ ‫دتهتشض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نهه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ح‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىك‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ذ‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ها‬ ‫ؤ‬‫أ‬‫ه‬ ‫اد‬ ‫يه‬ ‫قه‬‫نهضال‬ ‫حا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫شاب‬ ) ‫عض‬ ‫ل‬‫أ‬‫اه‬ ‫أ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حاضد‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫ىد‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حان‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىهدا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬‫إ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫رو‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫علي‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫عت‬ ‫إ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫غ‬‫ول‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫وونه‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ت‬‫ر‬‫ييه‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫أ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ؤ‬‫أ‬‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ى‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ا‬11‫ي‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬‫إ‬‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫حاج‬ ‫ا‬‫ؤش‬ ‫عل‬ ) ‫ونا‬ ‫ضب‬‫ا‬11‫ي‬ ‫را‬‫عا‬‫إ‬‫ال‬‫ض‬‫د‬ ‫حان‬ ‫حانابها‬ ‫ا‬‫أ‬‫ىل‬ ‫حن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ل‬‫ثب‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬‫ا‬11‫ي‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫غ‬‫حاهها‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫اد‬‫ض‬ ‫حر‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫ن‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬ ‫شذ‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬1‫ىهوق‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىذش‬‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ي‬119‫ىل‬ ‫حال‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ىش‬‫ن‬‫حات‬ ‫ىهوض‬‫ص‬ ‫ىل‬‫ا‬ ‫رش‬ ‫؛‬ ‫هوق‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حي‬ ‫رن‬111-111 ‫ا‬1‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫ىهوث‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫حق‬ ‫ىشجيض‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫ي‬1414‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ر‬‫ض‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫حانه‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬ ‫عه‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىي‬‫ى‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ي‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ع‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬ ‫ىش‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ىه‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىهح‬‫ص‬‫ح‬‫ش‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ص‬‫نه‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫تب‬ ‫ىه‬ ‫ن‬‫ض‬‫ر‬ ‫رن‬ ‫حان‬1498‫ىأث‬‫ج‬‫ح‬‫ض‬ ‫ىي‬‫ص‬‫التاه‬ ‫هوق‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫غلن‬ ‫حوش‬ ‫شصان‬11-18 ‫ا‬1‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫ىعث‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ي‬1414‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫جه‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ )‫ىت‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حك‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حقنهع‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ل‬ ‫عه‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫حاو‬ ‫ىاشض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حك‬‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫نه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫تب‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫انهن‬‫ض‬‫ث‬‫حا‬‫ش‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ح‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬‫ض‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫أ‬1411-1419 )‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىأث‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ح‬‫ض‬ ‫ىي‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫التاه‬74–41‫ىلث‬‫ى‬ ‫تضج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬ ‫ري‬ ‫؛‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬ ‫حابه‬ ‫ض‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫التضج‬ ‫حع‬‫ض‬ ‫حر‬ ‫ضد‬147711 ‫ا‬9‫صض‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫هع‬ ‫حرجت‬ ‫حرهنه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حن‬‫ض‬‫حري‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫حاثش‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬ ‫ي‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ي‬147999 ‫ا‬9‫حاهدشأ‬ ‫ضد‬ ‫ي‬‫ش‬‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫هغ‬ ‫ةد‬‫ض‬‫نهص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫دحي‬ ‫ها‬ ‫نلش‬ ‫حا‬119 ‫ا‬1‫هوق‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬ ‫ي‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ي‬91
  12. 12. 12 ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫رض‬‫ش‬ ‫ي‬‫ا‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ل‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫شا‬1499‫ش‬1411‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫د‬ ‫حان‬‫ا‬11‫ي‬ ‫أ‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حاثهن‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حاضد‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫إ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ج‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ر‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫عت‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىهرهكي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫احا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حأ‬‫حأ‬ ‫ىضب‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ها‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫د‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬‫أ‬‫ش‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬‫أ‬‫ىشضد‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫د‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ن‬‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫ا‬‫أ‬‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ىهو‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ىلي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫حا‬‫ا‬19‫ي‬ ‫ت‬‫س‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫أ‬‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬‫ش‬1498‫ىهع‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫حان‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫نهض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫حاب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫و‬ ‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫حاوي‬‫ا‬19‫ي‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫ش‬‫أ‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حاج‬ ‫ىدي‬‫ى‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫ها‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬ ‫حاان‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ت‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫اد‬‫ض‬ ‫حر‬ ‫ىيع‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫حاج‬‫حإ‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ج‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ىهع‬‫ى‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫ش‬ ‫احا‬ ‫يلند‬ ‫ح‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫دحر‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ىتاهه‬‫ى‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىذح‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬11‫ي‬ ‫ش‬‫أ‬‫ات‬‫ىهض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫وات‬ ‫ىشض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫حو‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حاج‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ا‬18‫ي‬ ‫أ‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ق‬‫ش‬ ‫ىهرهك‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ض‬ ‫شو‬‫إ‬‫ىهط‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نه‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫ت‬‫ض‬ ‫ىهرهك‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ض‬ ‫ىنح‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬ ‫ة‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫هه‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬ ‫حاج‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫حاج‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬ ‫حاش‬‫ا‬17‫ي‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬ ‫عها‬‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫إ‬)‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫غ‬‫ش‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ش‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ات‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫د‬ ‫ىهرهك‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىشذ‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫حأ‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ى‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬ ‫اا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫نت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ع‬‫ىا‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫حا‬‫ش‬ ‫ىها‬‫ى‬ ‫حايي‬‫ش‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ح‬‫حض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىن‬‫ى‬‫ر‬‫ش‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ه‬ ‫ا‬1‫ويضشا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حي‬ ‫رن‬ ‫حاوتضشو‬‫ش‬ ‫ع‬ ‫حر‬ ‫حو‬‫ض‬‫ص‬ ‫ل‬ ‫صهغ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ده‬ ‫ي‬148791 ‫ا‬1‫هوق‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حي‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حال‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حاتنش‬ ‫صهوض‬ ‫ال‬ ‫رش‬ ‫ي‬191 ‫ا‬1‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حان‬‫ش‬ ‫ىهج‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ت‬‫حا‬ ‫ىيا‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫و‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫يه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حد‬ ‫ي‬147411‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ىه‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حد‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ا‬ ‫؛‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ت‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫حن‬ ‫ىنه‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ض‬ ‫ىنه‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ىا‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬‫ش‬‫ض‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫إ‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ىهى‬‫ى‬‫د‬‫ا‬‫ض‬ ‫ح‬1171‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ 91–91 ‫ا‬9‫قد‬ ‫ىه‬‫ث‬‫شش‬ ‫حض‬‫ض‬‫ى‬ ‫دح‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫اها‬‫ض‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ىن‬ ‫حااه‬ )‫حاشج‬ ‫هرهك‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حي‬ ‫رن‬ ‫هض‬ ‫حا‬ ‫دضدل‬ ‫عع‬ ‫اجنل‬ ‫ي‬‫ىها‬‫ن‬‫او‬ ‫ا‬14 ‫ا‬9‫ى‬ ‫ههان‬ ‫ىهط‬‫ت‬‫ض‬‫ح‬ ‫ىل‬ ‫قش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬‫ص‬‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ىأ‬‫ت‬ ‫ت‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫ىن‬‫ر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حابش‬ ‫ي‬ ‫هض‬ ‫احاوات‬ ‫قويلل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫هضث‬ ‫وات‬ ‫شض‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ىض‬‫و‬ ‫ىع‬‫ث‬ ‫ىه‬‫ب‬‫ض‬‫أش‬ ‫ى‬‫ا‬‫إ‬ ‫ىه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىه‬‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫ىهض‬ ‫وات‬ ‫ىشذ‬‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ىه‬‫ن‬‫ت‬ ‫ىو‬ ‫شه‬ ‫ي‬ ‫هض‬ ‫ىان‬ ‫ح‬ ‫اه‬‫ض‬‫اث‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫شجل‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ىهوق‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ه‬‫يه‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حد‬ )‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫حغت‬ ‫ىض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫ح‬19–18‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ي‬‫ن‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫رن‬ ‫ىذيض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫؛‬‫ىيض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬ ‫ا‬‫ض‬‫هه‬ ‫ها‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ال‬‫ض‬‫يش‬ ‫ج‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬ ‫عي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫حاغض‬1477114-111 ‫ا‬1‫ىهوق‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫رن‬ ‫ىذيض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ ‫ىأث‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ج‬‫ح‬‫ض‬ ‫ىي‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬‫التاه‬ ‫ي‬114‫حا‬‫ض‬‫ىش‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫حات‬ ‫ىهوض‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ص‬ ‫ىل‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ى‬‫ا‬ ‫رش‬ ‫؛‬ ‫هوق‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬ ‫حا‬ ‫حا‬‫ض‬‫حي‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫حال‬ ‫حا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حا‬191-199

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