The Rungs of the Management Ladder
• Organizations is a system or pattern of any set of
relationships in any kind of enterprise or
business whether it is profit making or nonprofit making whether it is manufacturing or
• Organizations are social units structured in
certain system to attain a set of goals.
Why Organizations are needed?
• They are needed because:
• Organizations serve the society.
• Organizations are social institutions that reflect
certain cultural accepted values and needs.
• They allow people to live together in civilized
way and to accomplish goals as a society.
• They serve society by making the world a better
and safer and more pleasant place to live.
Example: Hospitals and Universities.
Why Organizations are needed (Cont)
• Organizations accomplish objectives.
• They enable the society to reach certain specified
goals that would otherwise be much harder or
even impossible to achieve.
• Organizations provide careers
• They provide their employees with a source by
livelihood, personal satisfaction and selffulfillment.
• They create jobs for the unemployed.
The duties of any Supervisor or Manager
• The duties of any Supervisor or Manager are:
• The technical aspect: which is the work to be
• The managerial aspect: which is the people who
are to perform that work in organization.
• In all organizations or any Business, Top
Management are :
• The board of Directors
• Executive Directors,
• Managing Directors,
• General Directors,
• Presidents and vice presidents, they are
generally involved mainly with long-term
planning which is called Strategic Management
Top Management (Cont)
• The Top Management is primarily concerned
with deciding what the objectives of the business
should be in two, four, five years or even ten
years ahead, and the future policies of the
• Such Strategic Planning is mainly concerned
with the organization as a whole rather than
with its individual departments or sections.
Middle Management Level
• The head of departments or senior managers
will be involved in TACTICAL PLANNING, that
is, planning how the overall strategies are to be
This often entails devising and
operating short-term plans, for up to a year
First (Lowest) Level Management
• The first Level Management includes supervisors or
foremen, are involved mainly in very short-term
• That involves planning the day to day running of
• Example: Planning to meet monthly, weekly or
daily production quota or deciding what each
member of staff should be doing at any given time.
• However, plans must be flexible, so that they can
quickly and easily be modified in the light of events.
The Responsibilities of the Supervisor
• The Supervisor got the responsibilities towards
the enterprise and its property, the employees
who depend on him to ensure that their jobs and
incomes are secure the beneficiaries and the
community in general.
The Responsibilities of the Supervisor (Cont)
• The supervisor must train the members of his/her
• He/she must give them advice, guidance and assistance.
• He/she must motivate his/her members to work
• He/she must organize and coordinate that they work
together as a team.
• Each employee must know what he has to do, when and
how to do it.
WHO IS A SUPERVISOR?
• A supervisor is a person who is set apart by his
training, previous experience, and abilities to
guide the efforts of others; to interpret to his
team under his section, the policies of the
enterprise, and to plan, organize, direct,
coordinate, motivate and control their efforts so
that the desired objectives of his section,
department or entire organization are achieved
in the most efficient and economical manner.
The Skills and Qualities Needed from the
• The skills and qualities wanted from the effective
supervisor are no easy tasks.
• A supervisor’s staff might be large, but whatever its
size it will be composed of human beings men or
women with a diversity of different characters and
personalities, weaknesses and strengths, emotions
and feelings, likes and dislikes.
• In order to get the best from his team, a supervisor
must get the best from each individual member of
his team and that means adapting his approach to
each employee as the necessity arises.
Why Supervisors Fail?
• Newly appointed supervisors fail for many
• But one of the most common is failure to
develop sound, workable plans.
• As a person moves up from being an employee,
with no management responsibilities before, to
the new role of supervisor, the time and
attention that he/she must give to planning
Why Plans Fail?
• Some experienced managers tend to overlook
planning, they point to the high failure rate of
their past plans to explain their current
reluctance to spend even a few minutes in
• The reasons why plans fail can be divided into
Why Plans Fail? (Cont)
• Factors in getting started
• A misunderstanding of what planning is.
• Problems in doing planning.
• Difficulties in using the plans once they are
Steps in Successful Planning
The planning process itself consists of seven major steps:
• Identify the major external factors.
• Identify and evaluate the department’s current situation.
• Establish department objectives.
• Determine resources requirements.
• Determine product, service, or program output planning
for the department.
• Develop implementation plans.
• Monitor and evaluate plans.
Who is effective supervisor?
What are the skills and qualities needed from the effective
Why must a supervisor be completely fair, impartial and
unbiased in all his dealings with his subordinates?
Why must a supervisor be caring and understanding
Why must a supervisor have consistency of actions among
his staff for dealing with disciplinary matters?
Why plans fail or succeed?