Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The study of language

203 views

Published on

Study of Language - Semantics

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

The study of language

  1. 1. THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE SEMANTICS MOHD NURHAFIQ BIN ZULKEPLI AHMAD SUHAIMI BIN ABDUL SHUKOR
  2. 2. What Is Semantics? • Semantics is study of the meaning of words, phrases and sentences. • In semantic analysis, there is always an attempt to focus on what the words conventionally mean, rather than on what an individual speaker might want them to mean on particular occasion.
  3. 3. Conceptual Meaning • Covers those basic, essential components of meaning that are conveyed by the literal use of a word • For example, some of basic components of a word like needle in English might include "thin, sharp, steel instrument".
  4. 4. Associative Meaning • Different people might have different associations or connotations attached to a word. • Example, like needle which lead us to think of painful whenever you encounter the word said. • This association is not treated as a conceptual meaning of needle.
  5. 5. Conceptual vs Associative Meaning • When linguists investigate the meaning of words in language they are normally characterizing the conceptual meaning rather than associative meaning. • Meanwhile, the poets, song writers,novelists, literacy critics, advertisers and lovers may all be interested in how words can evoke certain aspect of associative meaning.
  6. 6. Semantic Feature • How does semantic approach help us to understand the nature of language? • It might be helpful as a mean of accounting for the "oddness" which we experience when we read English sentences such as follows:  The hamburger ate the man.  My cat studied arabic.  A pillow was listening to music. • Above sentences are syntactically right but semantically odd. Do you know why?
  7. 7. Semantic Feature • According to some basic syntactic rules for forming English sentences we have well structured sentences. The hamburger ate the man NP V NP • This sentence is syntactically good but semantically odd. Since the sentence "The man ate the hamburger" is perfectly acceptable. • The kind of noun which can be subjects of the verb 'ate' must denote entities which are capable of eating. • The noun 'hamburger' does not have this property and man has it.
  8. 8. Semantic feature • This is because we use the semantic feature to analyze the meaning. Features such as "+animate,- animate", "+human,-human","+female,-female", "+adult,-adult". • E.g : The horse is reading the magazine. • Do you know how to analyze the semantic feature in this sentence?
  9. 9. Semantic Roles • Words are not just "containers" of meanings. They fulfill different "roles" within the situation described by a sentence. • For example: The boy kicked the ball The verb 'kicked' describes an action. • The noun phrases 'The boy' and 'the ball' describe the roles of entities such as people and things involved in action.
  10. 10. Agent • They are the most common semantic roles. • The entity that performs the action is technically known as "agent". • As in the sentence one role is taken by the boy and the boy performs the action, so it is agent. • Although agents are typically human (the boy), agents also can be non human entities that cause actions. • Example: The wind blew the ball away. The dog caught the ball.
  11. 11. Theme • The entity that is involved in or affected is technically known as "theme" • Example: The girl(agent) grabbed the ball(theme). • In this sentence "ball" is the theme because it is affected by the action performed by the "agent". • The theme can be an entity that is simply being described such as 'the ball was red'. • In fact, the same physical entity can appear in two different semantic roles in a sentence. The boy punchs himself. • The boy is agent and himself is theme.
  12. 12. Instrument • If an agent uses another entity in performing an action, the other entity fills the role of instrument. • For example: She hit the bug with magazine. • In 'writing with a pen' or ' eating with a spoon' the phrases "pen" and "spoon" have the semantic role of instrument.
  13. 13. Experiencer • When a noun phrase designates an entity as a person who has a feeling, a perception or a state, it fills the role of experiencer. • If we see, know or enjoy something, we are not performing an action (hence we are not agents). • For example: Did you hear that? The experiencer is you and the theme is that noise.
  14. 14. Location • When an entity is in the description of the event then it fills the role location(on the table, in the room and etc). • For example: Mary saw a mosquito on the wall. In the sentence, the wall is the location.
  15. 15. Source and Goal • Where an entity moves from is the source and where it moves to is the goal. • For example: When we talk about transferring money from 'savings' to 'checking', the source is 'savings' and goal is 'checking'. - Hassan handed the magazine back to Squidward. Agent Theme Goal - Orochi borrowed those shoes from Patrick. Agent Theme Source
  16. 16. Lexical Relations • Words are not only the "containers" or a fulfilling "roles". They can also have relationships. We describe the meanings of words and terms of their relationships. • For instances, if we are asked the meanings of word 'conceal' we might reply it is same as 'hide'. • Often explain meaning of words in terms of their relationships to other word. • It is treated as the analysis of lexical relations. • Examples of lexical relations are snynonym, antonym and hyponym
  17. 17. Synonym • A group of words that have the same meaning. • Can often be subtituted for each other in a sentence but not always. • Examples of synonyms word are: Large Big Gigantic Massive Enormous Huge
  18. 18. Antonymy • A group of word that has opposite meaning. • Example: NEAR =========================== FAR GOOD ========================== BAD YES ============================ NO FAST =========================== SLOW
  19. 19. Antonymy ANTONYMY NON-GRADABLE ANTONYMS OR (COMPLEMENTARY PAIRS) GRADAB PAIRS REVERSIVES
  20. 20. Complementary Pairs The relationship between the pairs is absolute. For example: (True and False Pairs) True = False A statement can only be true or false. It cannot be true and false at the same. This is to stick to the truth value of the statement.
  21. 21. Gradable Pairs • A pairs of antonyms that can be scaled or we can do comparative contrustions to them. • For instance: ( More or Less) • We cannot quantified what is more and what is less in that example. VS
  22. 22. Reversives • Reversives are the opposite or negative of the word meaning. Example: (Dress and undress). It does not says that undress is not a dress it simply said that not wearing a dress. VS
  23. 23. Hyponymy • Specific term to used to designate a member of superordinate (Higher) class. • Used the concept of inclusion which say that Daisy and Rose will be a flower or hyponyms of a flower. • Words those are hyponyms to a higher class is called co-hyponyms. Example: Ruby and Diamond is the co-hyponym of gemstones. GEMSTONES RUBY DIAMOND EMERALD
  24. 24. Homophones vs Homonyms HOMONYMS HOMOPHONES WORDS WITH SAME SPELLING BUT HAVE TWO OR MORE MEANING WORDS WITH SAME PRONUNCIATION BUT DIFFERENT MEANING. 1) BOW (LONG WOODEN STICK WITH HORSE HAIR TO PLAY VIOLIN) VS BOW( TYPE OF TIED RIBBONS) 2) PEN ( WRITING INSTRUMENT) VS PEN (ENCLOSED SPACED) 1) SUN (BIGGEST STAR IN UNIVERSE) ) VS SON (A MALE CHILD) 2) RIGHT VS WRITE
  25. 25. Homonyms
  26. 26. Homophones
  27. 27. Prototype • People categorize items and concepts based on a prototype or ideal representation of that category. • For example, the concept of dog is often characterized by fur, a tail, and paws. When discussing or thinking about dogs, people think of classic, stereotypical examples such as collies or wolf or coyote.
  28. 28. Polysemy • In Greek Poly = Many Semy = Meaning • Two or more words with same form and related meaning. • How it is related? • Functions : What it does • Structure: The shapes it takes • Locations: Where can it be found
  29. 29. • It does not need to be related to all aspects. For instances, the word hand. • Hand (part of our body to point objects) or hand (the long thin pieces that point the numbers on clock). So they have similar functions. So they are polysmers with related meanings ( structure and function). Polysemy
  30. 30. Word Play • These last three lexical relations are the basis of a lot of word play usually for humorous effect. • For instance, why is 6 afraid of 7? Because 789. • Do you get me? • The answer is funny as you identify the homophones.
  31. 31. Metonymy • From the Greek name it means " the other name". Figure of speech that uses the name of name of an object, name or idea to rperesent something which it is associated.Used in order to shorten phrases and avoid repetition so the sentence flow better. • Example: The effect name the caused - Cancerstick = Cigarette • Why is that? • Consequences of smoking too much leads to cancer. So it it metonymy. • Example: The caused name the effect - Fortune = Wealth • The caused of having wealth is having luck. That is why fortune is metonymy of wealth. • Example: The object name its usage - Hand = Can you give me a hand?,
  32. 32. Collocation A collocation is two or more words that often go together. These combinations just sound "right" to native English speakers, who use them all the time. On the other hand, other combinations may be unnatural and just sound "wrong". • TYPES OF COLLOCATION 1)ADVERB + ADJECTIVE eg: totally different ( Today im going to do something totally different) 2)ADJECTIVE + NOUN eg : nice wedding (Last weekend I went to a nice weeding) 3) NOUN + VERB eg : dog bark, bird tweets 4) VERB + NOUN eg : play game ( I like playing game in the evening) 5) NOUN + NOUN eg : summer school ( many student hate summer school) 6) VERB + EXPRESSIONS eg: fill with horror 7) VERB + ADVERB eg : learn carefully
  33. 33. Combination of types of collocation in a sentence • This lesson won’t be a waste of time if you listen carefully to what im going to present today. • Example of the COLLOCATION with the word ENGLISH:  American English  English man  British English  English teacher  English student  To speak English  To learn English  To practice English
  34. 34. • What is the semantic feature of the following word: 1.Girl 2.Mouse • Define antonymy and synonymy and give example. • What is the difference between homophones and homonyms and give example.

×