Managing marketing information

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Marketing involves a range of processes concerned with finding out what consumers want, and then providing it for them. This involves four key elements, which are referred to as the 4Ps. A useful starting point therefore is to carry out market research to find out about customer requirements in relation to the 4Ps.

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Managing marketing information

  1. 1. Principles of MarketingPrinciples of Marketing Managing Marketing Information
  2. 2. Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain the importance of information to the company and its understanding of the marketplace 2. Define the marketing information system and discuss its parts 3. Outline the steps in the marketing research process 4. Explain how companies analyze and distribute marketing information 5. Discuss the special issues some marketing researchers face, including public policy and ethics 4-2
  3. 3. Chapter OutlineChapter Outline 1. Assessing Marketing Information Needs 2. Developing Marketing Information 3. Marketing Research 4. Analyzing Marketing Information 5. Distributing and Using Marketing Information 6. Other Marketing Information Considerations 4-3
  4. 4. Assessing Marketing InformationAssessing Marketing Information NeedsNeeds Marketing information system (MIS) consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers • Assess the information needs • Develop needed information • Analyze information • Distribute information 4-4
  5. 5. Assessing Marketing InformationAssessing Marketing Information NeedsNeeds MIS provides information to the company’s marketing and other managers and external partners such as suppliers, resellers, and marketing service agencies 4-5
  6. 6. Assessing MarketingAssessing Marketing Information NeedsInformation Needs Characteristics of a good MIS balances the information users would like to have against what they need and what is feasible to offer 4-6
  7. 7. Developing Marketing InformationDeveloping Marketing Information Marketers can obtain information from: • Internal data • Marketing intelligence • Marketing research 4-7
  8. 8. Developing Marketing InformationDeveloping Marketing Information Internal Data Internal databases are electronic collections of consumer and market information obtained from data sources within the company network, including accounting, marketing, customer service, and sales departments 4-8
  9. 9. Developing Marketing InformationDeveloping Marketing Information Advantages: • Can be accessed more quickly • Less expensive Disadvantages: • Incomplete information • Wrong form for decision making • Timeliness of information • Amount of information • Need for sophisticated equipment and techniques 4-9 Advantages and Disadvantage of Internal Databases
  10. 10. Developing Marketing InformationDeveloping Marketing Information Marketing Intelligence Marketing intelligence is the systematic collection and analysis of publicly available information about competitors and developments in the marketplace The goal of marketing intelligence is to improve strategic decision making, assess and track competitors’ actions, and provide early warning of opportunities and threats 4-10
  11. 11. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Marketing research is the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an organization 4-11
  12. 12. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Steps in the marketing research process 1. Defining the problem and research objectives 2. Developing the research plan 3. Implementing the plan 4. Interpreting and reporting the findings 4-12
  13. 13. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Defining the Problem and Research Objectives Types of objectives • Exploratory research • Descriptive research • Causal research 4-13
  14. 14. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Defining the Problem and Research Objectives Exploratory research is the gathering of preliminary information that will help to define the problem and suggest hypotheses Descriptive research is to describe things such as market potential for a product or the demographics and attitudes of consumers who buy the product Causal research is to test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships 4-14
  15. 15. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Developing the Research Plan Research plan outlines sources of existing data and spells out the specific research approaches, contact methods, sampling plans, and instruments that researchers will use to gather data 4-15
  16. 16. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Developing the Research Plan Research plan is a written proposal that includes: • Management problem • Research objectives • Information needed • How the results will help management decisions • Budget 4-16
  17. 17. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Developing the Research Plan Secondary data consists of information that already exists somewhere, having been collected for another purpose Primary data consists of information gathered for the special research plan 4-17
  18. 18. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Advantages: • Speed • Cost • Provides data that a company cannot collect on its own Disadvantages: • Availability • Relevance • Accuracy • Impartial 4-18 Marketing Research
  19. 19. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Primary Data Collection • Research approaches • Contact methods • Sampling plan • Research instruments 4-19
  20. 20. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Research Approaches Observational research involves gathering primary data by observing relevant people, actions, and situations Ethnographic research involves sending trained observers to watch and interact with consumers in their natural environment 4-20
  21. 21. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Research Approaches Survey research is the most widely used method and is best for descriptive information—knowledge, attitudes, preferences, and buying behavior • Flexible • People can be unable or unwilling to answer • Gives misleading or pleasing answers • Privacy concerns 4-21
  22. 22. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Research Approaches Experimental research is best for gathering causal information—cause- and-effect relationships 4-22
  23. 23. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Contact Methods • Mail questionnaires • Collect large amounts of information • Low cost • Less bias with no interviewer present • Lack of flexibility • Low response rate • Lack of control of sample 4-23
  24. 24. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Contact Methods • Telephone interviewing • Collects information quickly • More flexible than mail questionnaires • Interviewers can explain difficult questions • Higher response rates than mail questionnaires • Interviewers communicate directly with respondents • Higher cost than mail questionnaires • Potential interviewer bias 4-24
  25. 25. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Contact Methods Mail, telephone, and personal interviewing • Personal interviewing • Individual interviewing • Group interviewing 4-25
  26. 26. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Contact Methods • Personal interviewing • Individual interviewing • Involves talking with people at home or the office, on the street, or in shopping malls • Flexible • More expensive than telephone interviews • Group interviewing or focus group interviewing • Involves inviting six to 10 people to talk with a trained moderator 4-26
  27. 27. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Online marketing research • Internet surveys • Online panels • Online experiments • Online focus groups 4-27 Contact Methods
  28. 28. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Contact Methods Online marketing research • Low cost • Speed to administer • Fast results • Good for hard-to-reach groups • Hard to control who’s in the sample • Lack of interaction • Privacy concerns 4-28
  29. 29. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Sampling Plan Sample is a segment of the population selected for marketing research to represent the population as a whole • Who is to be surveyed? • How many people should be surveyed? • How should the people be chosen? 4-29
  30. 30. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Sampling Plan Probability samples: Each population member has a known chance of being included in the sample Non-probability samples: Used when probability sampling costs too much or takes too much time 4-30
  31. 31. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Research Instruments • Questionnaires • Mechanical devices 4-31
  32. 32. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Research Instruments Questionnaires • Most common • Administered in person, by phone, or online • Flexible 4-32
  33. 33. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Research Instruments Closed-end questions include all possible answers, and subjects make choices among them • Provide answers that are easier to interpret and tabulate Open-end questions allow respondents to answer in their own words • Useful in exploratory research 4-33
  34. 34. Marketing ResearchMarketing Research Implementing the Research Plan • Collecting the information • Processing the information • Analyzing the information 4-34
  35. 35. Analyzing Marketing InformationAnalyzing Marketing Information CRM consists of sophisticated software and analytical tools that integrate customer information from all sources, analyze it in depth, and apply the results to build stronger customer relationships 4-35 Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
  36. 36. Analyzing Marketing InformationAnalyzing Marketing Information Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Data warehouses are comprehensive companywide electronic databases of finely tuned detailed customer information • Uses • To understand customers better • To provide higher levels of customer service • To develop deeper customer relationships • To identify high-value customers 4-36
  37. 37. Analyzing Marketing InformationAnalyzing Marketing Information Customer Relationship Management Touch points: Every contact between the customer and company • Customer purchases • Sales force contacts • Service and support calls • Web site visits • Satisfaction surveys • Credit and payment interactions • Research studies 4-37
  38. 38. Distributing and Using MarketingDistributing and Using Marketing InformationInformation Information distribution involves entering information into databases and making it available in a time- useable manner • Intranet provides information to employees and other stakeholders • Extranet provides information to key customers and suppliers 4-38
  39. 39. Other Marketing InformationOther Marketing Information ConsiderationsConsiderations Marketing Research in Small Businesses and Nonprofit Organizations Need information about their industry, competitors, potential customers, and reactions to new offers Must track changes in customer needs and wants, reactions to new products, and changes in the competitive environment 4-39
  40. 40. Other Marketing InformationOther Marketing Information ConsiderationsConsiderations Marketing Research in Small Businesses and Nonprofit Organizations Sources of marketing information: • Observing their environment • Monitoring competitor advertising • Evaluating customer mix • Visiting competitors • Conducting informal surveys • Conducting simple experiments 4-40
  41. 41. Other Marketing InformationOther Marketing Information ConsiderationsConsiderations Marketing Research in Small Businesses and Nonprofit Organizations Sources of marketing information: • Secondary data • Trade associations • Chambers of Commerce • Government agencies • Media 4-41
  42. 42. Other Marketing InformationOther Marketing Information ConsiderationsConsiderations International Marketing Research Additional and different challenges • Level of economic development • Culture • Customs • Buying patterns • Difficulty in collecting secondary data • Hard-to-reach respondents 4-42
  43. 43. Other Marketing InformationOther Marketing Information ConsiderationsConsiderations • Intrusions on consumer privacy • Consumer resentment • Misuse of research findings 4-43 Public Policy and Ethics in Marketing Research

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